This article needs additional citations for verification . (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Battle of Lutter|
|Part of the Thirty Years' War|
Battle of Lutter, contemporary woodcut
|Commanders and leaders|
| Christian IV |
Philipp of Hesse-Cassel (POW)
Hans Philipp Fuchs of Bimbach †
| Count of Tilly |
Johann Jakob, Count of Anholt
|Casualties and losses|
|3,000 dead, 2,500 captured and 2,000 deserters||700 dead or wounded|
The Battle of Lutter (Lutter am Barenberge) took place during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August 1626 (17 August 1626 in the old Julian calendar), between the forces of the Lower Saxon Circle, combining mostly Protestant states, and led by its Circle Colonel Christian IV of Denmark, and the forces of the Catholic League. Lutter am Barenberge lies to the south of the modern town of Salzgitter, then within the Imperial Circle of Lower Saxony, and now in northwest Germany.
The battle resulted in a heavy defeat of Christian IV's troops by those of Emperor Ferdinand II, led by the Catholic League general Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly.
Before the Thirty Years' War hostilities reached the Lower Saxon Circle, the chiefs of state of its members were alarmed and prepared for the worst. So in 1625 they elected from their midst the Lutheran Duke Christian IV of Holstein, simultaneously King of Denmark, the new Lower Saxon Circle Colonel, i.e. the commander in chief of the joint circular forces. In this function Christian IV allied with Ernst von Mansfeld in a military campaign and planned to start in Thuringia in Middle Germany, and then take to its south. His intention was to bring relief to German Protestants, who had been severely defeated a few weeks earlier in the Battle of Dessau Bridge.
With the participation of Christian IV, the Thirty Years' War, which had hitherto been confined to opposing factions of the Holy Roman Empire, now extended to other European powers, though Christian, as Duke of Holstein, was not a complete foreigner.
Christian IV, in an attempt to take advantage of the absence of Albrecht von Wallenstein, set out to attack Tilly's army in late July 1626. In response, Tilly took the important Protestant fortresses at Münden, Northeim, and Göttingen to draw Christian into a battle.While Christian's force encountered little resistance at first as it moved southwards, Wallenstein eventually listened to Tilly's calls for reinforcements, sending him an additional 4,300 soldiers. The Lower Saxon forces and Danes, demoralized, exhausted, and hungry, had no intention of fighting a major battle against a superior force, especially since the fortresses they planned to defend had already fallen, but torrential rain, muddy roads, and a refusal to let go of their valuable baggage hindered their retreat. By 26 August Christian had decided to make his stand between the small villages of Hahausen and Lutter am Barenberge.
In the opening artillery engagement on the morning of 27 August, Christian only utilized two of his twenty-two field guns, while Tilly bombarded the Danes while the rest of his army came up. The main action opened as Count Anholt lead an assault by crossing the Hummecke stream, still wet despite the summer heat drying out nearby streams, and attacking the Danish left. Christian was untangling the baggage train, prompting Maurice of Hesse's son Philip to approve an unauthorized counter-attack. After being just barely being beaten back by the Catholic infantry, the Lower Saxons and Danes lost all organisation when they returned to their former positions, which left the Dano-Lower Saxon infantry vulnerable when Tilly ordered his center to cross the stream and capture Christian's artillery. Native regiments under Christians command were decimated and forced to surrender while allowing his second and third lines to retreat. In addition to men, Christian lost two wagons loaded with gold and Philipp of Hessen-Kassel and his elite general General Fuchs. Christian, after having four horses shot out from under him, fled to Wolfenbüttel with what remained of his own cavalry.
The battle was an irreparable blow to Christian IV, Denmark and the Lutheran states in the Lower Saxon Circle. All Lower Saxon states, except those of Mecklenburg and Holstein, refused Christian their further allegiance. Catholic forces conquered the Lutheran Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, threatened the Calvinist city of Bremen, took the Lutheran Westphalian Prince-Bishopric of Verden. Tilly's troops however, were far too tired to deliver a knock-out blow, giving their enemies time to recuperate.
Christian's defeat cut off Ernst von Mansfeld, whose army was now stranded in the Tatra mountains waiting for reinforcements from Bethlen of Transylvannia.The defeat forced the Protestant German princes to sue for peace, but instead, Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution which encouraged Sweden to enter the war.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It resulted in the deaths of over 8 million people, including 20 percent of the German population, making it one of the most destructive conflicts in human history, Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers. These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence and a Habsburg attempt to rebuild the imperial authority in Germany.
The Battle of White Mountain was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.
