Greater Boston

Last updated
Boston Combined Statistical Area

Boston–Worcester–Providence
Boston Skyline (pano) (19806818856).jpg
Coordinates: 42°21′29″N71°03′49″W / 42.35817°N 71.06369°W / 42.35817; -71.06369 Coordinates: 42°21′29″N71°03′49″W / 42.35817°N 71.06369°W / 42.35817; -71.06369
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State(s)
Principal cities
Population
 (2018)
  Total8,285,407(CSA) 4,875,390(MSA)
  Rank
Time zone EST
Area code(s) 617, 781, 857, 339, 978, 508, 351, 774, 603, 401

Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U.S. state of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described either as a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or as a broader combined statistical area (CSA). The MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod; while the CSA additionally includes the municipalities of Providence, Rhode Island, Manchester (the largest city in the U.S. state of New Hampshire), Worcester, Massachusetts (the second largest city in New England), as well as the South Coast region and Cape Cod in Massachusetts. While the small footprint of the city of Boston itself only contains an estimated 685,094, the urbanization has extended well into surrounding areas and the CSA has a population of over 8 million people, making it one of the most populous such regions in the U.S. The CSA is one of two in Massachusetts, the only other being Greater Springfield. Greater Boston is the only CSA-form statistical area in New England which crosses into three states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island).

Contents

Some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American history and industry. The region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade. [1]

Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region. Greater Boston is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,875,390 people as of the 2018 US Census estimate, and sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,285,407. [2] The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history, particularly American literature, [3] politics, and the American Revolution.

Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower . In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. [4] In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" [5] for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.

The Greater Boston region has played a powerful scientific, commercial, and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, [6] and transcendentalist [7] movements. [8] In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston. [9] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams and Kennedy families.

Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, [10] with the largest financial endowment of any university, [11] and whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States Supreme Court Justices. [12] Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. [13] [14] Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. [15]

Definitions

Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area
and Red represents the City of Boston. Greater Boston Lg.PNG
Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area and Red represents the City of Boston.

Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC)

The most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council. [16] The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 cities and towns that are grouped into eight subregions. These include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, which was 48% of the total population of Massachusetts, [17] in an area of 1,422 square miles (3,680 km2), [16] of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space. [18]

The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core (Boston), Minuteman (Route 2 corridor), MetroWest (Framingham), North Shore (Lynn), North Suburban (Woburn), South Shore (Route 3 corridor), SouthWest (Franklin), and Three Rivers (Norwood).

Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, and all of Bristol County; these areas have their own regional planning bodies. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.

New England City and Town Area (NECTA)

Cambridge and Boston; MIT and Kendall Square in the foreground, and Boston's Financial District in the background MIT Charles River aerial.JPG
Cambridge and Boston; MIT and Kendall Square in the foreground, and Boston's Financial District in the background

Because New England's local governance model is organized around the smaller New England town unit, and has weak or non-existent county governments, the US Census Bureau organizes its urban regions in the New England around clusters of towns known as New England city and town areas (NECTAs) rather than around county borders as it does in the rest of the country. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area, along with surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area, is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA. [19] The Boston NECTA region is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions, which are listed below. The Boston, Framingham, and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond roughly to the MAPC area. The total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941 (as of 2000).

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 650,357
1860 830,99827.8%
1870 978,34617.7%
1880 1,205,43923.2%
1890 1,515,68425.7%
1900 1,890,12224.7%
1910 2,260,76219.6%
1920 2,563,12313.4%
1930 2,866,56711.8%
1940 2,926,6502.1%
1950 3,186,9708.9%
1960 3,516,43510.3%
1970 3,918,09211.4%
1980 3,938,5850.5%
1990 4,133,8955.0%
2000 4,391,3446.2%
2010 4,552,4023.7%
2019 (est.)4,873,0197.0%
US Decennial Census

An alternative definition defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, using counties as building blocks instead of towns, is the Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is further subdivided into three metropolitan divisions. The metropolitan statistical area had a total population of approximately 4,875,390 as of 2018 and is the tenth-largest in the United States. The components of the metropolitan area with their estimated 2018 populations are listed below.

