Florida House of Representatives

Last updated

Florida House of Representatives
2020–2022 Florida Legislature
Seal of the Florida House of Representatives.svg
Type
Type
Term limits
4 terms (8 years)
History
FoundedMay 26, 1845
Preceded by Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida
Leadership
Chris Sprowls (R)
since November 17, 2020
House Speaker Pro Tempore
Bryan Avila (R)
since November 17, 2020
House Majority Leader
Michael Grant (R)
since November 16, 2020
House Minority Leader
Bobby DuBose and Evan Jenne (D)
since November 16, 2020
Structure
Seats120
Florida state legislature diagram house.svg
Political groups
Majority
  •   Republican (78)

Minority

Length of term
2 years
AuthorityArticle III, Constitution of Florida
Salary$29,697/year + per diem (Subsistence & Travel) [1]
Elections
Last election
November 3, 2020
(120 seats)
Next election
November 8, 2022
(120 seats)
RedistrictingLegislative control
Motto
In God We Trust
Meeting place
Florida House Chamber March 2012.jpg
House of Representatives Chamber
Florida Capitol
Tallahassee, Florida
Website
Official website
Seal of Florida.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Florida

The Florida House of Representatives is the lower house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Florida, the Florida Senate being the upper house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted. [2] The House is composed of 120 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of approximately 157,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Representatives' terms begin immediately upon their election. As of 2020, Republicans hold the majority in the State House with 78 seats; Democrats are in the minority with 42 seats.

Contents

Titles

Members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives. Because this shadows the terminology used to describe members of U.S. House of Representatives, constituents and the news media, using The Associated Press Stylebook, often refer to members as state representatives to avoid confusion with their federal counterparts.

Terms

Article III of the Florida Constitution defines the terms for state legislators.

The Constitution requires state representatives to be elected for two-year terms.

Upon election, legislators take office immediately.

Term limits

On November 3, 1992, almost 77 percent of Florida voters backed Amendment 9, the Florida Term Limits Amendment, which amended the state Constitution, to enact eight-year term limits on federal and state officials. Under the Amendment, former members can be elected again after a break. [3] In 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not enact congressional term limits, but ruled that the state level term limits remain. [4]

Qualifications

Florida legislators must be at least twenty-one years old, an elector and resident of their district, and must have resided in Florida for at least two years prior to election. [5]

Legislative session

Each year during which the Legislature meets constitutes a new legislative session.

Committee weeks

Legislators start Committee activity in September of the year prior to the regular legislative session. Because Florida is a part-time legislature, this is necessary to allow legislators time to work their bills through the committee process, prior to the regular legislative session. [6]

Regular legislative session

The Florida Legislature meets in a 60-day regular legislative session each year. Regular legislative sessions in odd-numbered years must begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March. Under the state Constitution, the Legislature can begin even-numbered year regular legislative sessions at a time of its choosing. [7]

Prior to 1991, the regular legislative session began in April. Senate Joint Resolution 380 (1989) proposed to the voters a constitutional amendment (approved November 1990) that shifted the starting date of regular legislative session from April to February. Subsequently, Senate Joint Resolution 2606 (1994) proposed to the voters a constitutional amendment (approved November 1994) shifting the start date to March, where it remains. The reason for the "first Tuesday after the first Monday" requirement stems back to the time when regular legislative session began in April. regular legislative session could start any day from April 2 through April 8, but never on April 1 – April Fool's Day. In recent years, the Legislature has opted to start in January in order to allow lawmakers to be home with their families during school spring breaks, and to give more time ahead of the legislative elections in the Fall. [8]

Organizational session

On the fourteenth day following each general election, the Legislature meets for an organizational session to organize and select officers.

