List of battles by casualties

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The following is a list of the casualties count in battles in world history. The list includes both sieges (not technically battles but usually yielding similar combat-related deaths) and civilian casualties during the battles. Large battle casualty counts are almost impossible to calculate precisely. Many of these figures are estimates, and, where possible, a range of estimates is presented. Figures display numbers of all types of casualties when available (killed, wounded, missing, and sick) but may only include number killed. Where possible, the list specifies whether or not prisoners are included in the count. This list does not include bombing runs (such as the attack on Pearl Harbor and the bombing of Tokyo) or massacres such as the Rape of Nanking, which, despite potentially massive casualties, are not typically classified as "battles", since they are usually one-sided engagements or the nation attacked is not officially at war with the attackers. Tactical or strategic strikes, however, may form part of larger engagements which are themselves battles.

World history or global history is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. It examines history from a global perspective. It is not to be confused with comparative history, which, like world history, deals with the history of multiple cultures and nations, but does not do so on a global scale. World history looks for common patterns that emerge across all cultures. World historians use a thematic approach, with two major focal points: integration and difference.

Siege military blockade of a city or fortress

A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from Latin: sedere, lit. 'to sit'. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static, defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. The art of conducting and resisting sieges is called siege warfare, siegecraft, or poliorcetics.

Wounded in action (WIA) describes combatants who have been wounded while fighting in a combat zone during wartime, but have not been killed. Typically it implies that they are temporarily or permanently incapable of bearing arms or continuing to fight.

Contents

Classical formation battles

These refer to battles in which armies met on a single field of battle and fought each other for anywhere from one to several days. Military formations lost their impact and use of this type of battle died out in favor of grander military operations.