Combined Statistical Area (CSA)

A wider functional metropolitan area based on commuting patterns is also defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Boston–Worcester–Providence combined statistical area. This area consists of the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Worcester, Providence, as well as Cape Cod, in addition to greater Boston. The total population as of 2018 for the extended region was estimated at 8,285,417. The following areas, along with the above MSA, are included in the combined statistical area, with their estimated 2018 populations:

Principal cities and towns

Winthrop, MA Winthrop ma.jpg
Winthrop, MA
Cities and towns

Boston metropolitan area

The Census Bureau defines the following as principal cities in the Boston NECTA [19] using criteria developed for what the Office of Management and Budget calls a Core Based Statistical Area: [20]

Largest cities and towns

Cities and towns in the Boston CSA with at least 50,000 residents:

RankCity2000
population
2010
population
2014
population [21]
% change
(2010 to 2014)
1 Boston 589,141617,594655,884+6.20%
2 Worcester 172,648181,045183,016+1.09%
3 Providence 173,618178,042179,154+0.62%
4 Manchester 107,006109,565110,448+0.81%
5 Lowell 105,167106,519109,945+3.22%
6 Cambridge 101,355105,162109,694+4.31%
7 New Bedford 93,76895,07294,845−0.24%
8 Brockton 94,30493,81094,779+1.03%
9 Quincy 88,02592,27193,397+1.22%
10 Lynn 89,05090,32992,137+2.00%
11 Fall River 91,93888,85788,712−0.16%
12 Newton 83,82985,14688,287+3.69%
13 Nashua 86,60586,49487,259+0.88%
14 Warwick 85,80882,67281,963−0.86%
15 Cranston 79,26980,38781,037+0.81%
16 Somerville 77,47875,75478,901+4.15%
17 Lawrence 72,04376,37778,197+2.38%
18 Pawtucket 72,95871,14871,499+0.49%
19 Framingham 66,91068,31870,068+2.56%
20 Waltham 59,22660,63263,014+3.93%
21 Haverhill 58,96960,87962,488+2.64%
22 Malden 56,34059,45060,859+2.37%
23 Brookline 57,10758,73259,115+0.65%
24 Plymouth 51,70156,46857,463+1.76%
25 Medford 55,76556,17357,437+2.25%
26 Taunton 55,97655,87456,544+1.20%
27 Weymouth 53,98853,74355,643+3.54%
28 Revere 47,28351,75554,157+4.64%
29 Peabody 48,12951,25152,376+2.20%
30 Methuen 43,78947,25552,044+10.13%

Demographics

St. Patrick's Day Parade in Scituate, Massachusetts, in Plymouth County, the municipality with the highest percentage identifying Irish ancestry in the United States, at 47.5% in 2010. Irish Americans constitute the largest ethnicity in Greater Boston. St. Patrick Day's Parade, Scituate MA.jpg
St. Patrick's Day Parade in Scituate, Massachusetts, in Plymouth County, the municipality with the highest percentage identifying Irish ancestry in the United States, at 47.5% in 2010. Irish Americans constitute the largest ethnicity in Greater Boston.
Boston's Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants. Boston Chinatown Paifang.jpg
Boston's Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants.
Boston gay pride march, held annually in June Were a gay and happy family wagon.jpg
Boston gay pride march, held annually in June

Population density

The most densely populated census tracts in the Boston CSA (2010): [23]

