Providence, Rhode Island

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Providence, Rhode Island
City of Providence
Providence Montage Updated.jpg
Top: Downtown Providence skyline and the Providence River from the Point Street Bridge; Middle: Federal Hill, University Hall at Brown University, Roger Williams Park, and the First Baptist Church in America; Bottom: WaterFire at Waterplace Park, and the Rhode Island State House.
Flag of Providence, Rhode Island.png
Flag
Seal of Providence, Rhode Island.svg
Seal
Nickname(s): 
The Creative Capital, the Renaissance City, the Divine City, PVD, Prov
Motto(s): 
"What Cheer?" [lower-alpha 1]
Providence County Rhode Island incorporated and unincorporated areas Providence highlighted.svg
Location in Providence County and the state of Rhode Island.
USA Rhode Island location map.svg
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Providence
Location within Rhode Island
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Providence
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 41°49′25″N71°25′20″W / 41.82361°N 71.42222°W / 41.82361; -71.42222 Coordinates: 41°49′25″N71°25′20″W / 41.82361°N 71.42222°W / 41.82361; -71.42222
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
StateFlag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island
County Providence
Region New England
Settled1636
Incorporated (town)June 1636
Incorporated (city)November 5, 1832
Founded by Roger Williams
Government
  Type Mayor-Council
  Mayor Jorge Elorza (D)
  Body Providence City Council
Area
   State capital city 53 km2 (20.6 sq mi)
  Land48 km2 (18.4 sq mi)
  Water6 km2 (2.2 sq mi)
Elevation
23 m (75 ft)
Population
 (2010)
   State capital city 178,042
  Estimate 
(2018) [3]
179,335
  RankUS: 134th
  Density3,736.0/km2 (9,676.2/sq mi)
   Urban
1,190,956 (US: 39th)
   Metro
1,604,291 (US: 38th)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern Time Zone)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
02901–02912, 02918, 02919, 02940
Area code401
FIPS code44-59000 [4]
GNIS feature ID1219851 [5]
Website www.providenceri.com

Providence is the capital and most populous city of the state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. [6] It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay.

Rhode Island State in the United States

Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area, the seventh least populous, and the second most densely populated. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound. It also shares a small maritime border with New York. Providence is the state capital and most populous city in Rhode Island.

Roger Williams English Protestant theologian and founder of the colony of Providence Plantation

Roger Williams was a Puritan minister, theologian, and author who founded Providence Plantations, which became the Colony of Rhode Island. He was a staunch advocate for religious freedom, separation of church and state, and fair dealings with American Indians, and he was one of the first abolitionists.

Massachusetts Bay Colony English possession in North America between 1628 and 1684

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was an English settlement on the east coast of America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The lands of the settlement were located in southern New England, with initial settlements situated on two natural harbors and surrounding land about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) apart—the areas around Salem and Boston.

Contents

Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool, jewelry, and silverware industries. [7] [8] Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity.

The city is the third most populous city in New England after Boston and Worcester, Massachusetts.

New England Region in the northeastern United States

New England is a region composed of six states in the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the southwest. Boston is New England's largest city, as well as the capital of Massachusetts. Greater Boston is the largest metropolitan area, with nearly a third of New England's population; this area includes Worcester, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Providence, Rhode Island.

Boston State capital of Massachusetts, U.S.

Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States, and the 21st most populous city in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 694,583 in 2018, making it also the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.

Worcester, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Worcester is a city in, and the county seat of, Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second-most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is approximately 40 miles (64 km) west of Boston, 50 miles (80 km) east of Springfield and 40 miles (64 km) north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may also have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Worcester resident Esther Howland.

History

First Baptist Church in America is the oldest Baptist congregation in America. It was founded 1638, though the present building was occupied in 1776. First Baptist Church Providence.jpg
First Baptist Church in America is the oldest Baptist congregation in America. It was founded 1638, though the present building was occupied in 1776.

Providence was settled in June 1636 by Roger Williams and grew into one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams was compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony due to his differing religious views, and he and others established Providence Plantations. This settlement merged with others to become the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and it was a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters from the beginning. [9]

Thirteen Colonies British American colonies which became the United States

The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of colonies of Great Britain on the Atlantic coast of America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries which declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America. The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political, constitutional, and legal systems and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in Canada, Florida, and the Caribbean.

Providence Plantations Settlement

Providence Plantation was the first permanent European American settlement in Rhode Island. It was established by a group of colonists led by Roger Williams who left Massachusetts Bay Colony in order to establish a colony with greater religious freedom. Providence Plantation became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which became the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations after the American Revolution.

Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1636 and 1776

The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It was an English colony from 1636 until 1707, and then a colony of Great Britain until the American Revolution in 1776, when it became the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

Providence Plantations was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. Later in the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. [10]

King Philips War conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and English colonists

King Philip's War was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between Indian inhabitants of New England and New England colonists and their Indian allies. The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the name Philip because of the friendly relations between his father Massasoit and the Mayflower Pilgrims. The war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April 1678.

Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspee Affair of 1772, [9] and Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776. [11] It was also the last of the Thirteen States to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. [12]

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies in North America which declared independence in July 1776 as the United States of America.

<i>Gaspee</i> Affair Event in Rhode Island preceding the American Revolution

The Gaspee Affair was a significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution. HMS Gaspee was a British customs schooner that had been enforcing the Navigation Acts in and around Newport, Rhode Island in 1772. It ran aground in shallow water while chasing the packet ship Hannah on June 9 near Gaspee Point in Warwick, Rhode Island. A group of men led by Abraham Whipple and John Brown attacked, boarded, and torched the ship.