Special session

Special legislative sessions may be called by the governor, by a joint proclamation of the Senate president and House speaker, or by a three-fifths vote of all legislators. During any special session the Legislature may only address legislative business that is within the purview of the purpose or purposes stated in the special session proclamation. [9]

Powers and process

The Florida House is authorized by the Florida Constitution to create and amend the laws of the U.S. state of Florida, subject to the governor's power to veto legislation. To do so, legislators propose legislation in the forms of bills drafted by a nonpartisan, professional staff. Successful legislation must undergo committee review, three readings on the floor of each house, with appropriate voting majorities, as required, and either be signed into law by the governor or enacted through a veto override approved by two-thirds of the membership of each legislative house. [10]

Its statutes, called "chapter laws" or generically as "slip laws" when printed separately, are compiled into the Laws of Florida and are called "session laws". [11] The Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state. [11]

In 2009, legislators filed 2,138 bills for consideration. On average, the Legislature has passed about 300 bills into law annually. [12]

In 2013, the Legislature filed about 2000 bills. About 1000 of these are "member bills." The remainder are bills by committees responsible for certain functions, such as budget. In 2016, about 15% of the bills were passed. [13] In 2017, 1,885 lobbyists registered to represent 3,724 entities. [13]

The House also has the power to propose amendments to the Florida Constitution. Additionally, the House has the exclusive power to impeach officials, who are then tried by the Senate.

Leadership

The House is headed by a speaker, elected by the members of the House to a two-year term. The speaker presides over the House, appoints committee members and committee chairs, influences the placement of bills on the calendar, and rules on procedural motions. The speaker pro tempore presides if the speaker leaves the chair or if there is a vacancy. The speaker, along with the Senate president and governor of Florida, control most of the agenda of state business in Florida.

The majority and minority caucus each elect a leader.

PositionNamePartyDistrict
Speaker of the House Chris Sprowls Republican65
Speaker pro tempore Bryan Avila Republican111
Majority leader Michael J. Grant Republican75
Minority leaders Bobby DuBose and Evan Jenne Democratic94, 99

Composition

AffiliationParty
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Vacant
End of 2016–18 legislature75411164
Start of previous (2018–20) legislature73471200
End of previous legislature71451164
Start of current (2020–22) legislature78421200
Latest voting share