RankCity or neighborhoodCensus tractPopulationPopulation density
/sq mi/km2
1 Fenway–Kenmore 104045,817110,108285,180
2Fenway–Kenmore104033,00387,828227,470
3Fenway–Kenmore104081,42685,137220,500
4 Beacon Hill 2023,64980,851209,400
5 North End 3011,95466,288171,690
6North End3021,66564,642167,420
7North End3042,45158,435151,350
8 Cambridge 35397,09056,819147,160
9 Back Bay 108012,78356,534146,420
10 East Boston 5025,23155,692144,240

Race and ethnicity

The 40 most diverse Census tracts in the Boston CSA: [23]

The 40 census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Hispanic or Latino: [23]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Black American: [23]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Asian American: [23]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Irish American: [24]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Italian American: [25]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Portuguese American: [26]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with French or French Canadian listed as first ancestry: [27]

Other

Greater Boston has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at between 210,000 people, [28] [29] and 261,000 [30] or 5–6% of the Greater Boston metro population, compared with about 2% for the nation as a whole. Contrary to national trends, the number of Jews in Greater Boston has been growing, fueled by the fact that 60% of children in Jewish mixed-faith families are raised Jewish, compared with roughly one in three nationally. [28]

The City of Boston also has one of the largest LGBT populations per capita. It ranks fifth of all major cities in the country (behind San Francisco, and slightly behind Seattle, Atlanta, and Minneapolis respectively), with 12.3% of the city identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. [31]

County 2016 Estimate2010 CensusChangeAreaDensity
Essex County, Massachusetts 779,018743,159+4.83%492.56 sq mi (1,275.7 km2)
Middlesex County, Massachusetts 1,589,7741,503,085+5.77%817.82 sq mi (2,118.1 km2)
Norfolk County, Massachusetts 697,181670,850+3.93%396.11 sq mi (1,025.9 km2)
Plymouth County, Massachusetts 513,565494,919+3.77%659.07 sq mi (1,707.0 km2)
Suffolk County, Massachusetts 784,230722,023+8.62%58.15 sq mi (150.6 km2)
Rockingham County, New Hampshire 303,251295,223+2.72%694.72 sq mi (1,799.3 km2)
Strafford County, New Hampshire 127,428123,143+3.48%368.97 sq mi (955.6 km2)
Total4,794,4474,552,402+5.32%3,487.40 sq mi (9,032.3 km2)

Higher education

Harvard University, a leading global university, is located in Cambridge, MA in Greater Boston Widener Library.jpg
Harvard University, a leading global university, is located in Cambridge, MA in Greater Boston

A long established center of higher education, the area includes many community colleges, two-year schools, and internationally prominent undergraduate and graduate institutions. The graduate schools include highly regarded schools of law, medicine, business, technology, international relations, public health, education, and religion. Greater Boston contains seven R1 Research Institutions as per the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. This is, by far, the highest number of such institutions in a single Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States.

Selected statistics

Changes in house prices for the Greater Boston area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.

Major companies

References: [32] [33] [34] [35]

Sports

ClubSportLeagueStadiumEstablishedLeague titles
Boston Bruins Ice hockey National Hockey League TD Garden (Boston)19246 Stanley Cups
7 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston Cannons Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse Harvard Stadium (Boston)20011 MLL Championship
Boston Celtics Basketball National Basketball Association TD Garden (Boston)194617 NBA Championships
21 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston Pride Ice hockey National Women's Hockey League Bright Hockey Center (Boston)20152 Isobel Cups
Boston Red Sox Baseball Major League Baseball Fenway Park (Boston)19019 MLB World Series Champions
14 American League Pennants
New England Patriots Football National Football League Gillette Stadium (Foxboro)19606 Super Bowl Champions
11 AFC Champions
New England Revolution Soccer Major League Soccer Gillette Stadium (Foxboro)19951 US Open Cup
1 SuperLiga

Annual sporting events include:

Transportation

Interstates

U.S. Routes

State Highways

Bridges and tunnels

Airports

Rail and bus

The MBTA district, with Commuter Rail lines in purple MBTA Commuter Rail and funding district map.svg
The MBTA district, with Commuter Rail lines in purple

The first railway line in the United States was in Quincy. See Neponset River.

