Tallinn

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Tallinn
Tallinn montage1.jpg
From top: Old Town, KUMU, Tallinn Song Festival Grounds, Kadriorg Palace, Viru Gate, City Center
Flag of Tallinn.svg
Flag
Tallinn wapen.svg
Coat of arms
Tallinn city logo.svg
Logo
Estonia relief map.png
Red pog.svg
Tallinn
Location within Estonia
Baltic states location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tallinn
Location within the Baltics
Coordinates: 59°26′14″N24°44′43″E / 59.43722°N 24.74528°E / 59.43722; 24.74528 Coordinates: 59°26′14″N24°44′43″E / 59.43722°N 24.74528°E / 59.43722; 24.74528
CountryFlag of Estonia.svg  Estonia
County Flag of et-Harju maakond.svg Harju
First appeared on map1154
Town rights1248
Government
  Mayor Taavi Aas
  Chairman of Council Mihhail Kõlvart
Area
  Total159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi)
Elevation
9 m (30 ft)
Population
(01.03.2019) [1]
  Total440,776
  Rank 1st in Estonia
  Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
   Registration (2019) [2]
453,033
Demonym(s) Tallinner (English)
tallinlane (Estonian)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
GDP(nominal) [3] [4] 2017
 - Total€13 billion
 - Per capita€29,300($53,000 PPP)
HDI (2017)0.912 [5] very high
Website tallinn.ee/eng

Tallinn ( /ˈtɑːlɪn, ˈtælɪn/ ; [6] [7] [8] Estonian:  [ˈtɑlʲˑinˑ] ; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918 (and briefly during the Nazi occupation of Estonia from 1941 to 1944), the city was known as Reval. [9] Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 453,033. [10]

Estonia Republic in Northern Europe

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

Gulf of Finland arm of the Baltic Sea

The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland and Estonia all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki and Tallinn. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg. As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia. Some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf.

Harju County County of Estonia

Harju County, or Harjumaa is one of the fifteen counties of Estonia. It is situated in Northern Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, and borders Lääne-Viru County to the east, Järva County to the southeast, Rapla County to the south, and Lääne County to the southwest. The capital and largest city of Estonia, Tallinn, is situated in Harju County.

Contents

Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, [11] but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years. [12] The initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219, after a successful raid of Lindanise led by Valdemar II of Denmark, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub, especially from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League.

Valdemar II of Denmark

Valdemar II, called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror, was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241. The nickname Sejr is a later invention and was not used during the King's own lifetime. Sejr means victory in Danish.

Scandinavia Region in Northern Europe

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.

Teutonic Order Medieval military order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [13] Tallinn is the major political, financial, cultural and educational center of Estonia. Often dubbed the Silicon Valley of Europe, [14] it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe [15] and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype. The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency. [16] Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. It is ranked as a global city and has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world. [17] According to the Global Financial Centres Index Tallinn is the most competitive financial center in Northern Europe and ranks 52nd internationally. The city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku in Finland.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th through the 15th centuries

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

UNESCO Specialised agency of the United Nations

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

Etymology

Historical names

In 1154, a town called قلون (Qlwn [18] or Qalaven, possibly derivations of Kalevan or Kolyvan) [19] [20] was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Arab cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of 'Astlanda'. It was suggested that Quwri may have denoted a predecessor of the modern city. [21] [22] The earliest names of Tallinn include Kolyvan (Russian: Колывань), which is known from East Slavic chronicles and which may have come from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev. [23] [24] However, modern historians consider connecting al-Idrisi placename(s) with Tallinn unfounded and erroneous. [25] [11] [26] [27]

Cartography The study and practice of making maps

Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

Muhammad al-Idrisi Medieval Arab geographer

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi, was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II. Muhammed al-Idrisi was born in Ceuta then belonging to the Moroccan Almoravids.

In Estonian mythology and Kreutzwald's epic poem Kalevipoeg, King Kalev was the father of King Kalevipoeg and the husband of Linda.

Up to the 13th century, the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa (or Lyndanisse in Danish, [28] [29] [30] Lindanäs in Swedish and Ledenets in Old East Slavic). This name may have been derived from Linda, the mythical wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg, [31] who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave, which formed the Toompea hill. [32] It has been also suggested that the archaic Estonian word linda is similar to the Votic word lidna 'castle, town'. According to this suggestion, nisa would have the same meaning as niemi 'peninsula', producing Kesoniemi, the old Finnish name for the city. [33]

Danish language North Germanic language spoken in Denmark

Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status. Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina. Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language.

Swedish language North Germanic language spoken in Sweden

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.

