|Both chambers: |
4 terms (8 years)
Senate Majority Leader
House Majority Leader
Senate political groups
House of Representatives political groups
Length of term
|Both chambers: 2 years|
Senate last election
|November 3, 2020|
House of Representatives last election
|November 3, 2020|
Senate next election
|November 8, 2022|
House of Representatives next election
|November 8, 2022|
|Maine State House, Augusta|
The Maine Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maine. It is a bicameral body composed of the lower house Maine House of Representatives and the upper house Maine Senate. The Legislature convenes at the State House in Augusta, where it has met since 1832.
The House of Representatives consists of 151 members, each chosen from single-member constituencies. The House is uniquely the only state legislative body in the U.S. to set aside special seats for Native Americans,where there are three nonvoting Representatives from the Penobscot Nation, the Passamaquoddy Tribe, and the Houlton Band of Maliseets. The Senate includes a varying number of members, which may under the Maine Constitution be 31, 33, or 35; the present number is 35.
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In 1922, Dora Pinkham became the first woman elected to the Maine Legislature, serving first in the House and then in the Senate.
In 1823, the Penobscot tribe sent what is believed to be their first representative to the Maine Senate. In 1842, the Passamaquoddy tribe also sent their first representative. It appears that prior to Maine's statehood, Massachusetts allowed the tribes to send in representatives. It is not known what role the representatives played in the legislature until 1907, when records started being kept, and included documentation of where the representatives sat, what they said when they spoke, and privileges that were granted. While the representatives tried to achieve a higher status in the legislature, in 1941, legislation was passed to remove the representatives from the Hall of House, meaning that they held very little power, besides the persuasive power granted by being in the capital. It wasn't until 1975 when the representatives were once again allowed in the chamber hall with seating and speaking privileges. In 1996, tribe representatives tried to co-sponsor a bill, and in 1999 the tribes were formally allowed to co-sponsor bills.On 2001, this rule change allowed for Donna Loring to push for a bill, "An Act to Require Teaching Maine Native American History and Culture in Maine’s Schools" to require all public and private schools in the state to teach about Maine history, including Native American history. This act was signed by Governor Angus King in 2001. The Houlton Band of Maliseets received representation in 2012.
In 2015, the Passamaquoddy and Penobscot pulled their representatives from the legislature in protest of growing tension between the tribes and the state government, including Governor Paul LePage.As of the 2018 election, only the Passamaquoddy tribe have returned to the legislature, while the Maliseets have departed and the Penobscot have yet to return.
To be a member of the Legislature, one must be at least 21 years of age, have to have been a citizen of the US for five years, have been a resident of Maine for one year, and for the 3 months next preceding the time of this person's election shall have been and during the period for which elected continue to be, a resident in the district represented.
Legislative elections are held in November of every even-numbered year, during the state's general election. The terms for both houses are two years. Since 1996, members of both the House and Senate are limited to four two-year terms, a consecutive, rather than a lifetime, limit. Members who have served the limit are re-eligible after two years.
Until 1880, the Legislature was elected for a one-year term. Starting in 1881, an amendment to the Maine Constitution took effect to provide for two-year terms, the current length.
The Legislature meets in two separate sessions. The first session begins the first Wednesday in December, following the general election, and continues into the following year. The second session begins the first Tuesday in January of the next year, the same year as the next general election. The second session is typically short and deals with a limited number of bills per the Maine Constitution, which are budgetary matters, legislation submitted by the Governor, bills held over from the first session, citizen initiatives, and legislation deemed to be an 'emergency'.According to the Constitution, emergency legislation is supposed to be legislation for an immediate need to protect public peace, health, or safety, but that provision is often broadly interpreted.
The Governor of Maine may also call the Legislature into a special session for "extraordinary occasions." The Governor and the Senate President may also call the Senate into session to confirm gubernatorial appointments.
As the legislative branch of the Maine state government, the Legislature has the power to make laws, subject to a veto by the Governor. The Legislature, however, by a vote of two-thirds in each house, may override the veto. The Legislature also has the power to propose constitutional amendments by a vote of two-thirds in each house; the proposal must be approved by a majority of voters in a referendum in order to be passed.
Unlike other states, the Legislature is responsible for electing the Attorney General, State Treasurer, and Secretary of State. Most states give this responsibility to gubernatorial appointments, or an election by the people at large.
The Penobscot (Panawahpskek) are an indigenous peoples in North America from the Northeastern Woodlands region. They are organized as a federally recognized tribe in Maine and as a First Nations band government in the Atlantic provinces and Quebec.
The Passamaquoddy are an American Indian/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine, United States, and New Brunswick, Canada.
The Michigan Legislature is the legislature of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is organized as a bicameral body composed of an upper chamber, the Senate, and a lower chamber, the House of Representatives. Article IV of the Michigan Constitution, adopted in 1963, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted. The chief purposes of the Legislature are to enact new laws and amend or repeal existing laws. The Legislature meets in the Capitol building in Lansing.
The Alaska Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is a bicameral institution consisting of the 40-member Alaska House of Representatives and the 20-member Alaska Senate. There are 40 House Districts (1–40) and 20 Senate Districts (A–T). With a total of 60 lawmakers, the Alaska Legislature is the smallest bicameral state legislature in the United States and the second-smallest of all state legislatures. There are no term limits for either chamber.