BattleYearConflictCasualties
Battle of Thymbra 547 BC Lydian–Persian War 100,000 [1]
Battle of Marathon 490 BC Greco-Persian Wars 5,000–8,000 [2]
Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC Greco-Persian Wars 22,300 [3] –22,500 [4]
Battle of Plataea 479 BC Greco-Persian War 51,500 [4] –257,000 [3]
Battle of Chaeronea 338 BC Rise of Macedon 20,000 or more [5]
Battle of the Granicus 334 BC Wars of Alexander the Great 15,000 or more [5]
Battle of Issus 333 BC Wars of Alexander the Great 50,450 [6]
Battle of Gaugamela 331 BC Wars of Alexander the Great 53,500 [7]
Battle of the Hydaspes 326 BC Wars of Alexander the Great 23,310 [7]
Battle of Sentinum 295 BC Third Samnite War 33,500 [8]
Battle of Heraclea 280 BC Pyrrhic War 11,000–26,000 [8]
Battle of Kalinga 262 BC Kalinga-Maurya Empire 150,000 [9] –200,000 [10] [11] (including civilians)
Battle of Changping 260 BC Qin's wars of unification 700,000 (according to ancient sources)
Battle of the Trebia 218 BC Second Punic War 35,000 [12]
Battle of Lake Trasimene 217 BC Second Punic War 30,000 [12]
Battle of Cannae 216 BC Second Punic War 56,000 [13] –92,000 or more [14]
Battle of the Metaurus 207 BC Second Punic War 12,000 [15]
Battle of Zama 202 BC Second Punic War 21,500 [15]
Battle of Magnesia 190 BC Roman–Syrian War 53,350 [16]
Battle of Pydna 168 BC Third Macedonian War 21,000 [16]
Battle of Arausio 105 BC Germanic Wars (Cimbrian War)84,000 [17] [18] [19]
Battle of Carrhae 53 BC Roman–Persian Wars 24,000 [20]
Battle of Pharsalus 48 BC Caesar's Civil War 17,000 [21]
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest 9 AD Roman–Germanic wars 20,000 [22]
Battle of Watling Street 61 AD Iceni Revolt 80,400 [23]
Battle of Mons Graupius 84 AD Roman conquest of Britain 10,360 [24]
Battle of Red Cliffs 208 Three Kingdoms 100,000 [25]
Battle of Edessa 260 Roman-persian wars 50,000 or more
Battle of Adrianople 378 Gothic War 40,000 or more [26]
Battle of Fei River 383 Wu Hu Era 150,000 or more [27]
Battle of the Catalaunian Plains 451 Hunnic Invasion 165,000 (doubtful, according to one ancient source) [28]
Battle of Salsu 612 Goguryeo–Sui Wars 302,300 [29]
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah 636 Muslim conquest of Persia 31,000 [30]
Battle of Muzayyah 633 Muslim conquest of Persia 10,000
Battle of Ullais 633 Muslim conquest of Persia 35,000 [31]
Battle of River 633 Muslim conquest of Persia more than 15,000 [32]
Battle of Walaja 636 Muslim conquest of Persia 22,000 [33]
Battle of Saniyy 633 Muslim conquest of Persia 5,000
Battle of Nahāvand 642 Muslim conquest of Persia 28,500 [34]
Battle of Yarmouk 636 Muslim Conquest of the Levant 70,000 [35]
Battle of Didgori 1121 Georgian–Seljuk wars 210,000 [36] [ not in citation given ]
Battle of Hattin 1187 Ayyubid–Crusader War 17,000–20,000 [37]
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa 1212 Reconquista 60,000 [38]
Battle of Yehuling 1212 Mongol conquest of the Jin Dynasty Army of 50,000 annihilated.
Battle of the Kalka River 1223 Mongol invasion of Rus' Around 50,000 [39]
Battle of Legnica 1241 Mongol invasion of Poland 30,000 [40]
Battle of Mohi 1241 Mongol invasion of Europe 15,000 [41]
Battle of Yamen 1279 Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty 100,000
Battle of Bannockburn 1314 First War of Scottish Independence 19,000 [42]
Battle of Kulikovo 1380 List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus' 136,000
Battle of the Terek River 1395 Tokhtamysh–Timur war 100,000 [43]
Conquest of Delhi 1398 Timur's Indian campaign 100,000 [44] [45]
Battle of Ankara 1402 Ottoman–Timur War 15,000 or more [46]
Battle of Grunwald 1410 Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War 13,000 [47]
Battle of Agincourt 1415 Hundred Years' War 14,000[ citation needed ]
Tumu Crisis 1449 Ming–Mongol War 200,000 or more[ citation needed ]
Battle of Towton 1461 Wars of the Roses 28,000 [48]
Night Attack at Târgoviște 1462 Wallachian-Ottoman Wars 20,000[ citation needed ]
Battle of Vaslui 1475 Moldavian-Ottoman Wars 40,000 or more[ citation needed ]
Battle of Valea Alba 1476 Moldavian-Ottoman Wars 30,000 or more[ citation needed ]
Battle of Kabul 1504 Campaigns of Babur 20,000 or more [49]
Battle of Ravenna 1512 War of the League of Cambrai 13,500 [50]
Battle of Marignano 1515 War of the League of Cambrai 11,000–15,000 [51]
Battle of Ridaniya 1517 Ottoman wars in the Near East 13,000 [52]