Members, 2020–2022

DistrictNamePartyResidenceCounties representedFirst Elected [14]
1 Michelle Salzman Rep Pensacola Part of Escambia 2020
2 Alex Andrade Rep Pensacola Parts of Escambia and Santa Rosa 2018
3 Jayer Williamson Rep Pace Parts of Okaloosa and Santa Rosa 2016
4 Patt Maney Rep Destin Part of Okaloosa 2020
5 Brad Drake Rep DeFuniak Springs Holmes, Jackson, Walton, Washington, part of Bay 2014,
2008–12
6 Jay Trumbull Rep Panama City Part of Bay 2014
7 Jason Shoaf Rep Port St. Joe Calhoun, Franklin, Gulf, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madison, Taylor, Wakulla, part of Leon 2019*
8 Ramon Alexander Dem Tallahassee Gadsden, part of Leon 2016
9 Allison Tant Dem Tallahassee Part of Leon 2020
10 Chuck Brannan Rep Macclenny Baker, Columbia, Hamilton, Suwannee, part of Alachua 2018
11 Cord Byrd Rep Neptune Beach Nassau, part of Duval 2016
12 Clay Yarborough Rep Jacksonville Part of Duval 2016
13 Tracie Davis Dem Jacksonville Part of Duval 2016
14 Angie Nixon Dem Jacksonville Part of Duval 2020
15 Wyman Duggan Rep Jacksonville Part of Duval 2018
16 Jason Fischer Rep Jacksonville Part of Duval 2016
17 Cyndi Stevenson Rep St. Augustine Part of St. Johns 2015*
18 Sam Garrison Rep Orange Park Part of Clay 2020
19 Bobby Payne Rep Palatka Bradford, Putnam, Union, part of Clay 2016
20 Yvonne Hayes Hinson Dem Gainesville Parts of Alachua and Marion 2020
21 Chuck Clemons Rep Newberry Dixie, Gilchrist, part of Alachua 2016
22 Joe Harding Rep Williston Levy, part of Marion 2020
23 Stan McClain Rep Belleview Part of Marion 2016
24 Paul Renner Rep Palm Coast Flagler, parts of St. Johns and Volusia 2015*
25 Tom Leek Rep Ormond Beach Part of Volusia 2016
26 Elizabeth Fetterhoff Rep DeLand Part of Volusia 2018
27 Webster Barnaby Rep Deltona Part of Volusia 2020
28 David Smith Rep Winter Springs Part of Seminole 2018
29 Scott Plakon Rep Longwood Part of Seminole 2014,
2008–12
30 Joy Goff-Marcil Dem Maitland Parts of Orange and Seminole 2018
31 Keith Truenow Rep Tavares Parts of Lake and Orange 2020
32 Anthony Sabatini Rep Howey-in-the-Hills Part of Lake 2018
33 Brett Hage Rep Oxford Sumter, parts of Lake and Marion 2018
34 Ralph Massullo Rep Lecanto Citrus, part of Hernando 2016
35 Blaise Ingoglia Rep Spring Hill Part of Hernando 2014
36 Amber Mariano Rep Hudson Part of Pasco 2016
37 Ardian Zika Rep Land o' Lakes Part of Pasco 2018
38 Randy Maggard Rep Zephyrhills Part of Pasco 2019*
39 Josie Tomkow Rep Polk City Parts of Osceola and Polk 2018*
40 Colleen Burton Rep Lakeland Part of Polk 2014
41 Sam Killebrew Rep Winter Haven Part of Polk 2016
42 Fred Hawkins Rep St. Cloud Parts of Osceola and Polk 2020
43 Kristen Arrington Dem Kissimmee Part of Osceola 2020
44 Geraldine Thompson Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2018
45 Kamia Brown Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2016
46 Travaris McCurdy Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2020
47 Anna Eskamani Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2018
48 Daisy Morales Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2020
49 Carlos Guillermo Smith Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2016
50 Rene Plasencia Rep Orlando Parts of Brevard and Orange 2014
51 Tyler Sirois Rep Cocoa Part of Brevard 2018
52 Thad Altman Rep Rockledge Part of Brevard 2016,
2003–08
53 Randy Fine Rep Melbourne Beach Part of Brevard 2016
54 Erin Grall Rep Vero Beach Indian River, part of St. Lucie 2016
55 Kaylee Tuck Rep Sebring Glades, Highlands, Okeechobee, part of St. Lucie 2020
56 Melony Bell Rep Fort Meade DeSoto, Hardee, part of Polk 2018
57 Mike Beltran Rep Lithia Part of Hillsborough 2018
58 Lawrence McClure Rep Dover Part of Hillsborough 2017*
59 Andrew Learned Dem Brandon Part of Hillsborough 2020
