Battle of Roosebeke

Last updated
Battle of Roosebeke
Part of the Ghent Rebellion (1379-1385) and the Hundred Years' War
Slagbijrozebeke.jpg
Battle of Roosebeke (Jean Froissart, 1405)
Date27 November 1382
Location
Roosebeke, Flanders
(today Westrozebeke)
Result French victory
Belligerents
Blason France moderne.svg Kingdom of France
Arms of the Duke of Burgundy (1364-1404).svg Duchy of Burgundy
Arms of Flanders.svg County of Flanders
Blason ville be Gand (Flandre-Orientale).svg Flemish towns led by Ghent
Commanders and leaders
Blason France moderne.svg Charles VI of France
Arms of the Duke of Burgundy (1364-1404).svg Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy
Blason Clisson.svg Olivier de Clisson
Blason Maison de Sancerre.svg Louis de Sancerre
Blason Jean Mauquenchy, Seigneur de Blainville.svg Mouton de Blainville
Blason ville be Gand (Flandre-Orientale).svg Philip van Artevelde  
Strength

10,000 [1]

  • 6,500 men-at-arms
  • 2,000 pikemen
  • 1,200 crossbowmen and archers
30,000–40,000 [2]
Casualties and losses
100 killed [3] 27,500 killed [3]

The Battle of Roosebeke (sometimes referred by its contemporary name as Battle of Westrozebeke) took place on 27 November 1382 on the Goudberg between a Flemish army under Philip van Artevelde and a French army under Louis II of Flanders who had called upon the help of the French king Charles VI after he had suffered a defeat during the Battle of Beverhoutsveld. The Flemish army was defeated, Philip van Artevelde was slain and his corpse was put on display.

Contents

Prelude

Philip the Bold had ruled the council of regents from 1380 till 1388, and ruled France during the childhood years of Charles VI, who was Philip's nephew. He deployed the French army in Westrozebeke to suppress a Flemish rebellion led by Philip van Artevelde, who intended to dispose of Louis II of Flanders. Philip II was married to Margaret of Flanders, Louis' daughter.

Ghent

Ghent had rebelled against Count Louis II of Flanders. The Count surrounded the city, and when the citizens of Ghent asked for terms, Louis demanded that all men between the ages of 15 and 60 must present themselves with halters around their necks. The count would then decide whom he would pardon and whom he would execute. The men of Ghent determined to fight and on 3 May 1382, under the leadership of Philip Van Artevelde, they issued from their city and smashed Louis' overconfident army at the Battle of Beverhoutsveld. [4]

Opposing forces

The French nobility, facing an incipient peasant revolt at home, felt forced to move against the upstart Flemish commoners. The French royal party patched up its differences with the unruly citizens of Paris and mounted an expedition on behalf of the Count of Flanders. The French put together a force of 10,000 men south of Arras in early November. [1] It contained 6,500 men-at-arms, 2,000 pikemen and 1,500 crossbowmen and archers. [1] Philip the Bold financed and provided one fifth of the force. [1] The army included King Charles VI and the dukes of Burgundy, Bourbon and Berry, lords Clisson, Sancerre, Coucy, and other notables. The Oriflamme was carried for the first time since the Battle of Poitiers. [5] A second army, smaller than the first, was assembled to the north at Lille under Count Louis II. [1]

Philip van Artevelde had 30,000–40,000 men, mostly urban levies. [2] His army was besieging Daniel Halewyn's garrison at Oudenaarde. [2] Van Artevelde left a skeleton force to continue the siege and deployed the main part of his force west of Lille. [2]

Action at Comines

On 12 November, the French army began making its way to the north. [6] At the Lys River near the town of Comines, the French army was held up by 900 Flemish soldiers commanded by Peter van den Bossche and Peter de Winter. Van Artevelde told the population of Ypres that the French would never cross the Lys. [2] Since the only bridge was broken, Olivier de Clisson ferried a party of 400 French knights across the river. These volunteers spent an anxious night, then joined battle in the morning. Soon the bridge was rebuilt, the bulk of the French army crossed and the superior force quickly put the Flemish spearmen to flight. Van den Bossche was wounded in the struggle but managed to escape. After this skirmish, a number of Flemish towns sued for peace, paying a stiff ransom to the French king. [7]

Battle

Dead body of Philip van Artevelde at the Battle of Roosebeke. Illustration from 1885. Filips van Artevelde 001.png
Dead body of Philip van Artevelde at the Battle of Roosebeke. Illustration from 1885.

van Artevelde decided to make camp on a hill, the Goudberg, situated between Oostnieuwkerke and Passendale. The French troops lay on the other side of the hill.

On the morning of 27 November, van Artevelde planned to make use of the dense fog and attack the French. To prevent a breakthrough by enemy cavalry he ordered his men to advance in a tight square formation. The French had not forgotten the Battle of the Golden Spurs, and first engaged the Flemings with a wave of infantry. Van Artevelde managed to repel that attack and decided to attack the French.

The French commander, Olivier de Clisson, reacted by attacking his opponent's unsecured flanks with heavy cavalry. This caused a panic in the Flemish rear which started to flee. The main body of Flemish troops had no other option than to form a circle. They were pushed back and eventually defeated and Philip van Artevelde was killed.

Aftermath

Philip II could not gain any advantage from this victory. He would become count of Flanders in late January 1384 and needed the economic power of rebellious Ghent. The rebellion lasted till 8 December 1385, when the peace of Tournai was signed.

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Sumption 2009, p. 479.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Sumption 2009, p. 480.
  3. 1 2 Sumption 2009, p. 485.
  4. Tuchman, p. 383.
  5. Tuchman, p. 387.
  6. Sumption 2009, p. 481.
  7. Tuchman, pp. 387-389.