The Colorado General Assembly is the state legislature of the State of Colorado. It is a bicameral legislature that was created by the 1876 state constitution. Its statutes are codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes (C.R.S.). The session laws are published in the Session Laws of Colorado.
The Florida Legislature is the legislature of the U.S. State of Florida. It is organized as a bicameral body composed of an upper chamber, the Senate, and a lower chamber, the House of Representatives. Article III, Section 1 of the Florida Constitution, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the legislature and how it is to be constituted. The legislature is composed of 160 state legislators. The primary purpose of the legislature is to enact new laws and amend or repeal existing laws. It meets in the Florida State Capitol building in Tallahassee.
Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of minorities or preserving a political balance of power. These arrangements can distort the democratic principle of one person - one vote in order to address special circumstances.
The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet, are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation of the Wabanaki Confederacy. They are the Indigenous people of the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, and their territory extends across the current borders of New Brunswick and Quebec in Canada, and parts of Maine in the United States. The Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians, based on the Meduxnekeag River in the Maine portion of their traditional homeland, are since 19 July 1776, the first "foreign" Treaty allies with the United States of America and a federally recognized tribe of Maliseet people by the United States. Today Maliseet people have also migrated to other parts of the world. Maliseets are forest, river and coastal people within their 20,000,000 acre, 200 mile wide, and 600 mile long Saint John river watershed homeland.
The Florida House of Representatives is the lower house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Florida, the Florida Senate being the upper house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted. The House is composed of 120 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of approximately 157,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Representatives' terms begin immediately upon their election. As of 2020, Republicans hold the majority in the State House with 78 seats; Democrats are in the minority with 42 seats.
The Michigan Senate is the upper house of the Michigan Legislature. Along with the Michigan House of Representatives, it composes the state legislature, which has powers, roles and duties defined by Article IV of the Michigan Constitution, adopted in 1963. The primary purpose of the Legislature is to enact new laws and amend or repeal existing laws.
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but nevertheless have floor privileges and are able to participate in certain other House functions. Non-voting members may vote in a House committee of which they are a member and introduce legislation. There are currently six non-voting members: a delegate representing the District of Columbia, a resident commissioner representing Puerto Rico, and one delegate for each of the other four permanently inhabited US territories: American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the US Virgin Islands. A seventh delegate, representing the Cherokee Nation, has been formally proposed but not yet seated, while an eighth, representing the Choctaw Nation, is named in a treaty but has neither been proposed nor seated. As with voting members, non-voting delegates are elected every two years, and the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico is elected every four years.
The Maine House of Representatives is the lower house of the Maine Legislature. The House consists of 151 members representing an equal number of districts across the state and elected via Plurality voting. Each voting member of the House represents around 8,800 citizens of the state. Because it is a part-time position, members of the Maine House of Representatives usually have outside employment as well. Members are limited to four consecutive terms of two years each, but may run again after two years.
The Florida Senate is the upper house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Florida, the Florida House of Representatives being the lower house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted. The Senate is composed of 40 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of approximately 470,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Senators' terms begin immediately, upon their election. The Senate Chamber is located in the State Capitol building.
The government of Alabama is organized under the provisions of the 1901 Constitution of Alabama, the lengthiest constitution of any political entity in the world. Like other states within the United States, Alabama's government is divided into executive, judicial, and legislative branches.
The Alabama Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Alabama. It is a bicameral body composed of the House of Representatives and Senate. It is one of the few state legislatures in which members of both chambers serve four-year terms and in which all are elected in the same cycle. The most recent election was on November 6, 2018. The new legislature assumes office immediately following the certification of the election results by the Alabama Secretary of State which occurs within a few days following the election.
The Legislature of the State of Oklahoma is the state legislative branch of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma House of Representatives and Oklahoma Senate are the two houses that make up the bicameral state legislature. There are 101 state representatives, each serving a two-year term, and 48 state senators, who serve four-year terms that are staggered so only half of the Oklahoma Senate districts are eligible in each election cycle. Legislators are elected directly by the people from single member districts of equal population. The Oklahoma Legislature meets annually in the Oklahoma State Capitol in Oklahoma City.
Joint Tribal Council of the Passamaquoddy Tribe v. Morton, 528 F.2d 370, was a landmark decision regarding aboriginal title in the United States. The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit held that the Nonintercourse Act applied to the Passamaquoddy and Penobscot, non-federally-recognized Indian tribes, and established a trust relationship between those tribes and the federal government that the state of Maine could not terminate.
Dora Pinkham was a Republican politician and the first woman elected to the Maine Legislature. She served in both the Maine House of Representatives and Maine Senate.
The 2018 Maine House of Representatives elections took place as part of the biennial United States elections. Maine voters elected state representatives in all 151 of the state house's districts, as well as non-voting members from the Passamaquoddy Tribe and the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians. State representatives serve two-year terms in the Maine State House.
The 2020 Maine House of Representatives elections took place on November 3, 2020 alongside the biennial United States elections. Maine voters elected members of the Maine House of Representatives via plurality voting in all 151 of the state house's districts, as well as a non-voting members from the Passamaquoddy Tribe.