Capture of Mannheim

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Capture of Mannheim
Part of the Thirty Years' War
Wappen Mannheim.svg
Coat of arms of the city of Mannheim.
Date20 October – 2 November 1622
Location Mannheim, Electorate of Palatinate
(present-day Germany)
Result Imperial-Spanish victory [1]
Belligerents
Flag of The Electoral Palatinate (1604).svg Electoral Palatinate
Flag of England.svg  Kingdom of England
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
Commanders and leaders
Flag of England.svg Horace Vere
Flag of England.svg John Burroughs
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Count of Tilly

The Capture of Mannheim took place on 2 November 1622, by the Imperial-Spanish army commanded by Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly against the Protestant troops under the Englishman Sir Horace Vere during the Thirty Years' War. [2]

Thirty Years War War between 1618 and 1648; with over 8 million fatalities

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945; one of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire.

Contents

Background

In September, 1620, the Imperial-Spanish troops led by the Count of Tilly and Don Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba invaded and conquered the Lower Palatinate. The Protestant garrison under Sir Horace Vere held Frankenthal, Mannheim and Heidelberg, but the rest of the Palatinate fell into Spanish hands. [3]

Electoral Palatinate historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire

The County Palatine of the Rhine, later the Electorate of the Palatinate or simply Electoral Palatinate, was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine. Its rulers served as prince-electors (Kurfürsten) from time immemorial, were noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, and were confirmed as electors by the Golden Bull of 1356.

Frankenthal Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Frankenthal (Pfalz) is a town in southwestern Germany, in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

On 19, September, 1622, the Imperial-Spanish army defeated the Protestant troops under Sir Gerard Herbert at Heidelberg and the Catholic army went on to conquer the town. [2] [3]

Sir Gerard Herbert was an English commander during the Eighty Years' War and the Thirty Years' War. He participated in the Siege of Heidelberg (1622) and was defeated by the Imperial-Spanish troops of Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly and Don Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba.

Heidelberg Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Heidelberg is a university town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, with roughly a quarter of its population being students.

Siege of Mannheim

The Spanish continued their progress towards Mannheim. The city was defended by the Anglo-German-Protestants troops commanded by Horace Vere. The Count of Tilly subjected Manheim to a siege, and the Imperial-Spanish forces swiftly defeated the Protestant troops. The city was conquered by the Spaniards, and Vere, and a few hundred of his men, retired to the citadel. [2] Finally, and without hope of reinforcements, Vere was forced to capitulate. [1] Just Frankenthal remained under control of the Protestants commanded by Sir John Burroughs, but was taken one year later by the Spanish troops under Don Guillermo Verdugo. [2] [3]

Mannheim Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Mannheim is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants. The city is at the centre of the larger densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region which has a population of 2,400,000 and is Germany's eighth-largest metropolitan region.

Protestantism division within Christianity, originating from the Reformation in the 16th century against the Roman Catholic Church, that rejects the Roman Catholic doctrines of papal supremacy and sacraments

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.

Sir John Burroughs English Army officer

Sir John Burgh was a 17th-century English soldier and military commander in the Protestant army commanded by Horace Vere in the Electorate of the Palatinate, during the Eighty Years' War and the Thirty Years' War.

Aftermath

Sir Horace Vere by Michiel van Mierevelt. Sir Horace Vere - Horatius Veer (1565-1635).jpg
Sir Horace Vere by Michiel van Mierevelt.

The courage displayed by Horace Vere against great odds was recognised in England, when the General returned early in February, 1623, even if his salary and expenses were never paid in full by the treasury. [2] On 16 February 1623, he was appointed Master-General of the Ordnance for life, and he became a member of the Council of War on 20 July 1624. [2]

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The Master-General of the Ordnance (MGO) was a very senior British military position from 1415 to 2013 with some changes to the name, usually held by a serving general. The Master-General of the Ordnance was responsible for all British artillery, engineers, fortifications, military supplies, transport, field hospitals and much else, and was not subordinate to the commander-in chief of the British military. In March 2013 the holder was titled as "Director Land Capability and Transformation", but still sat on the Army Board as Master-General of the Ordnance; in September 2013 the post was eliminated.

In 1624, Vere travelled once more to The Hague in order to second Prince Maurice of Orange in the defence of the important fortress of Breda, under siege by the Spaniards under Don Ambrosio Spinola from August. [2]

The Hague City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat of government of the Netherlands.

Breda City and municipality in North Brabant, Netherlands

Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant. The name derived from brede Aa and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Polišenský/Snider. War and society in Europe (1618-1648)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Horace Vere (DNB00)
  3. 1 2 3 Polišenský/Snider p.90

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References