Frederick V was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and reigned as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620. He was forced to abdicate both roles, and the brevity of his reign in Bohemia earned him the derisive sobriquet "the Winter King".
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein, also von Waldstein, was a Bohemian military leader and statesman who fought on the Catholic side during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). His successful martial career made him one of the richest and most influential men in the Holy Roman Empire by the time of his death. Wallenstein became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand II and was a major figure of the Thirty Years' War.
The Catholic League was a coalition of Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire formed 10 July 1609. While initially formed as a confederation to act politically to negotiate issues vis-à-vis the Protestant Union, modelled on the more intransigent ultra-Catholic French Catholic League (1576), it was subsequently concluded as a military alliance "for the defence of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire".
Peter Ernst, count of Mansfeld, or simply Ernst von Mansfeld, was a German military commander who, despite being a Catholic, fought for the Protestants during the early years of the Thirty Years' War.
Lutter am Barenberge is a market town (Flecken) located in the Goslar district of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Samtgemeinde Lutter am Barenberge
Christian the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, a member of the House of Welf, titular Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt, was a German Protestant military leader during the early years of the Thirty Years' War, fighting against the forces of the Imperial House of Habsburg, Habsburg Spain, and the Catholic League.
The Battle of Dessau Bridge was a significant battle of the Thirty Years' War between Danish Protestants and the Imperial German Catholic forces on the Elbe River outside Dessau, Germany on 25 April 1626.
George Frederick of Baden-Durlach was Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1604 until his abdication in 1622. He also ruled Baden-Baden.
Treaty or Peace of Lübeck ended the Danish intervention in the Thirty Years' War. It was signed in Lübeck on 22 May 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein and Christian IV of Denmark, and on 7 June by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. The Catholic League was formally included as a party. It restored to Denmark-Norway its pre-war territory at the cost of final disengagement from imperial affairs.
The Siege of Stralsund was a siege laid on Stralsund by Albrecht von Wallenstein's Imperial Army during the Thirty Years' War, from May to 4 August 1628. Stralsund was aided by Denmark and Sweden, with considerable Scottish participation. The siege ended Wallenstein's series of victories, and contributed to his downfall. The Swedish garrison in Stralsund was the first on German soil in history. The battle marked the de facto entrance of Sweden into the war.
The Battle of Wolgast was an engagement in the Thirty Years' War, fought on 22 August (O.S.) or 2 September (N.S.) 1628 near Wolgast, Duchy of Pomerania, Germany.
John Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp was the Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck and the Prince-Bishopric of Verden.
The Capitulation of Franzburg was a treaty providing for the capitulation of the Duchy of Pomerania to the forces of the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War. It was signed on 10 November (O.S.) or 20 November (N.S.) 1627 by Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania and Hans Georg von Arnim, commander in chief of an occupation force belonging to the army of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, led by Albrecht von Wallenstein. While the terms of the capitulation were unfavourable for the Duchy of Pomerania already, occupation became even more burdensome when the occupation force did not adhere to the restrictions outlined in Franzburg. Stralsund resisted with Danish, Swedish and Scottish support, another Danish intervention failed. Imperial occupation lasted until Swedish forces invaded in 1630, and subsequently cleared all of the Duchy of Pomerania of imperial forces until 1631.
The Palatinate campaign, or the Spanish conquest of the Palatinate took place from 1620 to 1622, the Palatinate Phase of the Thirty Years' War.
Philipp von Mansfeld, was Graf von Mansfeld, Vorderort and Bornstedt who commanded troops during the Thirty Years' War. He first fought on the side of the Swedish Empire under his second-cousin, was captured, changed allegiance and raised a navy for General Albrecht von Wallenstein. Later, he commanded troops as Feldmarschall of the Holy Roman Empire.
John Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg[-Güstrow] was a Duke of Mecklenburg. From 1608 to 1611, he was the nominal ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; the actual ruler being the regent, his great-uncle Charles I. From 1611 to 1621 John Albert and his brother Adolf Frederick I jointly ruled the whole Duchy of Mecklenburg. From 1621, John Albert ruled Mecklenburg-Güstrow alone.
Count Heinrich von Schlick zu Bassano und Weißkirchen was an Imperial Field Marshal and president of the Hofkriegsrat.
Johann Philipp Kratz von Scharffenstein was a German nobleman and field marshal, who fought during the course of the Thirty Years' War. He served with distinction in forces of both the Catholic League and Holy Roman Empire. His poor relationship with the Imperial generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein frustrated his plan of becoming the supreme commander of the League's forces. Embittered by this he defected to Sweden, where he attained the rank of field marshal. He was captured at the Battle of Nördlingen (1634) and executed for treason a year later.