Related Research Articles

Philip the Bold Duke of Burgundy

Philip II the Bold was Duke of Burgundy and jure uxoris Count of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy. He was the fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg.

Jacob van Artevelde Flemish statesman and political leader

Jacob van Artevelde, also known as The Wise Man and the Brewer of Ghent, was a Flemish statesman and political leader.

Battle of the Golden Spurs 1302 battle of the Franco-Flemish War

The Battle of the Golden Spurs was a military confrontation between the royal army of France and rebellious forces of the County of Flanders on 11 July 1302 during the Franco-Flemish War (1297–1305). It took place near the town of Kortrijk (Courtrai) in modern-day Belgium and resulted in an unexpected victory for the Flemish. It is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Courtrai.

Philip van Artevelde Flemish patriot

Philip van Artevelde was a Flemish patriot, the son of Jacob van Artevelde. Because of his father's prominence he was godson of English queen Philippa of Hainault, who held him in her arms during his baptism.

Frans Ackerman, Latinized Franciscus Agricola, was one of the most famous Flemish statesmen and military leaders of the 14th century.

Louis I, Count of Flanders

Louis I was Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel.

1323–1328 Flemish revolt

The Flemish peasant revolt of 1323–1328, sometimes referred to as the Flemish coast uprising in historical writing, was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe. Beginning as a series of scattered rural riots in late 1323, peasant insurrection escalated into a full-scale rebellion that dominated public affairs in Flanders for nearly five years until 1328. The uprising in Flanders was caused by both excessive taxations levied by the Count of Flanders Louis I, and by his pro-French policies. The insurrection had urban leaders and rural factions which took over most of Flanders by 1325.

Louis II, Count of Flanders

Louis II, also known as Louis of Male, a member of the House of Dampierre, was count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel from 1346 as well as count of Artois and Burgundy from 1382 until his death.

Westrozebeke

Westrozebeke is a village in the Belgian province of West Flanders. It is part of the municipality of Staden. It is located 6 miles (10 km) west of Roeselare and 9.5 miles (15 km) north-east of Ypres. It's a typical agricultural village with many farms.

Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy Countess of Burgundy and Artois

Margaret I was a Capetian princess who ruled as countess of Burgundy and Artois from 1361 until her death. She was also countess of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel by marriage to Louis I of Flanders, and regent of Flanders during the minority of her son, Louis II, in 1346.

Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge 1305 treaty ending the Franco-Flemish War

The Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge was a peace treaty signed on 23 June 1305 between King Philip IV of France and Robert III of Flanders. The treaty was signed at Athis-sur-Orge after the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle and concluded the Franco-Flemish War (1297-1305).

Battle of Saint-Omer Major field battle of the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Saint-Omer, fought on 26 July 1340, was a major engagement which occurred in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War. It was a part of King Edward III's summer campaign against France launched from Flanders. The campaign was initiated in the aftermath of the Battle of Sluys but turned out to be far less successful than he hoped. At Saint-Omer, in an unexpected turn of events, the heavily outnumbered French men-at-arms, tasked with defending the city and awaiting for reinforcements, defeated the Anglo-Flemish forces on their own. The Allies suffered heavy losses and the French captured their camp intact, taking many warhorses and carts, all the tents, huge quantities of stores and most of the Flemish standards. Edward's campaign of 1340 had begun badly. On the bright side, the loss of several thousand men was bearable, as the survivors, which included most of the precious English longbowmen, eventually rejoined him at Tournai. The defeat had serious strategic consequences. It exposed southern Flanders to the wrath of Philip VI and enabled the French to concentrate their forces against the main army of the coalition in the Tournaisis.

Battle of Beverhoutsveld

The Battle of Beverhoutsveld took place on 3 May 1382, on a field situated between the towns of Beernem, Oostkamp and Assebroek. It marked an important phase in the rebellion of Ghent against Louis II, Count of Flanders.

Poeke Castle

Poeke Castle is a castle near Poeke, a small town in the municipality of Aalter in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The castle, standing in 56 hectares of park, is surrounded by water and is accessible through bridges at the front and rear of the building. Poeke Castle is situated at an elevation of 15 meters.

Kortrijk Municipality in Flemish Region, Belgium

Kortrijk, known in English as Courtrai or Courtray, is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders.

Battle of Cassel (1328) 1328 battle of the Flemish Coast Uprising

On 23 August 1328, the Battle of Cassel took place near the city of Cassel, 30 km south of Dunkirk in present-day France. Philip VI fought Nicolaas Zannekin, a wealthy farmer from Lampernisse. Zannekin was the leader of a band of Flemish independence rebels. The fighting erupted over taxation and punitive edicts of the French over the Flemish. The battle was won decisively by the French. Zannekin and about 3,200 Flemish rebels were killed in the battle.

Louis de Sancerre 14th-century French military officer

Louis de Sancerre was a Marshal of France and Constable of France during the Hundred Years' War.

County of Flanders Historical region in present-day Belgium and the Netherlands during the Middle Ages

The County of Flanders was an historic territory in the Low Countries.

The English expedition to Flanders (1297–1298) was an English expedition to Flanders that lasted from August 1297 until March 1298. King Edward I of England in an alliance with Guy, Count of Flanders, as part of the wider Anglo-French War (1294–1303), led an English force to Flanders, hoping to form military alliances and support to lead a combined force against King Philip IV of France. The expedition was difficult and expensive for Edward, but enough of his allies went into action to gain a truce from the French. After a peace was reached with King Philip IV of France, Edward left Flanders in March 1298.

Sir Oudart I de Renti, Lord of Embry, Curlu, Affringues, and Vaudringhem was a French nobleman.

References

Coordinates: 50°47′27″N04°54′06″E / 50.79083°N 4.90167°E / 50.79083; 4.90167