First Battle of Panipat 1526 Mughal Conquest 20,000–50,000 [53]
Battle of Mohács 1526 Ottoman–Hungarian Wars Probably 30,000 [54]
Battle of Ghaghra 1529 Mughal Conquest 13,000 [55]
Battle of Lepanto 1571 Ottoman–Venetian Wars 22,566–27,566 [56]
Battle of Chungju 1592 Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) 8,000–16,000 [57] 100,000 [58] [59]
Battle of Byeokjegwan 1593 Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) 6,000 [60]
Battle of Călugăreni 1595 Long War(Ottoman War) 11,000-16,000[ citation needed ]
Battle of Sacheon (1598) 1598 Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) 30,000 [61]
Battle of Sekigahara 1600 Sengoku period 60,000 or less [62]
First Battle of Breitenfeld 1631 Thirty Years' War 20,000 or more [63]
Battle of Lützen 1632 Thirty Years' War 11,000–14,000 [63]
Battle of Nördlingen 1634 Thirty Years' War 17,000 [64]
Battle of the Downs 1639 Eighty Years' War 15,000 or more [65]
Second Battle of Breitenfeld 1642 Thirty Years' War 14,000 [66]
Battle of Jankau 1645 Thirty Years' War 15,500 [67]
Battle of Berestechko 1651 Khmelnytsky Uprising 30,000–40,000 [68]
Battle of Samugarh 1658 Mughal Conquest 32,000 [65]
Battle of Khajwa 1659 Mughal Conquest 20,000 [65]
Battle of Lund 1676 Scanian War 14,000 [69]
Battle of Vienna 1683 Ottoman–Habsburg wars 19,500 [70]
Battle of Bijapur 1686 [71] Mughal Conquest 17,000 [72]
Battle of Landen 1693 War of the Grand Alliance 28,000 [72]
Battle of Zenta 1697 Ottoman–Habsburg wars 30,300 [73]
Battle of Jinji 1698 Mughal Conquest 16,000 [72]
Battle of Blenheim 1704 War of the Spanish Succession 32,000 [72]
Battle of Fraustadt 1706 Great Northern War 16,500 [74]
Battle of Ramillies 1706 War of the Spanish Succession 15,600 [75]
Battle of Poltava 1709 Great Northern War 14,300 [76]
Battle of Malplaquet 1709 War of the Spanish Succession 95,000 [75]
Battle of Fontenoy 1745 War of the Austrian Succession 14,000 [77]
Battle of Leuthen 1757 Seven Years' War 11,800 [78]
Battle of Zorndorf 1758 Seven Years' War 30,000[ citation needed ]
Third Battle of Panipat 1761 Marathas and Afghans 100,000; up to 200,000 (including civilian camp followers) [79] [80]
Battle of Arcole 1796 War of the First Coalition 11,000 [81]
Battle of Marengo 1800 War of the Second Coalition 16,400 [82]
Ulm Campaign 1805 War of the Third Coalition 11,500 [82]
Battle of Austerlitz 1805 War of the Third Coalition 24,300 [83]
Battle of Jena–Auerstedt 1806 War of the Fourth Coalition 52,000 including prisoners later killed [84]
Battle of Eylau 1807 War of the Fourth Coalition 40,000 [84]
Battle of Wagram 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition 77,000 [84] –79,000 [85]
Battle of Talavera 1809 Peninsular War 13,900 [86]
Battle of Salamanca 1812 Peninsular War 18,800 [87]
Battle of Borodino 1812 French invasion of Russia 74,000 [88]
Battle of Berezina 1812 French invasion of Russia 60,000 [88]
Battle of Vitoria 1813 Peninsular War 13,000 [87]
Battle of Leipzig 1813 War of the Sixth Coalition 124,000 [89]
Battle of Ligny 1815 Hundred Days 28,000 [90]
Battle of Waterloo 1815 Hundred Days 47,000 or more (not including prisoners and missing) [91] [92]
Battle of Blood River 1838 Zulu purge of Voortrekkers 3,000 or more to Zulu side only (not including wounded) [93]
Battle of Inkerman 1854 Crimean War 15,857 [94]
Battle of Shiloh 1862 American Civil War 24,000 [95]
Battle of Antietam 1862 American Civil War 23,000 [96] –26,193 [97]
Battle of Fredericksburg 1862 American Civil War 17,300 [96] –17,962 [98]
Battle of Gettysburg 1863 American Civil War 51,000 [99] [100]
Battle of Chickamauga 1863 American Civil War 34,000 [101]
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House 1864 American Civil War 30,000 [102]
Battle of Stones River 1862 – 1863 American Civil War 24,000 [103]
Battle of Königgrätz 1866 Austro-Prussian War 47,500 [104]
Battle of Tuyutí 1866 Paraguayan War 7,000–16,000 [105]
Battle of Mars-la-Tour/Battle of Gravelotte 1870 Franco-Prussian War 34,000 [104]
Battle of Sedan 1870 Franco-Prussian War 26,000 [106]
Battle of Adwa 1896 First Italo-Ethiopian War 17,300 [107]
Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican 1896 Philippine Revolutionary War 2,000–15,000 [108]
Battle of Omdurman 1898 Mahdist War 20,430 [109]
Battle of Mons/Battle of Le Cateau 1914 World War I 18,000 [110]
Battle of Sakarya 1921 Greco–Turkish War of 1919–22 61,000 [111] [112]