Common Eastern Slavic, Common Russian or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'. Dialects of it were spoken, though not exclusively, in the area today occupied by Belarus, central and northern Ukraine, and parts of western Russia. It is descended from Proto-Slavic.

Another ancient historical name for Tallinn is Rääveli in Finnish. The Icelandic Njal's saga mentions Tallinn and calls it Rafala, which is probably based on the primitive form of Revala. This name originated from Latin Revelia ( Revala or Rävala in Estonian), the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German, Swedish and Danish languages as Reval (Latin : Revalia). Reval was in use until 1918.

Iceland island republic in Northern Europe

Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, and many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate.

Revala

Revala was an Ancient Estonian county. It was located in the northern Estonia, by the Gulf of Finland and corresponded roughly to the present territory of Harju County. It was conquered by the Danish in 1219 during the Estonian Crusade. It also contained the town of Lindanise, nowadays known as Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Modern name

The lesser coat of arms of Tallinn, which depicts the Dannebrog cross. Coat of arms of Tallinn (small).svg
The lesser coat of arms of Tallinn, which depicts the Dannebrog cross.

The name Tallinn(a) is Estonian. It is usually thought to be derived from Taani-linn(a), (meaning 'Danish-town) (Latin : Castrum Danorum ), after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could also have come from tali-linna ('winter-castle or town'), or talu-linna ('house/farmstead-castle or town'). The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod, originally meant 'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names.

The previously-used official names in German Loudspeaker.svg Reval   and Russian Revel (Ревель) were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918.

At first, both forms Tallinna and Tallinn were used. [34] The United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. [35] Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam ('the Port of Tallinn').

In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин [36] (Tallin) by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, and this spelling is still officially sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence. The form Таллин is also used in several other languages in some of the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union. Due to the Russian spelling, the form Tallin is sometimes found in international publications; it is also the official form in Spanish. [37]

Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish, Tallina in Latvian and Talinas in Lithuanian.

History

Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Reval-8371.jpg
Criteria Cultural: ii, iv
Reference 822
Inscription1997 (21st Session)
Area113ha
Buffer zone2,253 ha
Historical affiliations
The Danish flag falling from the sky in the 1219 Battle of Lindanise. Danmarks flag 1219 Lorentzen.jpg
The Danish flag falling from the sky in the 1219 Battle of Lindanise.
Seal of Reval, 1340 Revals segl.svg
Seal of Reval, 1340

The first traces of human settlement [12] found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5,000 years old. The comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BCE. [38]

Old Thomas is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn Tallinn Vana Toomas 1530 (2009).JPG
Old Thomas is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn
Port of Reval in 1853 Alexey Bogolybov - Port of Tallinn (1853).jpg
Port of Reval in 1853

Around 1050, the first fortress was built on Tallinn Toompea. [19]

As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219.

In 1285, the city, then known as Reval, became the northern most member of the Hanseatic League  – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe. The Danes sold Reval along with their other land possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346. Medieval Reval enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between Western and Northern Europe and Russia. The city, with a population of 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers.

A weather vane, the figure of an old warrior called Old Thomas, was put on top of the spire of the Tallinn Town Hall in 1530 that became the symbol for the city.

With the start of the Protestant Reformation the German influence became even stronger as the city was converted to Lutheranism. In 1561, Reval politically became a dominion of Sweden.

During the Great Northern War, plague stricken Tallinn along with Swedish Estonia and Livonia capitulated to Imperial Russia in 1710, but the local self-government institutions (Magistracy of Reval and Chivalry of Estonia) retained their cultural and economical autonomy within Imperial Russia as the Governorate of Estonia. The Magistracy of Reval was abolished in 1889. The 19th century brought industrialization of the city and the port kept its importance. During the last decades of the century Russification measures became stronger. Off the coast of Reval, in June 1908, Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra of Russia, along with their children, met their mutual uncle and aunt, Britain's King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, an act which was seen as a royal confirmation of the Anglo-Russian Entente of the previous year, and which was the first time a reigning British monarch had visited Russia. [39]

On 24 February 1918, the Independence Manifesto was proclaimed in Reval, soon to be Tallinn, followed by Imperial German occupation and a war of independence with Russia. On 2 February 1920, the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed with Soviet Russia, wherein Russia acknowledged the independence of the Estonian Republic. Tallinn became the capital of an independent Estonia. After World War II started, Estonia acceded to the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1940, and later occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944. When Germany invaded there were about 1,000 remaining Jews in the city, nearly all of whom would die in the Holocaust at the hands of the Nazis before the war's end. [40] After the Nazi retreat in 1944, it was annexed by the USSR. After annexation into the Soviet Union, Tallinn became the capital of the Estonian SSR.