60 Jackie Toledo Rep Tampa Part of Hillsborough 2016
61 Dianne Hart Dem Tampa Part of Hillsborough 2018
62 Susan Valdes Dem Tampa Part of Hillsborough 2018
63 Fentrice Driskell Dem Tampa Part of Hillsborough 2018
64 Traci Koster Rep Tampa Parts of Hillsborough and Pinellas 2020
65 Chris Sprowls Rep Palm Harbor Part of Pinellas 2014
66 Nick DiCeglie Rep Indian Rocks Beach Part of Pinellas 2018
67 Chris Latvala Rep Clearwater Part of Pinellas 2014
68 Ben Diamond Dem St. Petersburg Part of Pinellas 2016
69 Linda Chaney Rep St. Pete Beach Part of Pinellas 2020
70 Michele Rayner Dem St. Petersburg Parts of Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Sarasota 2020
71 Will Robinson Rep Bradenton Parts of Manatee and Sarasota 2018
72 Fiona McFarland Rep Sarasota Parts of Sarasota 2020
73 Tommy Gregory Rep Sarasota Parts of Manatee and Sarasota 2018
74 James Buchanan Rep Osprey Part of Sarasota 2018
75 Michael J. Grant Rep Port Charlotte Charlotte 2016,
2004–08
76 Adam Botana Rep Bonita Springs Part of Lee 2020
77 Mike Giallombardo Rep Cape Coral Part of Lee 2020
78 Jenna Persons Rep Fort Myers Part of Lee 2020
79 Spencer Roach Rep North Fort Myers Part of Lee 2018
80 Lauren Melo Rep Naples Hendry, part of Collier 2020
81 Kelly Skidmore Dem Boca Raton Part of Palm Beach 2006–10, 2020
82 John Snyder Rep Palm City Parts of Martin and Palm Beach 2020
83 Toby Overdorf Rep Palm City Parts of Martin and St. Lucie 2018
84 Dana Trabulsy Rep Fort Pierce Part of St. Lucie 2020
85 Rick Roth Rep Loxahatchee Part of Palm Beach 2016
86 Matt Willhite Dem Wellington Part of Palm Beach 2016
87 David Silvers Dem West Palm Beach Part of Palm Beach 2016
88 Omari Hardy Dem Lake Worth Beach Part of Palm Beach 2020
89 Mike Caruso Rep Delray Beach Part of Palm Beach 2018
90 Joseph Casello Dem Boynton Beach Part of Palm Beach 2018
91 Emily Slosberg Dem Boca Raton Part of Palm Beach 2016
92 Patricia Hawkins-Williams Dem Lauderdale Lakes Part of Broward 2016
93 Chip LaMarca Rep Lighthouse Point Part of Broward 2018
94 Bobby DuBose Dem Fort Lauderdale Part of Broward 2014
95 Anika Omphroy Dem Lauderdale Lakes Part of Broward 2018
96 Christine Hunschofsky Dem Parkland Part of Broward 2020
97 Dan Daley Dem Coral Springs Part of Broward 2019*
98 Michael Gottlieb Dem Davie Part of Broward 2018
99 Evan Jenne Dem Hollywood Part of Broward 2014
100 Joe Geller Dem Aventura Parts of Broward and Miami-Dade 2014
101 Marie Woodson Dem Hollywood Part of Broward 2020
102 Felicia Robinson Dem Miami Gardens Parts of Broward and Miami-Dade 2020
103 Tom Fabricio Rep Miramar Parts of Broward and Miami-Dade 2020
104 Robin Bartleman Dem Weston Part of Broward 2020
105 David Borrero Rep Sweetwater Parts of Broward, Collier, and Miami-Dade 2020
106 Bob Rommel Rep Naples Part of Collier 2016
107 Christopher Benjamin Dem Miami Gardens Part of Miami-Dade 2020
108 Dotie Joseph Dem North Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2018
109 James Bush Dem Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2018
110 Alex Rizo Rep Hialeah Part of Miami-Dade 2020
111 Bryan Avila Rep Hialeah Part of Miami-Dade 2014
112 Nicholas Duran Dem Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2016
113 Mike Grieco Dem Miami Beach Part of Miami-Dade 2018
114 Demi Busatta Cabrera Rep Coral Gables Part of Miami-Dade 2020
115 Vance Aloupis Rep Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2018
116 Daniel Perez Rep Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2017*
117 Kevin Chambliss Dem Florida City Part of Miami-Dade 2020
118 Anthony Rodriguez Rep Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2018
119 Juan Fernandez-Barquin Rep Kendale Lakes Part of Miami-Dade 2018
120 Jim Mooney Rep Islamorada Monroe and part of Miami-Dade 2020