The following Regional Transit Authorities have bus service that connects with MBTA commuter rail stations:

Ocean transportation

The Salem Ferry, 92 ft. Catamaran is photographed approaching its dock off Blaney Street at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site in Salem, Massachusetts, United States. Salem Ferry.JPG
The Salem Ferry, 92 ft. Catamaran is photographed approaching its dock off Blaney Street at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site in Salem, Massachusetts, United States.

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Concord Municipal Airport, New Hampshire (1991−2020 normals, [lower-alpha 1] extremes 1868–present) [lower-alpha 2]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)72
(22)
74
(23)
89
(32)
95
(35)
98
(37)
101
(38)
102
(39)
101
(38)
98
(37)
92
(33)
80
(27)
73
(23)
102
(39)
Mean maximum °F (°C)52
(11)
54
(12)
66
(19)
82
(28)
90
(32)
93
(34)
94
(34)
92
(33)
89
(32)
79
(26)
69
(21)
57
(14)
96
(36)
Average high °F (°C)31.6
(−0.2)
34.8
(1.6)
43.6
(6.4)
57.5
(14.2)
69.3
(20.7)
77.8
(25.4)
83.0
(28.3)
81.7
(27.6)
73.7
(23.2)
60.9
(16.1)
48.4
(9.1)
37.1
(2.8)
58.3
(14.6)
Daily mean °F (°C)22.3
(−5.4)
24.7
(−4.1)
33.4
(0.8)
45.4
(7.4)
56.7
(13.7)
65.8
(18.8)
71.1
(21.7)
69.5
(20.8)
61.4
(16.3)
49.3
(9.6)
38.6
(3.7)
28.3
(−2.1)
47.2
(8.4)
Average low °F (°C)12.9
(−10.6)
14.7
(−9.6)
23.3
(−4.8)
33.3
(0.7)
44.1
(6.7)
53.7
(12.1)
59.2
(15.1)
57.2
(14.0)
49.0
(9.4)
37.8
(3.2)
28.7
(−1.8)
19.5
(−6.9)
36.1
(2.3)
Mean minimum °F (°C)−9
(−23)
−7
(−22)
2
(−17)
19
(−7)
29
(−2)
39
(4)
47
(8)
44
(7)
32
(0)
22
(−6)
12
(−11)
−1
(−18)
−12
(−24)
Record low °F (°C)−35
(−37)
−37
(−38)
−20
(−29)
4
(−16)
21
(−6)
30
(−1)
35
(2)
29
(−2)
20
(−7)
10
(−12)
−17
(−27)
−24
(−31)
−37
(−38)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.80
(71)
2.75
(70)
3.28
(83)
3.43
(87)
3.47
(88)
3.77
(96)
3.62
(92)
3.63
(92)
3.63
(92)
4.43
(113)
3.44
(87)
3.70
(94)
41.95
(1,066)
Average snowfall inches (cm)17.1
(43)
16.9
(43)
13.6
(35)
2.5
(6.4)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(2.0)
2.5
(6.4)
14.3
(36)
67.7
(172)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.210.011.511.412.412.810.99.99.310.610.812.0132.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)8.17.65.21.30.00.00.00.00.00.21.66.330.3
Average relative humidity (%)67.966.064.862.065.070.971.874.576.372.873.372.369.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.8171.8210.5223.2258.4274.3295.8261.9214.7183.4127.8134.82,519.4
Percent possible sunshine 56585756576064615754444856
Average ultraviolet index 1245788763215
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990) [37] [38] [39]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV) [40]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)74
(23)
73
(23)
89
(32)
94
(34)
97
(36)
100
(38)
104
(40)
102
(39)
102
(39)
90
(32)
83
(28)
76