United States Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution

The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution, and written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically granted to the U.S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people. The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those found in earlier documents, especially the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776), as well as the English Bill of Rights (1689) and the Magna Carta (1215).

Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city [lower-alpha 2] [9] with 7,614 people. The economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, tools, silverware, jewelry, and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, and Gorham Manufacturing Company.

Market Square was the center of civic life in the 19th Century, and Market House was home to the city council before Providence City Hall was built. Market Square Providence in 1844.jpg
Market Square was the center of civic life in the 19th Century, and Market House was home to the city council before Providence City Hall was built.

Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. [9] The seat of city government was located in the Market House [14] in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, which was the geographic and social center of the city. The city offices outgrew this building, and the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. [14] The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878.

City Hall was built in 1878 ProvidenceCityHall1881.png
City Hall was built in 1878

Local politics split over slavery during the American Civil War, as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers routinely exceeded quota, and the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, and waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. [9]

By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. [15] Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. [15] Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware, screws, and textiles. Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, and the Fruit of the Loom textile company. [15]

From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building, uncovering and moving the rivers (which had been covered by paved bridges) to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, and constructing the Fleet Skating Rink (now the Alex and Ani City Center) [16] and the Providence Place Mall. [9]

Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. Approximately 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. [17] Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005. [18]

Geography

Photograph of Providence, Rhode Island taken from the International Space Station (ISS) Providence Rhode Island (1).jpg
Photograph of Providence, Rhode Island taken from the International Space Station (ISS)

The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles (53 km2); 18.5 square miles (48 km2) of it is land and the remaining 2.1 square miles (5.4 km2) is water (roughly 10%). Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, [19] formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers. The Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown.

Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome. The more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill (near downtown), College Hill (east of the Providence River), and Federal Hill (west of downtown and containing New England's largest Italian district outside of Massachusetts). The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill (where the State House is located), Christian Hill at Hoyle Square (junction of Cranston and Westminster Streets), and Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, which was leveled in the early 1880s. [20]

Neighborhoods

Providence neighborhoods with major highways shown, (Technical Note, this map has been deprecated because of relocation of Interstate 195) Providence Neighborhoods Map.svg
Providence neighborhoods with major highways shown, (Technical Note, this map has been deprecated because of relocation of Interstate 195)

Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are often grouped together and referred to collectively: [21] [22]

Cityscape

The Providence skyline viewed from College Hill Textronside from college hill.jpg
The Providence skyline viewed from College Hill
People gathering in Waterplace Park, opened in 1994, just before a WaterFire event. On the left can be seen the Waterplace Towers condominiums constructed in 2008. The entire area had been covered in railroad tracks, and the river was covered with paved bridges until the late 1980s. N3419822 37931820 6163Providence.jpg
People gathering in Waterplace Park, opened in 1994, just before a WaterFire event. On the left can be seen the Waterplace Towers condominiums constructed in 2008. The entire area had been covered in railroad tracks, and the river was covered with paved bridges until the late 1980s.
Downtown Providence and the East Side, 2010. Note the demolition of the previous I-195 as part of the Iway project. Downtown Providence, Rhode Island.jpg
Downtown Providence and the East Side, 2010. Note the demolition of the previous I-195 as part of the Iway project.

The city of Providence is geographically very compact, characteristic of eastern seaboard cities that developed prior to use of the automobile. It is among the most densely populated cities in the country. For this reason, Providence has the eighth-highest percentage of pedestrian commuters. [26] [27] The street layout is irregular; more than one thousand streets (a great number for the city's size) run haphazardly, connecting and radiating from traditionally bustling places such as Market Square. [28]

Downtown Providence has numerous 19th-century mercantile buildings in the Federal and Victorian architectural styles, as well as several post-modern and modernist buildings located throughout the area. In particular, a fairly clear spatial separation appears between the areas of pre-1980s development and post-1980s development. West Exchange Street and Exchange Terrace serve as rough boundaries between the two.

The newer area, sometimes called "Capitol Center", [29] includes Providence Place Mall (1999), the Omni Providence Hotel (1993) and The Residences Providence (2007), GTECH Corporation (2006), Waterplace Towers condominiums (2007), and Waterplace Park (1994). The area tends toward newer development, since much of it is land reclaimed in the 1970s from a mass of railroad tracks referred to colloquially as the "Chinese Wall". [30] This part of Downtown is characterized by open spaces, wide roads, and landscaping.

The historic part of downtown has many streetscapes that look as they did 80 years ago. Many of the state's tallest buildings are found here. The largest structure at 426 feet (130 m) is the art deco-styled Industrial National Bank Building (formerly Industrial Trust Tower). [31] By contrast, nearby to it is the second tallest One Financial Plaza, designed in modern taut-skin cladding, constructed a half-century later. [32] In between the two is 50 Kennedy Plaza. The Textron Tower is also a core building to the modest Providence skyline. Downtown is also the home of the Providence Biltmore and Westminster Arcade, the oldest enclosed shopping mall in the U.S., built in 1828. [33]

The city's southern waterfront, away from the downtown core, is the location of many oil tanks, a docking station for a ferry boat, a non-profit sailing center, bars, strip clubs, and power plants. The Russian Submarine Museum was located here until 2008, when the submarine sank in a storm and was declared a loss. The Fox Point Hurricane Barrier is also found here, built to protect Providence from storm surge like that which it endured in the 1938 New England Hurricane and again in 1954 from Hurricane Carol. [34]

The majority of the cityscape comprises abandoned and revitalized industrial mills, double- and triple-decker housing (though row houses are rare, found so commonly in other Northeast cities), [35] a small number of high-rise buildings (predominantly for housing the elderly), and single family homes. Interstate 95 serves as a physical barrier between the city's commercial core and neighborhoods such as Federal Hill and the West End.