*Elected in a special election.

District map

Current districts and party composition of the Florida House of Representatives
Democratic Party
Republican Party Florida House of Representatives.png
Current districts and party composition of the Florida House of Representatives
  Democratic Party
  Republican Party

Past composition of the House of Representatives

From 1874 to 1996, the Democratic Party held majorities in the Florida House of Representatives. Following sizable GOP gains in the 1994 election, which significantly reduced the Democratic Party majority in the Florida House, Republicans captured a majority in the 1996 election. The Republican Party has been the majority party since that time in the House.

Additional information on the past composition of the Florida House of Representatives can be found in Allen Morris's The Florida Handbook (various years, published every two years for many years).

See also

Related Research Articles

California State Legislature Bicameral legislature of the U.S. state of California

The California State Legislature is a bicameral state legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members; and an upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The California state legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States.

Michigan Legislature

The Michigan Legislature is the legislature of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is organized as a bicameral body composed of an upper chamber, the Senate, and a lower chamber, the House of Representatives. Article IV of the Michigan Constitution, adopted in 1963, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted. The chief purposes of the Legislature are to enact new laws and amend or repeal existing laws. The Legislature meets in the Capitol building in Lansing.

Alaska Legislature

The Alaska Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is a bicameral institution consisting of the 40-member Alaska House of Representatives and the 20-member Alaska Senate. There are 40 House Districts (1–40) and 20 Senate Districts (A–T). With a total of 60 lawmakers, the Alaska Legislature is the smallest bicameral state legislature in the United States and the second-smallest of all state legislatures. There are no term limits for either chamber.

Maryland General Assembly Legislative body of the State of Maryland, United States

The Maryland General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland that convenes within the State House in Annapolis. It is a bicameral body: the upper chamber, the Maryland Senate, has 47 representatives and the lower chamber, the Maryland House of Delegates, has 141 representatives. Members of both houses serve four-year terms. Each house elects its own officers, judges the qualifications and election of its own members, establishes rules for the conduct of its business, and may punish or expel its own members.

Colorado General Assembly State legislature

The Colorado General Assembly is the state legislature of the State of Colorado. It is a bicameral legislature that was created by the 1876 state constitution. Its statutes are codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes (C.R.S.). The session laws are published in the Session Laws of Colorado.

New Mexico Legislature

The New Mexico Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of New Mexico. It is a bicameral body made up of the New Mexico House of Representatives and the New Mexico Senate.

Texas Legislature State legislature of the US state of Texas

The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the US state of Texas. It is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives. The state legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. It is a powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purse to control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and the Lieutenant Governor of Texas, but also due to Texas's plural executive.

Florida Legislature State legislature of the U.S. state of Florida

The Florida Legislature is the legislature of the U.S. State of Florida. It is organized as a bicameral body composed of an upper chamber, the Senate, and a lower chamber, the House of Representatives. Article III, Section 1 of the Florida Constitution, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the legislature and how it is to be constituted. The legislature is composed of 160 state legislators. The primary purpose of the legislature is to enact new laws and amend or repeal existing laws. It meets in the Florida State Capitol building in Tallahassee.

North Dakota Legislative Assembly

The North Dakota Legislative Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of North Dakota. The Legislative Assembly consists of two chambers, the lower North Dakota House of Representatives, with 94 representatives, and the upper North Dakota Senate, with 47 senators. The state is divided into 47 constituent districts, with two representatives and one senator elected from each district. Members of both houses are elected without term limits. Due to the Legislative Assembly being a biennial legislature, with the House and Senate sitting for only 80 days in odd-numbered years, a Legislative Council oversees legislative affairs in the interim periods, doing longer-term studies of issues, and drafting legislation for consideration of both houses during the next session.

Michigan Senate Upper state chamber of Michigan

The Michigan Senate is the upper house of the Michigan Legislature. Along with the Michigan House of Representatives, it composes the state legislature, which has powers, roles and duties defined by Article IV of the Michigan Constitution, adopted in 1963. The primary purpose of the Legislature is to enact new laws and amend or repeal existing laws.

Tennessee General Assembly

The Tennessee General Assembly (TNGA) is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Tennessee. It is a part-time bicameral legislature consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Speaker of the Senate carries the additional title and office of Lieutenant Governor of Tennessee. In addition to passing a budget for state government plus other legislation, the General Assembly appoints three state officers specified by the state constitution. It is also the initiating body in any process to amend the state's constitution.

Florida Senate Upper house of the Florida Legislature

The Florida Senate is the upper house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Florida, the Florida House of Representatives being the lower house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted. The Senate is composed of 40 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of approximately 470,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Senators' terms begin immediately, upon their election. The Senate Chamber is located in the State Capitol building.