Sieges and urban combat

This list includes sieges, as well as modern battles that were fought primarily in urban areas. Major military operations that included city fighting are listed below. The battles included here inflicted at least 50,000 casualties.

SiegeYearConflictCasualties
(High est.)
Casualties
(Low est.)
Siege of Constantinople 717–18 Arab–Byzantine wars 170,000130,000 [35]
Siege of Tenochtitlan 1521 Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire 240,000100,000 [113] [114]
Siege of Rhodes 1522 Ottoman wars in Europe 55,200 [52] 55,200
Siege of Ostend 1601–04 Eighty Years' War 115,00090,000
Second Siege of Zaragoza 1808–09 Peninsular War 64,000 [115] 64,000
Third Battle of Nanking 1863 Taiping Rebellion 100,000 [116] 100,000
Siege of Petersburg 1864–65 American Civil War 70,000 [117] 70,000
Battle of Gettysburg 1863 American Civil War 50,00050,000
Siege of Port Arthur 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War 100,000 [118] 100,000
Siege of Adrianople 1912–13 First Balkan War 93,282 [119] 93,282
Battle of Verdun 1916 World War I 976,000714,231
First Battle of the Somme 1916 World War I 1,120,0001,120,000
Battle of Taiyuan 1937 World War II 130,000 [120] 130,000
Battle of Xinkou 1937 World War II 200,000 [121] 200,000
Battle of Shanghai 1937 World War II 400,000 [122] 400,000
Battle of Wuhan 1938 World War II 540,000 [123] 540,000
First Battle of Changsha 1939 World War II 80,000+80,000+ [124]
Battle of Nanchang 1939 World War II 75,328 [125] 75,328
Battle of Dunkirk 1940 World War II 88,000 [126] 88,000
Battle of South Shanxi 1941 World War II 120,000+120,000+ [127]
Siege of Odessa 1941 World War II 133,813 [128] 133,813
Battle of Kiev 1941 World War II 700,544 [128] 700,544
Siege of Sevastopol 1941–42 World War II 236,437236,437
Third Battle of Changsha 1942 World War II 84,862 [129] 84,862
Battle of Stalingrad 1942–43 World War II 1,798,619 [130] 1,250,000 [131]
Battle of Changde 1943 World War II 100,000100,000 [132]
Battle of West Hubei 1943 World War II 115,830115,830 [133]
Siege of Leningrad 1941–44 World War II 4,500,000 [134] 1,117,000 [135] [136]
Warsaw Uprising 1944 World War II 200,000+200,000+ [137]
Siege of Budapest 1944–45 World War II 422,000422,000 [138]
Battle of Berlin 1945 World War II 1,298,745 [139] 1,298,745 [140]
Battle of Okinawa 1945 World War II 82,000 [141] 82,000 [141]
Battle of Manila 1945 World War II 500,000 [142] [143] 100,000 [144] [145]
Battle of Normandy 1944 World War II 795,400 [146] [147] 650,600 [148] [147]
Battle of the Bulge 1944-45 World War II 218,900161,370 [149]
Siege of Changchun 1948 [150] Chinese Civil War 425,000425,000 [151]

Major operations

This list includes major operations and prolonged battles or operations fought over a large area or for a long time. The duration of some operations, like the Battle of Moscow, are disputed so numbers found in various sources may differ for that reason alone.