Climate

Updated Koppen map shows Providence has moved up to a humid subtropical climate Rhode Island Koppen.png
Updated Köppen map shows Providence has moved up to a humid subtropical climate

Providence has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) bordering a humid subtropical climate with hot summers, cold winters, and high humidity year-round. The USDA places the city in hardiness zone 6b, with the suburbs in zones 6a – 7b. [36] The influence of the Atlantic Ocean keeps the state of Rhode Island [37] warmer than many inland locales in New England. [38] [39] January is the coldest month with a daily mean of 29.2 °F (−1.6 °C) and low temperatures dropping to 10 °F (−12 °C) or lower an average of 11 days per winter, [40] while July is the warmest month with a daily mean of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C) and highs rising to 90 °F (32 °C) or higher an average of 10 days per summer. [40] Extremes range from −17 °F or −27.2 °C on February 9, 1934 to 104 °F or 40 °C on August 2, 1975; [41] the record cold daily maximum is 1 °F (−17.2 °C) on February 5, 1918, while the record warm daily minimum is 80 °F (26.7 °C) on June 6, 1925. [40] Temperature readings of 0 °F or −17.8 °C or lower are uncommon in Providence and generally occur once every several years. The year which had the most days with a temperature reading of zero degrees or lower was 2015 with eight days total—one day in January and seven days in February. [40] Conversely, temperature readings of 100 °F or 37.8 °C or higher are even rarer, and the year with the most days in this category was 1944 with three days, all of which were in August. [40]

Monthly precipitation in Providence ranges from a high of 4.43 inches (112.5 mm) in March to a low of 3.17 inches (80.5 mm) in July. [41] In general, precipitation levels are slightly less in the summer months than the winter months, when Nor'easters can cause significant snowfall and blizzard conditions. Hurricanes are not frequent in coastal New England, although Providence's location at the head of Narragansett Bay makes it vulnerable to them.

Climate data for Providence
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °F (°C)41.4
(5.2)
38.1
(3.4)
38.7
(3.8)
44.1
(6.7)
50.9
(10.5)
59.6
(15.3)
67.0
(19.4)
69.3
(20.7)
66.7
(19.3)
61.6
(16.4)
54.2
(12.3)
47.7
(8.8)
53.3
(11.8)
Source: Weather Atlas [43]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1790 6,380
1800 7,61419.3%
1810 10,07032.3%
1820 11,76716.9%
1830 16,83343.1%
1840 23,17137.7%
1850 41,51379.2%
1860 50,66622.0%
1870 68,90436.0%
1880 104,85752.2%
1890 132,14626.0%
1900 175,59732.9%
1910 223,32627.2%
1920 237,5956.4%
1930 252,9816.5%
1940 253,5040.2%
1950 248,674−1.9%
1960 207,498−16.6%
1970 179,213−13.6%
1980 156,804−12.5%
1990 160,7282.5%
2000 173,6188.0%
2010 178,0422.5%
Est. 2018179,335 [3] 0.7%
Largest Cities and Other
Urban Places in the United
States: 1790 to 1990. [44]
2013 Estimate [45]
Demographic profile2010 [46] 1990 [47] 1970 [47] 1950 [47]
White 49.8%69.9%90.0%96.5%
 Non-Hispanic 37.6%64.5%89.5% [48] N/A
Black or African American 16.0%14.8%8.9%3.3%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)38.1%15.5%0.8% [48] N/A
Asian 6.4%5.9%0.5%0.1%

As of the census [4] of 2000, the population consisted of 173,618 people, 162,389 households, and 35,859 families. The population density was 9,401.7 inhabitants per square mile (3,629.4/km²), characteristic of comparatively older cities in New England such as New Haven, Connecticut, Springfield, Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut. [49] Its population peaked in the 1940s, just prior to the nationwide period of rapid suburbanization.

Providence has a racially and ethnically diverse population. In 2010, white Americans formed 49.8% of the population, including a sizable white Hispanic community. Non-Hispanic whites were 37.6% of the total population, [46] down from 89.5% in 1970. [47] Providence has had a substantial Italian population since the start of the 20th century, with 14% of the population claiming Italian ancestry. [50] Italian influence manifests itself in Providence's Little Italy in Federal Hill. [51] Irish immigrants have also had considerable influence on the city's history, with 8% of residents claiming Irish heritage. [52] The city also has a sizeable Jewish community, estimated at 10,500 in 2012 or roughly 5% of the city's population. [53]

Map of racial distribution in Providence, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Race and ethnicity 2010- Providence (5560421430).png
Map of racial distribution in Providence, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

In 2010, people of Hispanic or Latino origin composed 38.1% of the city's population and currently form a majority of city public school students. [46] [54] The majority of Hispanics in Providence are of Dominican descent, having one of the largest Dominican populations in the United States. Other Hispanic groups present in large numbers are Puerto Ricans and Guatemalans. Hispanics are most concentrated in the neighborhoods of Elmwood, the West End, and Upper and Lower South Providence. [55] The city elected its first Hispanic mayor in 2010, Dominican-American Angel Taveras.