Government of Alabama

The government of Alabama is organized under the provisions of the 1901 Constitution of Alabama, the lengthiest constitution of any political entity in the world. Like other states within the United States, Alabama's government is divided into executive, judicial, and legislative branches.

Alabama Legislature Legislative branch of the state government of Alabama

The Alabama Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Alabama. It is a bicameral body composed of the House of Representatives and Senate. It is one of the few state legislatures in which members of both chambers serve four-year terms and in which all are elected in the same cycle. The most recent election was on November 6, 2018. The new legislature assumes office immediately following the certification of the election results by the Alabama Secretary of State which occurs within a few days following the election.

Oklahoma Legislature

The Legislature of the State of Oklahoma is the state legislative branch of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma House of Representatives and Oklahoma Senate are the two houses that make up the bicameral state legislature. There are 101 state representatives, each serving a two-year term, and 48 state senators, who serve four-year terms that are staggered so only half of the Oklahoma Senate districts are eligible in each election cycle. Legislators are elected directly by the people from single member districts of equal population. The Oklahoma Legislature meets annually in the Oklahoma State Capitol in Oklahoma City.

Utah State Legislature

The Utah State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Utah. It is a bicameral body, comprising the Utah House of Representatives, with 75 state representatives, and the Utah Senate, with 29 state senators. There are no term limits for either chamber.

Louisiana State Legislature

The Louisiana State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is a bicameral body, comprising the lower house, the Louisiana House of Representatives with 105 representatives, and the upper house, the Louisiana State Senate with 39 senators. Members of each house are elected from single-member districts of roughly equal populations.

Oklahoma House of Representatives

The Oklahoma House of Representatives is the lower house of the legislature of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Its members introduce and vote on bills and resolutions, provide legislative oversight for state agencies, and help to craft the state's budget. The upper house of the Oklahoma Legislature is the Oklahoma Senate.

Kansas House of Representatives

The Kansas House of Representatives is the lower house of the legislature of the U.S. state of Kansas. Composed of 125 state representatives from districts with roughly equal populations of at least 19,000, its members are responsible for crafting and voting on legislation, helping to create a state budget, and legislative oversight over state agencies.

Arkansas General Assembly Legislature of Arkansas

The Arkansas General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of the upper house Arkansas Senate with 35 members, and the lower Arkansas House of Representatives with 100 members. All 135 representatives and state senators represent an equal number of constituent districts. The General Assembly convenes on the second Monday of every other year. A session lasts for 60 days unless the legislature votes to extend it. The Governor of Arkansas can issue a "call" for a special session during the interims between regular sessions. The General Assembly meets at the Arkansas State Capitol in Little Rock.

References

  1. "The 2017 Florida Statutes F.S. 11.13 Compensation of members". Florida Legislature.
  2. "CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA". Florida Legislature. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  3. "Vote Yes On Amendment No. 9 To Begin Limiting Political Terms". Sun-Sentinel.
  4. "Florida Backs Article V Convention for Constitutional Amendment on Congressional Term Limits". Sunshine State News.
  5. "CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA". Florida Legislature.
  6. "Editorial:Advice to Legislature:Pursue limited agenda". Florida Today.
  7. "CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA". Florida Legislature.
  8. Buzzacco-Foerster, Jenna (February 18, 2016). "Proposal to move 2018 session to January heads House floor". Florida Politics. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  9. "The Florida Constitution". Florida Legislature.
  10. "The Florida Senate Handbook" (PDF). Florida Senate.
  11. 1 2 "Statutes & Constitution: Online Sunshine". Florida Legislature. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  12. Flemming, Paul (March 8, 2009). Capital Ideas: Lawmakers face 2,138 proposals. Florida Today.
  13. 1 2 Cotterell, Bill (March 7, 2017). "Legislative session by the numbers". Florida Today. Melbourne,Florida. pp. 5A.
  14. And previous terms of service, if any.