Battle of Moscow periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km (370 mi) sector of the Eastern Front during World War II

The Battle of Moscow was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km (370 mi) sector of the Eastern Front during World War II. It took place between October 1941 and January 1942. The Soviet defensive effort frustrated Hitler's attack on Moscow, the capital and largest city of the Soviet Union. Moscow was one of the primary military and political objectives for Axis forces in their invasion of the Soviet Union.

OperationYearConflictCasualties
Six Days' Campaign 1814 War of the Sixth Coalition 80,000 [89]
Peninsula Campaign 1862 American Civil War 36,463 [152]
Battle of Chancellorsville 1863 American Civil War 30,000 [153] –30,500 [96]
Overland Campaign 1864 American Civil War 87,000 [154] –92,000 [115]
Appomattox Campaign 1865 American Civil War 16,500 [117]
Battle of Mukden 1905 Russo-Japanese War 160,000 [155]
Battle of Lule Burgas 1912 First Balkan War 42,162+ [156]
First Battle of Çatalca 1912 First Balkan War 22,000 [157]
Battle of Bregalnica 1913 Second Balkan War 36,620 [119]
The Rape of Belgium 1914 World War I 32,000 [110]
Battle of Tannenberg 1914 World War I 145,000 [158] –160,000 [159]
Battle of Galicia 1914 World War I 645,000–700,000
First Battle of the Marne 1914 World War I 513,000 [160]
First Battle of Ypres 1914 World War I 210,000 [161]
Battle of Łódź 1914 World War I 130,000 [162]
Second Battle of Ypres 1915 World War I 104,208 [163] –107,000 [164]
Gallipoli Campaign 1915 World War I 503,000 [163] –552,000 [165]
Second Battle of Artois 1915 World War I 186,000 [163]
Second Battle of ChampagneThird Battle of Artois 1915 World War I 75,000 [164] –440,000 [163]
Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive 1915 World War I 300,000 - 1,087,000 [163]
Serbian Campaign (1915) 1915 World War I 331,000, including prisoners [166]
Battle of Verdun 1916 World War I 755,000 [167] –976,000 [163]
Battle of Asiago 1916 World War I 250,000 [163]
Brusilov Offensive 1916 World War I 1,600,000 [163]
Battle of the Somme 1916 World War I 1,120,000 [168] –1,215,000 [163]
Monastir Offensive 1916 World War I 111,000 [169]
Romanian Campaign 1916–1917 World War I 240,000 [163] [ dubious ] - 933,000, including prisoners
Nivelle Offensive 1917 World War I 354,000 [170]
Battle of Messines 1917 World War I 42,000 [171] [172]
Tenth Battle of the Isonzo 1917 World War I 200,000 [173]
Third Battle of Ypres 1917 World War I Over 585,000 [174]
Battle of Caporetto 1917 World War I 60,000 [175]
Battle of Cambrai 1917 World War I 95,000 [175]
Spring Offensive 1918 World War I 1,539,000 [176]
Second Battle of the Marne 1918 World War I 288,000 [176]
Hundred Days Offensive 1918 World War I 2,240,000 [176]
Battle of Warsaw 1920 Polish–Soviet War About 130,000, not including prisoners [177]
Invasion of Manchuria 1931 Second Sino-Japanese War 35,000 [178]
Battle of Guadalajara 1937 Spanish Civil War 12,000 [179]
Battle of Teruel 1937–38 Spanish Civil War 110,000, including prisoners [180]
Battle of the Ebro 1938 Spanish Civil War 106,500 [180]
Battle of Xuzhou 1938 World War II 130,000 [181]
1938 Yellow River Flood 1938 World War II 800,000 [182]
Battles of Khalkhin Gol 1939 Soviet–Japanese border conflicts 42,000 [183]
Invasion of Poland 1939 World War II 310,000 [184]
Battle of Suixian–Zaoyang 1939 World War II 49,000 [185]
Winter War 1939–40 World War II 152,000 [184] –225,000 [186]
Winter Offensive 1939–1940 World War II 100,000+ [187]
Operation Weserübung 1940 World War II 12,800 [184]
Battle of France 1940 World War II 469,000 [188]
Hundred Regiments Offensive 1940 Second Sino-Japanese War 62,900 [189]
Greco-Italian War 1940–41 World War II 100,000 dead [190]
Battle of Keren 1941 World War II 34,000 including over 12,600 killed
Battle of Greece 1941 World War II 46,295 dead [191]