African Americans constitute 16% [46] of the city's population, with their greatest concentrations found in Mount Hope and the Upper and Lower South Providence neighborhoods. [56] [57] Asians are 6% of Providence's population and have enclaves scattered throughout the city. The largest Asian groups are Cambodians (1.7%), Chinese (1.1%), Asian Indians (0.7%), Laotians (0.6%), and Koreans (0.6%). [57] Another 6% of the city has multiracial ancestry. American Indians and Pacific Islanders make up the remaining 1.3%. Liberians compose 0.4% of the population; [50] the city is home to one of the largest Liberian immigrant populations in the country. [58]

Providence has a considerable community of immigrants from various Portuguese-speaking countries, especially Portugal, Brazil, and Cape Verde, living mostly in the areas of Washington Park and Fox Point. [59] [60] [61] Portuguese is the city's third-largest European ethnicity, after Italian and Irish, at 4% of the population; Cape Verdeans compose 2%. [50]

The Providence metropolitan area includes Providence, Fall River, Massachusetts, and Warwick, and is estimated to have a population of 1,622,520. In 2006, this area was officially added to the Boston Combined Statistical Area (CSA), the sixth-largest CSA in the country. In the last 15 years, Providence has experienced a sizable growth in its under-18 population. The median age of the city is 28 years, while the largest age cohort is 20- to 24-year-olds, owing to the city's large student population. [46] [62]

The per capita income as of the 2000 census was $15,525, which is well below both the state average of $29,113 [63] and the national average of $21,587. [64] The median income for a household was $26,867, and the median income for a family in Providence was $32,058, according to the 2000 census. The city has one of the highest rates of poverty in the nation with 29.1% of the population and 23.9% of families living below the poverty line in 2000, the largest concentrations being found in the city's Olneyville, and Upper and Lower South Providence areas. [17] [65] Poverty has affected children at a disproportionately higher rate, with 40.1% of those under the age of 18 living below the poverty line, concentrated west of downtown in the neighborhoods of Hartford, Federal Hill, and Olneyville. [65]

Crime

Providence
Crime rates* (2013)
Violent crimes
Homicide 12
Rape 97
Robbery 365
Aggravated assault 641
Total violent crime 1,115
Property crimes
Burglary 1,828
Larceny-theft 5,184
Motor vehicle theft 962
Arson 22
Total property crime 7,974
Notes

*Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.

2013 population: 178,887

Source: 2013 FBI UCR Data

Compared to the national average, Providence has an average rate of violent crime and a higher rate [66] of property crime per 100,000 inhabitants. [67] In 2010, there were 15 murders, down from 24 in 2009. [68] In 2010, Providence fared better regarding violent crime than most of its peer cities. Springfield, Massachusetts has approximately 20,000 fewer residents than Providence but reported 15 murders in 2009, the same number of homicides as Providence but a slightly higher rate per capita. [69] The police chief asserted that Providence's violence was not stranger-to-stranger, but relationship-driven. [70] The pattern of violent crime was highly specific by neighborhood, with the vast majority of the murders taking place in the poorer sections of Providence such as Olneyville, Elmwood, South Providence, and the West End. [71]

Economy

Around 1830, Providence had manufacturing industries in metals, machinery, textiles, jewelry, and silverware. Manufacturing has declined since, but the city is still one of the largest centers for jewelry and silverware design and manufacturing. Services also make up a large portion of the city's economy, in particular education, healthcare, and finance. Providence also is the site of a sectional center facility (SCF), a regional hub for the U.S. Postal Service. [72] It is the capital of Rhode Island, so the city's economy additionally consists of government services.

Over one third of Providence's economy is based in trade, transportation, utilities, and educational and health services. Prov-econ.png
Over one third of Providence's economy is based in trade, transportation, utilities, and educational and health services.
Textron's headquarters, One Financial Plaza, and the Rhode Island Hospital Trust building Providencetextronside.JPG
Textron's headquarters, One Financial Plaza, and the Rhode Island Hospital Trust building

Prominent companies headquartered in Providence include Fortune 500 Textron, an advanced technologies industrial conglomerate; United Natural Foods, a distributor of natural and organic foods; Fortune 1000 Nortek Incorporated; Gilbane, a construction and real estate company; and GTECH Corporation, which recently moved its world headquarters to downtown Providence. [74] Citizens Bank is also headquartered in Providence and is the 15th largest bank in the country. [75] [76]

The city is home to the Rhode Island Convention Center, which opened in December 1993. [77] Along with a hotel, the convention center is connected to the Providence Place Mall, a major retail center, through a skywalk. [77] The Port of Providence is the second largest deep-water seaport in New England. [78] [79] It handles cargos such as cement, chemicals, heavy machinery, petroleum, and scrap metal. Providence is also home to some of toy manufacturer Hasbro's business operations, although their headquarters are in Pawtucket.

Top employers

According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [80] the top twenty employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees% of Total city employment
1 Brown University 4,6004.30%
2 Rhode Island Hospital 4,2003.93%
3Lifespan1,9901.86%
4 Women & Infants Hospital 1,8001.68%
5 Roger Williams Medical Center 1,4701.38%
6 Miriam Hospital 1,2631.18%
7 Belo Corp/Providence Journal 8700.81%
8Mars 20008500.80%
9 Providence College 7990.75%
10AAA Southern New England7000.66%
11 Johnson & Wales University 7000.66%
12 Butler Hospital 6990.65%
13H. Carr & Sons Inc.5000.47%
14 National Grid 4500.42%
15Employment 20004000.37%
16 Verizon 4000.37%
17 Gilbane Building Co. 4000.37%
18 Walmart 3500.33%
19Jewel Case Corp.3000.28%
20 Nordstrom 3000.28%
21 Target Corporation 2000.35%

Government

Rhode Island State House in the neoclassical style Rhode Island State House 2.jpg
Rhode Island State House in the neoclassical style

As the state capital, Providence houses the Rhode Island General Assembly, as well as the offices of the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor in the Rhode Island State House. The city itself has a Mayor-council government. The Providence City Council consists of 15 councilors, one for each of the city's wards, who enact ordinances and pass an annual budget. Providence also has probate and superior courts. The U.S. District Court for the District of Rhode Island is located downtown across from Providence City Hall adjacent to Kennedy Plaza.

