|Battle of Xuzhou|
|Part of the Second Sino-Japanese War|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Li Zongren |
Wang Mingzhang †
| Shunroku Hata |
| Military Region 1 |
Military Region 5
| North China Area Army |
Central China Expeditionary Army
|600,000 troops in 64 divisions||240,000 troops in 8 divisions|
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Xuzhou (Chinese :徐州會戰) was a military conflict between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China forces in May 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
In 1937 the North China Area Army had chased Song Zheyuan's 29th Army to the south along the Jinpu Railway (see Tianjin–Pukou Railway Operation) after his defeat in the Battle of Lugou Bridge. After Japan won the Battle of Nanjing, the North China Area Army advanced southward to establish a Japanese connection between Beijing and Nanjing, ignoring the non-expansionist policy of the Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo. Most mechanized and air forces in eastern China were wiped out in the Battle of Shanghai, which concluded in late November 1937. Although new equipment was purchased, it had yet to be shipped. Han Fuqu, the chairman of the Shandong province, rejected orders from Chiang Kai-shek and kept retreating to preserve his force. After Qingdao was occupied in January 1938, Han's policy was denounced and he was executed on 24 January. In March 1938 Japanese forces occupied the north of Shandong, including the capital city Jinan. The defense line along the Yellow River was torn apart. Due to pressure from Japanese forces, 64 Chinese divisions gathered around Xuzhou in Jiangsu, the headquarters of 5th Military Region of the National Revolutionary Army. Without surrounding it, Gen. Itagaki Seishiro moved south first to attack Tai'erzhuang, where he was defeated by Li Zongren in a regional asymmetric battle.
Following this defeat, Japan intended an encirclement against Xuzhou and deployed the North China Area Army to the north and the Central China Expeditionary Army to the south. The North China Area Army had four divisions and two infantry brigades drawn from the Kwantung Army. Central China Expeditionary Army had three divisions and the 1st and 2nd Tank Battalions with motorized support units formed into the Iwanaka and Imada Detachments, which were ordered to advance to the west of Xuzhou to cut off and prevent Chinese forces from withdrawing towards the west. The 5th Tank Battalion was used to support the 3rd Infantry Division advancing north along the railway to Xuzhou. Additional troops were deployed in the Battle of Northern and Eastern Henan by the North China Area Army to stop Chinese reinforcements from the west. A Chinese counterattack here resulted in the Battle of Lanfeng. However, with the approach of the Central China Expeditionary Army from the south, the overall situation was grim, and Chiang Kai-shek ordered the withdrawal of the armies. The demolition of the dykes holding back the Yellow River allowed him more time for the preparation of the defense of Wuhan, but the resulting 1938 Yellow River flood also destroyed much of the area around the new course of the river and claimed appalling losses among chinese civilians: est. 400,000–500,000 dead and 3 million refugees.
The Japanese army won the fierce battle and ultimately captured Xuzhou, but Japanese forces were too small to contain the large number of encircled Chinese troops. Most of the Chinese soldiers broke through the encirclement through gaps in the Japanese lines to the west or dispersed into the countryside as guerrillas. By successfully breaking out of the Japanese encirclement, the Chinese were able to preserve most of their forces. These units would form approximately 50% of the Chinese forces participating in the Defense of Wuhan.
The Battle of Changsha was Japan's second attempt at taking the city of Changsha, China, the capital of Hunan Province, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Nanchang was a military campaign fought around Nanchang, Jiangxi between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Japanese Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was the first major conflict to occur following the Battle of Wuhan.
The Battle of Wuhan (武漢之戰), popularly known to the Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Engagements took place across vast areas of Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Hubei provinces over a period of four and a half months. This battle was the longest, largest and arguably the most significant battle in the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War. More than one million National Revolutionary Army troops from the Fifth and Ninth War Zone were put under the direct command of Chiang Kai-shek, defending Wuhan from the Central China Area Army of the Imperial Japanese Army led by Shunroku Hata. Chinese forces were also supported by Soviet Volunteer Group, a group of volunteer pilots from Soviet Air Forces.
The Battle of West Henan–North Hubei was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was fought in March–May 1945 in northern Hubei and western Henan. While it was a tactical stalemate, the battle was an operational victory for the Japanese forces, who seized control of local airbases, denying Chinese forces any localized air support.
The Battle of Lanfeng, in the Second Sino-Japanese War, was part of the larger campaign for Northern and Eastern Henan and took place at the same time as the Battle of Xuzhou was occurring.
Zhang FakuiCBE was a Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career. He served as commander-in-chief of the 8th Army Group and commander-in-chief of NRA ground force before retiring in Hong Kong in 1949.
Wang Jingjiu or Wang Ching-chiu (王敬久) (1902–1968) was a general in China's National Revolutionary Army. He commanded the 87th Division and was engaged in the Chinese Civil War and suppressing the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army in 1933. His Division became one of the Chinese-German trained Divisions forme in 1936–37. It fought under the 71st Corps at the Battle of Shanghai and Battle of Nanking. The following year he commanded 25th Corps in the Battle of Wuhan and in the Battle of Nanchang in 1939. He later commanded the 10th Army Group in the Battle of Zhejiang-Jiangxi of 1942, Western Hubei Campaign of 1943, and Western Hunan Campaign of 1945.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War the Japanese 1st Army under Lt. General Kiyoshi Katsuki drove the Chinese forces of General Cheng Qian's 1st War Area out of Northern and Eastern Honan until they were stopped by the disastrous 1938 Yellow River flood caused by the diversion of the Yellow River by the Chinese Army into the Chia-lu and Huai Rivers.
Sun Lianzhong was a Chinese general during the Warlord Era, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. Best known for his commanded of the 2nd Group Army in the Battle of Taierzhuang, he had a long career in the army.
Luo Zhuoying was a Republic of China General (二級上將). He was active during the Second Sino-Japanese War and was later the Governor of Guangdong.
The Battle of Yenangyaung was fought in Burma, now Myanmar, during the Burma Campaign in World War II. The battle of Yenaungyaung was fought in the vicinity of Yenangyaung and its oil fields.
Feng Zhanhai, or Feng Chan-hai, was one of the leaders of the volunteer armies resisting the Japanese and the puppet state of Manchukuo in northeast China. Feng was born on November 6, 1899. At eighteen he joined the Dongbei Army, and later entered a military school graduating in 1921. After he graduated, he was successively a platoon leader, company commander, and battalion commander. At the time of the Mukden Incident and Japanese invasion of northeast China he was a colonel commanding a regiment of the Kirin Guards Division.
The 106th Division was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. It has no call sign, similar to 101st division. It was formed 15 May 1938 in Kumamoto as a C-class square division. The nucleus for the formation was the 6th division headquarters. The division was originally subordinated to the Central China Expeditionary Army. Its first division commander was Lieutenant General Matsuura Junrokuro, a graduate from Japanese Army War College.
Liu Chen-san was a Chinese Nationalist General in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Liu Ruming, Liu Ju-ming, 刘汝明; 12 May 1895 – 28 April 1975) was a ROC Army general during the Warlord Era, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Feng Zhi'an was a Chinese Nationalist Lieutenant-General during the Second Sino-Japanese War, and Chinese Civil War from Hebei.
The Military Affairs Commission (MAC) of the National Government, chaired by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, directed the command of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China.
Sun Zhen was a General of the National Revolutionary Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Zhang Lingyun or Chang Ling-yun, was a general in the Chinese National Revolutionary Army during the Warlord era and Second Sino-Japanese War.