Battle of Shanggao 1941 World War II 42,000 [192]
Battle of Crete 1941 World War II 16,007 dead [193]
Operation Barbarossa 1941 World War II 1,400,000 [194] –5,000,000 [195]
Battle of Moscow 1941 World War II 1,000,000 [194]
Battle of Hong Kong 1941 World War II 18,000 including prisoners [196]
Battle of Malaya/Battle of Singapore 1941–42 World War II 143,800, and 60,000 prisoners [197]
Battle of Bataan/Battle of Corregidor 1942 World War II 30,000 killed [198]
Battle of the Kerch Peninsula 1942 World War II Over 176,000 [199]
Second Battle of Kharkov 1942 World War II 300,000 [199]
Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign 1942 World War II 356,000 [200]
Battle of Gazala 1942 World War II 148,000 [201]
Case Blue 1942 World War II 1,400,000
Guadalcanal Campaign 1942–43 World War II 29,100 [202] –31,100 [203]
Second Battle of El Alamein 1942 World War II 39,400 [201] –82,500 [204]
Operation Iskra 1943 World War II 129,332 [205]
Battle of Kursk 1943 World War II 257,125 [206] –388,000 [207]
Allied invasion of Sicily 1943 World War II At least 36,000 killed, and over 100,000 Italian POWs [208]
Battle of Smolensk (1943) 1943 World War II 522,059
Dnieper Campaign 1943 World War II 1,582,000 (lowest est.) – 2,480,000 (highest est.)
Allied invasion of Italy 1943 World War II 17,092 killed [209]
Bougainville Campaign 1943–45 World War II 21,929 killed, and 23,571 Japanese prisoners [210]
Dnieper–Carpathian Offensive 1943–44 World War II 1,442,956
Battle of Monte Cassino 1944 World War II 185,000 [211]
Battle of Narva 1944 World War II 550,000 all causes [212]
Operation Shingle 1944 World War II 52,200 killed [213]
First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive 1944 World War II 195,000 [214]
Ichi-Go 1944 World War II 1,300,000+ [215]
Battle of Normandy 1944 World War II 650,600 [148] [147] –795,400 [146] [147]
Battle of Saipan 1944 World War II 43,500 killed, including mass suicides [216]
Operation Bagration 1944 World War II 1,430,000 [217]
Falaise pocket 1944 World War II 140,000 [218]
Second Jassy–Kishinev Offensive 1944 World War II 485,424, including prisoners [219] [220]
Operation Market Garden 1944 World War II 27,200 [221]
Battle of Hürtgen Forest 1944–45 World War II 63,000 [222]
Battle of Leyte Gulf 1944 World War II 12,000 killed [223]
Battle of the Bulge 1944–45 World War II 161,370 [149] [224] –218,900
Battle of Luzon 1945 World War II 332,330–345,330, including sick [225]
Battle of the Rhineland 1945 World War II 82,000 and 250,000 prisoners [226]
Battle of Iwo Jima 1945 World War II 44,821 [227] –48,700 [228]
Battle of Okinawa 1945 World War II 113,920 [229] –158,400 [230]
Burma Campaigns 1942–45 World War II 700,000 [231]
Battle of West Hunan 1945 World War II 50,000 [232]
Second Guangxi Campaign 1945 World War II 1,000,000 [233]
Arab–Israeli War 1948–49 Arab–Israeli conflict 12,000–19,000 [234]
Liaoshen Campaign 1948 Chinese Civil War 542,000, including captured [235]
Huaihai Campaign 1948 Chinese Civil War 689,000, including captured [236]
Pingjin Campaign 1948–49 Chinese Civil War 560,000, including captured [237]
Shanghai Campaign 1949 Chinese Civil War 213,073 [238]
Battle of Inchon 1950 Korean War 17,429 [239]
Invasion of North Korea 1950 Korean War 51,700 [240]
Battle of Dien Bien Phu 1954 First Indochina War 31,500, not including prisoners [241]
Tet Offensive 1968 Vietnam War 65,000 [242]
Operation OAU 1968 Nigerian Civil War 30,000 [242]
Easter Offensive 1972 Vietnam War 150,000 [242]
Yom Kippur War 1973 Arab–Israeli conflict 21,688, not including prisoners [243]
Iran–Iraq War 1980–88 Iraqi invasion of Iran 800,000 killed [243]
Falklands War 1982 Falklands War Under 1,000, not including prisoners
1982 Lebanon War 1982–85 Israeli–Lebanese conflict 18,500 [243]
Gulf War 1991 Gulf War 25,678 [244]
Invasion of Iraq 2003 Iraq War 34,543 [245]