In November 2002, David N. Cicilline was elected mayor of Providence, becoming the first openly gay mayor of a United States state capital. [81]

The city's first Latino mayor was Angel Taveras, who assumed office on January 3, 2011. [82] Jorge Elorza succeeded him on January 5, 2015. [83]

Public Safety Complex Providence Public Safety Complex.jpg
Public Safety Complex

The headquarters of the city's fire and police departments is a 130,000 square foot, steel frame Public Safety Complex on Washington Street near Interstate I-95. The building was dedicated in 2002 by former Mayor Vincent Cianci Jr. [84]

Education

Postsecondary

Hope College and Manning Hall at Brown University Manning Chapel.jpg
Hope College and Manning Hall at Brown University

The main campuses of five of Rhode Island's colleges and universities are in Providence (city proper):

In addition, the Community College of Rhode Island, Roger Williams University, and University of Rhode Island have satellite campuses in the city. Between these schools, the number of post-secondary students is approximately 44,000. [85] Higher education exerts a considerable presence in the city's politics and economy, compounded by the fact that Brown University is the city's second-largest employer. [79]

Private and charter schools

There are several private schools in the city's East Side, including Moses Brown, the Lincoln School, and the Wheeler School. La Salle Academy is located in the North End (Elmhurst neighborhood), near Providence College. The public charter schools Time Squared Academy High School (K-12) and Textron Chamber of Commerce (9–12) are funded by GTECH Corporation and Textron respectively. [86] In addition, the city's South Side houses Community Preparatory School, a private school serving primarily low-income students in grades 3–8. [87] There are two separate centers for students with special needs. [88]

Public schools

The Providence Public School District serves about 30,000 students from pre-Kindergarten to grade 12. The district has 25 elementary schools, nine middle schools, and thirteen high schools. The Providence Public School District features magnet schools at the middle and high school level, Nathanael Greene and Classical respectively. The overall graduation rate as of 2007 is 70.1%, [89] which is close to the statewide rate of 71% and the national average of 70%. [90] Rhode Island also operates two public schools in Providence.

Culture

The Providence Performing Arts Center ProvidencePerformingArtsCenter.jpg
The Providence Performing Arts Center

Much of Providence culture is synonymous with the culture of Rhode Island as a whole. Like the state, the city has a non-rhotic accent that can be heard on local media. Providence also shares Rhode Island's affinity for coffee, with the most coffee and doughnut shops per capita of any city in the country. [91] Providence is also reputed to have the highest number of restaurants per capita of major U.S. cities, [92] many of which are founded or staffed by Johnson & Wales University graduates. [93]

The gateway arch over Atwells Avenue is a Federal Hill landmark. A sculpture of a pignoli cluster hangs from the center. Providence-Federal-Hill-Pineapple.2008-05-05.imgp7906.jpg
The gateway arch over Atwells Avenue is a Federal Hill landmark. A sculpture of a pignoli cluster hangs from the center.

Providence has several ethnic neighborhoods, notably Federal Hill and the North End (Italian), [94] Fox Point (Portuguese), [95] West End (mainly Central American and Asians), [96] and Smith Hill (Irish with miscellaneous enclaves of other groups). [97] There are also many dedicated community organizations and arts associations located in the city. [98]

The city gained the reputation as one of the most active and growing gay and lesbian communities in the Northeast. [99] [100] The rate of reported gay and lesbian relationships is 75% higher than the national average, [101] and Providence has been named among the "Best Lesbian Places to Live". [100] Former mayor David Cicilline won his election running as an openly gay man, [81] Former Mayor Cianci instituted the position of Mayor's Liaison to the Gay and Lesbian community in the 1990s. [100] and Providence is home to the largest gay bathhouse in New England. [102]

Fireworks at the State House during the 2006 July 4 celebration 20060703 Providence State House Fireworks.jpg
Fireworks at the State House during the 2006 July 4 celebration

During the summer months, the city regularly hosts WaterFire, an environmental art installation that consists of about 100 bonfires which blaze just above the surface of the three rivers that pass through the middle of downtown Providence. [103] There are multiple Waterfire events that are accompanied by various pieces of classical and world music. The public art displays change on a regular basis, most notably the sculptures.

The city is also the home of the Tony Award-winning theater group Trinity Repertory Company, the Providence Black Repertory Company, and the Rhode Island Philharmonic Orchestra, [104] as well as groups such as The American Band, once associated with noted American composer David Wallis Reeves. Providence is also the home of several performing arts centers, such as the Veterans Memorial Auditorium, the Providence Performing Arts Center, and the Providence Festival Ballet. The city's underground music is centered on artist-run spaces such as the now-defunct Fort Thunder and is known in underground music circles. [105] Providence is also home to the Providence Improv Guild, an improvisational theatre that has weekly performances and offers improv and sketch comedy classes. [106]

Sites of interest

Providence City Hall in the Second Empire Baroque style Providence City Hall 2009.jpg
Providence City Hall in the Second Empire Baroque style
Old Stone Bank and Unitarian Church Bankandchurch.JPG
Old Stone Bank and Unitarian Church