(24)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C)58.3
(14.6)
57.9
(14.4)
67.0
(19.4)
79.9
(26.6)
88.1
(31.2)
92.2
(33.4)
95.0
(35.0)
93.7
(34.3)
88.9
(31.6)
79.6
(26.4)
70.2
(21.2)
61.2
(16.2)
96.4
(35.8)
Average high °F (°C)36.8
(2.7)
39.0
(3.9)
45.5
(7.5)
56.4
(13.6)
66.5
(19.2)
76.2
(24.6)
82.1
(27.8)
80.4
(26.9)
73.1
(22.8)
62.1
(16.7)
51.6
(10.9)
42.2
(5.7)
59.3
(15.2)
Daily mean °F (°C)29.9
(−1.2)
31.8
(−0.1)
38.3
(3.5)
48.6
(9.2)
58.4
(14.7)
68.0
(20.0)
74.1
(23.4)
72.7
(22.6)
65.6
(18.7)
54.8
(12.7)
44.7
(7.1)
35.7
(2.1)
51.9
(11.1)
Average low °F (°C)23.1
(−4.9)
24.6
(−4.1)
31.1
(−0.5)
40.8
(4.9)
50.3
(10.2)
59.7
(15.4)
66.0
(18.9)
65.1
(18.4)
58.2
(14.6)
47.5
(8.6)
37.9
(3.3)
29.2
(−1.6)
44.5
(6.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C)4.8
(−15.1)
8.3
(−13.2)
15.6
(−9.1)
31.0
(−0.6)
41.2
(5.1)
49.7
(9.8)
58.6
(14.8)
57.7
(14.3)
46.7
(8.2)
35.1
(1.7)
24.4
(−4.2)
13.1
(−10.5)
2.6
(−16.3)
Record low °F (°C)−13
(−25)
−18
(−28)
−8
(−22)
11
(−12)
31
(−1)
41
(5)
50
(10)
46
(8)
34
(1)
25
(−4)
−2
(−19)
−17
(−27)
−18
(−28)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.39
(86)
3.21
(82)
4.17
(106)
3.63
(92)
3.25
(83)
3.89
(99)
3.27
(83)
3.23
(82)
3.56
(90)
4.03
(102)
3.66
(93)
4.30
(109)
43.59
(1,107)
Average snowfall inches (cm)14.3
(36)
14.4
(37)
9.0
(23)
1.6
(4.1)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
0.7
(1.8)
9.0
(23)
49.2
(125)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.810.611.611.611.810.99.49.09.010.510.311.9128.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)6.66.24.40.80.00.00.00.00.00.20.64.223.0
Average relative humidity (%)62.362.063.163.066.768.568.470.871.868.567.565.466.5
Average dew point °F (°C)16.5
(−8.6)
17.6
(−8.0)
25.2
(−3.8)
33.6
(0.9)
45.0
(7.2)
55.2
(12.9)
61.0
(16.1)
60.4
(15.8)
53.8
(12.1)
42.8
(6.0)
33.4
(0.8)
22.1
(−5.5)
38.9
(3.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.4168.4213.7227.2267.3286.5300.9277.3237.1206.3143.2142.32,633.6
Percent possible sunshine 56575857596365646360495059
Average ultraviolet index 1245788864215
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961−1990) [42] [43] [44]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV) [45]
Climate data for Boston, Massachusetts
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °F (°C)41.3
(5.2)
38.1
(3.4)
38.4
(3.5)
43.1
(6.2)
49.2
(9.5)
58.4
(14.7)
65.7
(18.7)
67.9
(20.0)
64.8
(18.2)
59.4
(15.3)
52.3
(11.3)
46.6
(8.2)
52.1
(11.2)
Source: Weather Atlas [45]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)70
(21)
72
(22)
90
(32)
98
(37)
96
(36)
98
(37)
102
(39)
104
(40)
100
(38)
88
(31)
81
(27)
77
(25)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C)59
(15)
58
(14)
67
(19)
79
(26)
87
(31)
92
(33)
95
(35)
93
(34)
88
(31)
79
(26)
70
(21)
62
(17)
97
(36)
Average high °F (°C)38.3
(3.5)
40.5
(4.7)
47.7
(8.7)
58.9
(14.9)
68.9
(20.5)
77.7
(25.4)
83.6
(28.7)