See also

Notes

  1. Grant, p. 17
  2. Krentz, Peter, The Battle of Marathon (Yale Library of Military History), Yale Univ Press, (2010) p. 98
  3. 1 2 Herodotus (440 BC). Histories .
  4. 1 2 Grant, p. 23
  5. 1 2 Grant, p. 26
  6. Grant, p. 28
  7. 1 2 Grant, p. 27
  8. 1 2 Grant, p. 37
  9. Grant, p. 56
  10. Ashoka the Great (r. 272–231 BC), Edicts of Ashoka , Major Rock Edict 13.
  11. Radhakumud Mookerji (1988). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN   81-208-0405-8.
  12. 1 2 Grant, p. 39
  13. Grant, p. 40
  14. Leonard Cottrell (1965). Enemy of Rome. Evans Bros. ISBN   0-237-44320-1.
  15. 1 2 Grant, p. 41
  16. 1 2 Grant, p. 31
  17. Valerius Antias (1st century BC). Manubiae.
  18. Albert A. Howard (1906). "Valerius Antias and Livy", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology17, p. 161–182.
  19. Canon Rawlinson (1877). "On the Ethnography of the Cimbri", The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland6, p. 150–158.
  20. Grant, p. 43
  21. Grant, p. 47
  22. Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187. ISBN   0-393-32643-8.
  23. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. Grant, p. 49
  25. Records of Three Kingdoms ,
  26. Grant, p. 51
  27. Book of Jin ,
  28. Jordanes (22 April 1997). "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter XLI". Translated by Charles C. Mierow. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  29. Book of Sui , Vol. 60.
  30. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History By Ibn Khaldūn, Franz Rosenthal, N. J.. Dawood pg, 12.
  31. "The Sword of Allah", Chapter 22, by Lieutenant-General Agha Ibrahim Akram, Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN   978-0-7101-0104-4.
  32. A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.137
  33. A. I. Akram (1970). The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns. National Publishing House, Rawalpindi. ISBN   0-7101-0104-X.
  34. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  35. 1 2 Grant, p. 74
  36. Jonathan Riley-Smith, the Crusades, 2005, p. 109
  37. Grant, p. 89
  38. Richard Gabriel, Subotai the Valiant.
  39. Grant, p. 92
  40. Carey, Brian Todd, p. 124
  41. Grant, p. 118
  42. Grant, p. 94
  43. B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  44. Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography or Memoirs of Emperor Tímúr (Taimur the lame). Page 389. 1. Online copy Archived 3 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine , 2. Online copy Archived 6 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period ; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877.
  45. Grant, p. 95
  46. Grant, p. 121
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References

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John Erickson FRSE FBA FRSA was a British historian and defence expert who wrote extensively on the Second World War. His two best-known books – The Road to Stalingrad and The Road to Berlin – dealt with the Soviet response to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, covering the period from 1941 to 1945. He was respected for his knowledge of Russia during the Cold War. His Russian language skills and knowledge gained him respect.