Providence is home to a 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) park system, [107] notably Waterplace Park and Riverwalk, Roger Williams Park, Roger Williams National Memorial, and Prospect Terrace Park. Prospect Terrace Park features expansive views of the downtown area, as well as a 15-foot tall granite statue of Roger Williams gazing over the city. As one of the first cities in America, Providence contains many historic buildings, while the East Side neighborhood in particular includes the largest contiguous area of buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the U.S., with many pre-revolutionary houses. [108]

The East Side is also home to the First Baptist Church in America, which was founded by Williams in 1638, as well as the Old State House which served as the state's capitol from 1762 to 1904. [109] Nearby is Roger Williams National Memorial. The dome of the State House is the fourth-largest self-supporting marble dome in the world and the second-largest marble dome after St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. [110] The Westminster Arcade is the oldest enclosed shopping center in the U.S. [111] [112]

Providence Catholic Cathedral and environs Providence Cathedral, RI edited.JPG
Providence Catholic Cathedral and environs

The Rhode Island School of Design Museum contains the 20th-largest collection in the United States. [113] The Providence Athenæum is the fourth oldest library in the United States, in addition to the Providence Public Library and the nine branches of the Providence Community Library. [114] Edgar Allan Poe frequented the library, and met and courted Sarah Helen Whitman at the library. [115] H. P. Lovecraft was also a regular patron. [116]

The Alex and Ani City Center (formerly the Bank of America Skating Center and Fleet Skating Center) is located near Kennedy Plaza in the downtown district, connected by pedestrian tunnel to Waterplace Park, a cobblestone and concrete park below street traffic that abuts Providence's three rivers. [117] [118] [16] [119]

The southern part of the city is home to the famous roadside attraction Nibbles Woodaway (also known as the "Big Blue Bug"), the world's largest termite. [120] Roger Williams Park contains a zoo, a botanical center, and the Museum of Natural History and Planetarium. [121]

Another well-known site is the Providence Biltmore Hotel located downtown near Kennedy Plaza, a historic location built in 1922. [122] The hotel closed in 1974; it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, and it reopened in 1979.

Sports

Providence, Rhode Island and surrounding region at night, as seen from space. New York City, Southern RI and CT, illuminated at night.jpg
Providence, Rhode Island and surrounding region at night, as seen from space.

The city is home to the American Hockey League team Providence Bruins, which plays at the Dunkin' Donuts Center (formerly the Providence Civic Center). From 1926 to 1972, the AHL's Providence Reds (renamed the Rhode Island Reds in their last years) [124] played at the Rhode Island Auditorium. In 1972, the team relocated to the Providence Civic Center, where they played until moving to Binghamton, New York, in 1977.

The city has two rugby teams, the Rugby Union team Providence Rugby Football Club, and the Semi-Professional Rugby league team The Rhode Island Rebellion, which play at Classical High School. In 2013 the Rebellion finished the USA Rugby League (USARL) regular season in third place. Their playoff run took them to the USARL Semi-Finals, the first time the Rebellion made the playoffs in its short three-year history.

The Providence Hurling Club was founded in 2015 by Michael Kennelly, David O'Connor, and Michael Walsh. The club is part of the Boston Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). Since their inauguration the team has captured three cups. The league comprises Worcester, Hartford, Portsmouth, and Concord. UConn Huskies also put forth a team in various play and other university teams are in the process of being established. Home games are played at a pitch located at 50 Obediah Brown Road behind Pleasant View Elementary School. In November 2018, for the first time playoffs were hosted in Providence and Providence took the cup by defeating Worcester.

The NFL's New England Patriots and MLS's New England Revolution play in Foxborough, Massachusetts, which is situated halfway between Providence and Boston. Providence was formerly home to two major league franchises: the NFL's Providence Steam Roller in the 1920s and 1930s, and the NBA's Providence Steamrollers in the 1940s. The Rhode Island Auditorium also hosted 29 of the 49 boxing fights of Rocky Marciano. [125]

The city's defunct baseball team, the Providence Grays, competed in the National League from 1879 through 1885. The team defeated the New York Metropolitans in baseball's first successful "world championship series" in 1884. [126] In 1914, after the Boston Red Sox purchased Babe Ruth from the then-minor league Baltimore Orioles, the team prepared Ruth for the major leagues by sending him to finish the season playing for a minor league team in Providence that was also known as the Grays. Today, professional baseball is offered by the Pawtucket Red Sox, the AAA affiliate of the Boston Red Sox, which plays in nearby Pawtucket. Most baseball fans—along with the local media—tend to follow the Boston Red Sox. [127]

Major colleges and universities fielding NCAA Division I athletic teams are Brown University and Providence College. The latter is a member of the Big East Conference. Much local hype is associated with games between these two schools or the University of Rhode Island.

Providence has also hosted the alternative sports event Gravity Games from 1999 to 2001, and was also the first host of ESPN's X Games, known in its first edition as the Extreme Games, in 1995. Providence has its own roller derby league. Formed in 2004, it currently has four teams: the Providence Mob Squad, the Sakonnet River Roller Rats, the Old Money Honeys, and the Rhode Island Riveters. Providence is also home to the headquarters of the American Athletic Conference (The American). [128]

Infrastructure

Health and medicine

Providence is home to eight hospitals, most prominently Rhode Island Hospital, the largest general acute care hospital in the state. It is also the Level I Trauma Center for Rhode Island, Southeastern Massachusetts and parts of Connecticut. [129] The hospital is in a complex along I-95 that includes Hasbro Children's Hospital and Women and Infants Hospital. The city is also home to the Roger Williams Medical Center, St. Joseph Hospital For Specialty Care (a division of St. Joseph Health Services Of Rhode Island), The Miriam Hospital, a major teaching affiliate associated with the Alpert Medical School of Brown University, as well as a VA medical center.