82.2
(27.9)
74.8
(23.8)
63.8
(17.7)
53.2
(11.8)
43.4
(6.3)
61.1
(16.2)
Daily mean °F (°C)30.2
(−1.0)
32.0
(0.0)
38.9
(3.8)
49.3
(9.6)
59.1
(15.1)
68.2
(20.1)
74.4
(23.6)
73.0
(22.8)
65.6
(18.7)
54.4
(12.4)
44.5
(6.9)
35.5
(1.9)
52.1
(11.2)
Average low °F (°C)22.1
(−5.5)
23.5
(−4.7)
30.2
(−1.0)
39.6
(4.2)
49.2
(9.6)
58.8
(14.9)
65.2
(18.4)
63.9
(17.7)
56.5
(13.6)
45.1
(7.3)
35.8
(2.1)
27.6
(−2.4)
43.1
(6.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C)4
(−16)
7
(−14)
15
(−9)
29
(−2)
38
(3)
47
(8)
56
(13)
54
(12)
43
(6)
32
(0)
22
(−6)
12
(−11)
2
(−17)
Record low °F (°C)−13
(−25)
−17
(−27)
1
(−17)
11
(−12)
29
(−2)
39
(4)
48
(9)
40
(4)
32
(0)
20
(−7)
6
(−14)
−12
(−24)
−17
(−27)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.96
(101)
3.44
(87)
4.90
(124)
4.29
(109)
3.37
(86)
3.81
(97)
2.91
(74)
3.59
(91)
4.17
(106)
4.18
(106)
4.27
(108)
4.65
(118)
47.54
(1,208)
Average snowfall inches (cm)10.3
(26)
10.5
(27)
6.4
(16)
0.6
(1.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
1.0
(2.5)
7.6
(19)
36.6
(93)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.210.311.611.712.210.89.39.19.110.29.611.9127.0
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)5.75.43.70.40.00.00.00.00.00.10.63.419.3
Average relative humidity (%)63.963.062.961.466.670.171.072.573.070.268.967.067.5
Average dew point °F (°C)16.3
(−8.7)
17.4
(−8.1)
25.0
(−3.9)
33.1
(0.6)
45.0
(7.2)
55.6
(13.1)
61.5
(16.4)
61.0
(16.1)
53.8
(12.1)
42.6
(5.9)
33.3
(0.7)
22.1
(−5.5)
38.9
(3.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 171.7172.6215.6225.1254.9274.1290.6262.8233.0208.7148.0148.62,605.7
Percent possible sunshine 58585856576063616261505258
Average ultraviolet index 1246788864215
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point, and sun 1961–1990) [47] [48] [49]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [50]
Climate data for Providence
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °F (°C)41.4
(5.2)
38.1
(3.4)
38.7
(3.8)
44.1
(6.7)
50.9
(10.5)
59.6
(15.3)
67.0
(19.4)
69.3
(20.7)
66.7
(19.3)
61.6
(16.4)
54.2
(12.3)
47.7
(8.8)
53.3
(11.8)
Source: Weather Atlas [50]

See also

Notes

  1. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. Official records for Concord were kept at downtown from September 1868 to April 1941 and at Concord Municipal Airport since May 1941; snow records date from December 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx
  3. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  4. Official records for Boston were kept at downtown from January 1872 to December 1935, and at Logan Airport (KBOS) since January 1936. [41]
  5. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  6. Official records for Providence kept at downtown from November 1904 to May 1932 and at T. F. Green Airport since June 1932. [46]

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Further reading