The Rhode Island Blood Center has its main headquarters in Providence. Since 1979, the Rhode Island Blood Center has been the sole organization in charge of blood collection and testing and distribution of blood products to 11 hospitals in Rhode Island.

Transportation

Providence Station Providence train station.JPG
Providence Station
RIPTA buses in front of Providence City Hall Providence CityHall.jpg
RIPTA buses in front of Providence City Hall
Early construction on the Iway 195 relocation project from across the Narragansett Bay B4sunset.jpg
Early construction on the Iway 195 relocation project from across the Narragansett Bay

Providence is served by T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, and general aviation fields also serve the region. Massport has been promoting T. F. Green as an alternative to Boston's Logan International Airport because of over-crowding. [130] Providence Station is located between the Rhode Island State House and the downtown district and is served by Amtrak [131] and MBTA Commuter Rail services, with a commuter rail route running north to Boston and south to T.F. Green Airport and Wickford Junction. [132] [133] Approximately 2,400 passengers pass through the station per day. [134] [135]

I-95 runs from north to south through Providence; I-195 connects the city to eastern Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts, including New Bedford, Massachusetts and Cape Cod. I-295 encircles Providence, while RI 146 provides a direct connection with Worcester, Massachusetts. The city began the long-term project Iway in 2007 to move I-195 for safety reasons, to free up land, and to reunify the Jewelry District with downtown Providence, which had been separated by the highway. [136] The project was estimated to cost $610 million. In 2019, a pedestrian bridge opened spanning the Providence River and connecting the east and west sides of downtown. It was built on the granite piers of the old Route 195 bridge. [137]

Kennedy Plaza in downtown Providence serves as a transportation hub for local public transit as well as a departure point for Peter Pan Bus Lines [138] and Greyhound Lines. [139] Public transit is managed by Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA). [140] Through RIPTA alone, Kennedy Plaza serves more than 71,000 people a day. [141] The majority of the area covered by RIPTA is served by traditional buses, but RIPTA also runs a "Rapid Bus", the R-Line which connects the suburbs of Pawtucket and Cranston with downtown Providence. Of particular note is the East Side Trolley Tunnel running under College Hill, whose use is reserved for RIPTA buses. RIPTA also operates the Providence LINK, a system of tourist trolleys in downtown Providence. From 2000 to 2008, RIPTA operated a seasonal ferry to Newport, Rhode Island between May and October, but SeaStreak began operating that ferry route in 2016. [142] In 2018, RIPTA began construction of the "Downtown Transit Connector", an upgraded BRT service to run from Providence Station to the Hospital District. [143]

Utilities

Electricity and natural gas are provided by National Grid. [144] Providence Water is responsible for the distribution of drinking water, ninety percent of which comes from the Scituate Reservoir about ten miles (16 km) west of downtown, with contributions coming from four smaller bodies of water. Drinking water in Providence has been rated among the highest quality in the country. [145] [146] [147] [148]

Sister cities

As of 2016, Providence had five sister cities: [149]

See also

Notes

  1. This motto may appear rhetorical, but it was an earnest expression from the traditional account of Roger Williams' arrival in Rhode Island with settlers William Harris, John Smith, Joshua Verin, Thomas Angell, and Francis Wickes. [1] The party was greeted by a group of Narragansetts, with the description of their exchange: [2]
    Not far from that bridge [over the Blackstone] in a little cove is the famous "Slate Rock," on which it is said that Roger Williams first landed after his tedious and painful flight from the persecutions of his Massachusetts brethren.
    As he approached the place he was saluted by some friendly Indians with the peaceful enquiry "What Cheer netop?" netop, meaning friend, a phrase which they had acquired from their intercourse with the English and which was equivalent to the salutation "How are you?" or "What's the news?"... It is this incident which is pictured upon the seal of the city of Providence.
  2. Providence was listed as a town (not a city) by the US Census Bureau until the Census of 1840 because city status in the New England states is conferred by the form of government, not by population. Providence retained the title of ninth-largest settlement until the Census of 1810.
  3. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  4. Official records for Providence kept at downtown from November 1904 to May 1932 and at T. F. Green Airport since June 1932. [42]

Related Research Articles

Cranston, Rhode Island City in Rhode Island, United States

Cranston, once known as Pawtuxet, is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The official population of the city is 80,559, making it the third largest in the state, however 2018 census estimates show the population has likely surpassed neighboring Warwick, making it the second largest in population. The center of population of Rhode Island is located in Cranston. Cranston is a part of the Providence metropolitan area.

Johnston, Rhode Island Town in Rhode Island, United States

Johnston is a town in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 28,769 at the 2010 census. Johnston is the site of the Clemence Irons House (1691), a stone-ender museum, and the only landfill in Rhode Island. Incorporated on March 6, 1759, Johnston was named for the colonial attorney general, Augustus Johnston.

Pawtucket, Rhode Island City in Rhode Island, United States

Pawtucket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 71,148 at the 2010 census. It is the fourth largest city in the state.

North Kingstown, Rhode Island Town in Rhode Island, United States

North Kingstown is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States, and is part of the Providence metropolitan area. According to the 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, the population in 2015 was 22,358. North Kingstown is home to the birthplace of the famous American portraitist Gilbert Stuart, who was born in the village of Saunderstown. Within the town is Quonset Point, location of the former Naval Air Station Quonset Point, known for the invention of the Quonset hut, as well as the neighborhood of Davisville, location of the former Davisville Naval Construction Battalion Center.

South Attleboro station Commuter rail station in Attleboro, Massachusetts

South Attleboro is an MBTA Commuter Rail station in Attleboro, Massachusetts. Located underneath Newport Avenue in the South Attleboro neighborhood, it serves the Providence/Stoughton Line. It is the MBTA's southernmost station on the line in Massachusetts, located almost exactly on the border with Rhode Island. It includes a large park-and-ride lot to serve commuters from the nearby cities of Pawtucket and Central Falls.

Rhode Island Public Transit Authority

The Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA) provides public transportation, primarily buses, in the state of Rhode Island. The main hub of the RIPTA system is Kennedy Plaza, a large bus terminal in downtown Providence, Rhode Island. The authority serves 45,800 people a day, in 38 out of 39 Rhode Island communities.

Smith Hill, Providence, Rhode Island United States historic place

Smith Hill is a neighborhood in Providence, Rhode Island. Its traditional bounds are the Woonasquatucket River, the Chad Brown public housing complex, Interstate 95 and West River.

Construction projects in Providence

As a consequence of the city of Providence, Rhode Island's so-called "Renaissance" that started in the 1970s, free land and economic conditions became favorable to large projects in the late 1990s. Most of the new projects consist of hotel and condominium development in new and existing buildings, but two new office towers are underway as well. As a result, within 3 years Providence would have a new corporate headquarters, and four new buildings over 60 m (200 ft) in height.

History of Providence, Rhode Island

The Rhode Island city of Providence has a nearly 400-year history integral to that of the United States, including significance in the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the American Revolutionary War by providing leadership and fighting strength, quartering troops, and supplying goods to residents by circumventing the blockade of Newport. The city is also noted for the first bloodshed of the American Revolution in the Gaspée Affair. Additionally, Providence is notable for economic shifts, moving from trading to manufacturing; the decline of manufacturing devastated the city during the Great Depression, but the city eventually attained economic recovery through investment of public funds.

College Hill, Providence, Rhode Island

College Hill is a neighborhood in Providence, Rhode Island, and one of six neighborhoods comprising the East Side of Providence and part of the College Hill Historic District. It is roughly bounded by South and North Main Street to the west, Power Street to the south, Governor Street and Arlington Avenue to the east and Olney Street to the north. College Hill is also home to Thayer Street, a shopping strip frequented by students in the Providence area.

Kennedy Plaza

Kennedy Plaza is a rectangular central plaza and the geographic center of the downtown Providence, Rhode Island. It occupies a focal civic space, between the City Hall and the Federal Building. Following a traditional colonial pattern, the Plaza has served as a transportation hub since 1847. In 2017, mayor Jorge Elorza announced plans to transform it from a transportation hub to a public space that would serve as a "true civic heart" of Providence.

East Side, Providence, Rhode Island collection of neighborhoods

The East Side is a collection of neighborhoods in the eastern part of the city of Providence, Rhode Island. It officially comprises the neighborhoods of Blackstone, Hope, Mount Hope, College Hill, Wayland, and Fox Point.

Providence metropolitan area Metropolitan area in the United States

The Providence metropolitan area is a region extending into eight counties in two states, and is the 38th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Anchored by the city of Providence, Rhode Island, it has an estimated population of 1,622,520, exceeding that of Rhode Island by slightly over 60%. The area covers almost all of Rhode Island. 38 of the 39 municipalities in the state are included. Only Westerly is not. The Providence Metropolitan Statistical Area also extends into southern Massachusetts with an average population density of 2300 per mi². Its Gross Metropolitan Product is the country's 42nd largest at $64.7 billion, just above the Gross State Product of the entire state of Hawaii. Since 2006, the Providence metropolitan area has been officially included in the Greater Boston Combined Statistical Area (CSA), the sixth-largest CSA in the country, with over 8 million residents.

Downtown, Providence, Rhode Island United States historic place

Downtown is the central economic, political, and cultural district of the city of Providence, Rhode Island. It is bounded on the east by Canal Street and the Providence River, to the north by Smith Street, to the west by Interstate 95, and to the south by Henderson Street. I-95 serves as a physical barrier between the city's commercial core and neighborhoods of Federal Hill, West End, and Upper South Providence. Most of the downtown is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Downtown Providence Historic District.

Pawtucket/Central Falls station Former railway station in Pawtucket and Central Falls, Rhode Island

Pawtucket/Central Falls station is a disused railroad station located in the Rhode Island cities of Pawtucket and Central Falls. It opened in 1916 to replace separate stations in the two cities and was closed in 1981. The state of Rhode Island intends to open a replacement station slightly to the south around 2022.

Rhode Island Convention Center

The Rhode Island Convention Center is an exposition center in downtown Providence, RI. Opened in 1993, it is the largest convention center in Rhode Island, with about 130,000 square feet (12,000 m2) of exhibition space, including a 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m2) exhibit hall. It is connected by skybridges to the Dunkin' Donuts Center, and the adjacent Omni Hotels Omni Providence Hotel. The ground level features a main exhibition hall with 100,000 square feet, and the upper level has a ballroom and meeting halls. The building has a five-story glass front with a large space outside the meeting rooms and exhibit halls where visitors can gather and mingle.

Scott Avedisian American politician

Scott Avedisian is the former Republican mayor of Warwick, Rhode Island, the second largest city in the state after Providence.

R-Line (RIPTA)

The R-Line is a Rapid Bus service in Rhode Island, United States, running from Pawtucket to Cranston via downtown Providence. This route was a combination of the old routes 11 and 99. Operated by the Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA), it is the agency's first rapid bus route, and the second such system to open in New England. After several years of planning and construction, R-Line service began on June 21, 2014.

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Further reading