During the 1980 Summer Olympics, the sailing (then known as yachting) events were held at Pirita, north-east of central Tallinn. Many buildings, such as the "Olümpia" hotel, the new Main Post Office building, and the Regatta Centre, were built for the Olympics.

In August 1991, an independent democratic Estonian state was established and a period of quick development to a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn became the capital of a de facto independent country once again on 20 August 1991.

Tallinn has historically consisted of three parts:

The city of Tallinn has never been razed and pillaged;[ citation needed ] that was the fate of Tartu, the university town 200 km (124 mi) south, which was pillaged in 1397 by the Teutonic Order. Around 1524 Catholic churches in many towns in Estonia, including Tallinn, were pillaged as part of the Reformational fervor: this occurred throughout Europe. Although extensively bombed by Soviet air forces during the later stages of World War II, much of the medieval Old Town still retains its charm. The Tallinn Old Town (including Toompea) became a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site in 1997.

At the end of the 15th century a new 159 m (521.65 ft)[ verification needed ] high Gothic spire was built for St. Olaf's Church. Between 1549 and 1625 it may have been the tallest building in the world.[ dubious ] After several fires and subsequent periods of rebuilding, its overall height is now 123 m (403.54 ft).

Toompea loss 2014.jpg
Toompea Castle (Toompea loss)

Geography

TallinnPan.jpg
Panorama of Tallinn's City Centre

Tallinn is situated on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, in north-western Estonia.

The largest lake in Tallinn is Lake Ülemiste (9.44 km2 (3.6 sq mi)). It is the main source of the city's drinking water. Lake Harku is the second largest lake within the borders of Tallinn and its area is 1.6 square kilometres (0.6 sq mi). Tallinn does not lie on a major river. The only significant river in Tallinn is Pirita River in Pirita, a city district counted as a suburb. Historically, the small Härjapea River flowed from Lake Ülemiste through the town into the sea, but the river was diverted for sewage in the 1930s and has since completely disappeared from the cityscape. References to it still remain in the street names Jõe (from Jõgi, river) and Kivisilla (from Kivisild, stone bridge).

A limestone cliff runs through the city. It can be seen at Toompea, Lasnamäe and Astangu. However, Toompea is not a part of the cliff, but a separate hill.

The highest point in Tallinn, at 64 meters above sea level, is situated in Hiiu, Nõmme District, in the south-west of the city.

The length of the coast is 46 kilometres (29 miles). It comprises three bigger peninsulas: Kopli peninsula, Paljassaare peninsula and Kakumäe peninsula. The city has a number of public beaches, including those at Pirita, Stroomi, Kakumäe, Harku and Pikakari. [41]

Geology

The geology under the city of Tallinn is made up of rocks and sediments of different composition and age. Youngest are the Quaternary deposits. The material of these deposits are till, varved clay, sand, gravel and pebbles that are of glacial, marine and lacustrine origin. Some of the Quaternary deposits are valuable as they constitute aquifers or, as in the case of gravels and sands, are used as construction materials. The Quaternary deposits are the fill of valleys that are now buried. The buried valleys of Tallinn are carved into older rock likely by ancient rivers to be later modified by glaciers. While the valley fill is made up of Quaternary sediments the valley themselves originated from erosion that took place before the Quaternary. [42] The substrate into which the buried valleys were carved is made up of hard sedimentary rock of Ediacaran, Cambrian and Ordovician age. Only the upper layer of Ordovician rocks protrudes from the cover of younger deposits croping out in the Baltic Klint at the coast and at a few places inland. The Ordovician rocks are made up of from top to bottom of a thick layer of limestone and marlstone, then a first layer of argillite followed by first layer of sandstone and siltstone and then another layer of argillite also followed by sandstone and siltstone. In other places of the city hard sedimentary rock is only to be found beneath Quaternary sediments at depths reaching as much as 120 meters below sea level. Underlying the sedimentary rock are the rocks of the Fennoscandian Craton including gneisses and other metamorphic rocks with volcanic rock protoliths and rapakivi granites. The mentioned rocks are much older than the rest (Paleoproterozoic age) and do not crop out anywhere in Estonia. [42]

Climate

Tallinn has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, mild summers and cold, snowy winters. [43] Winters are cold but mild for its latitude, owing to its coastal location. The average temperature in February, the coldest month, is −4.3 °C (24.3 °F). During the winter months, temperatures tend to hover close to the freezing mark but mild spells of weather can push temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F), occasionally reaching above 5 °C (41 °F) while cold air masses can push temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F) an average of 6 days a year. Snowfall is common during the winter months. Winters are cloudy [44] and are characterized by low amounts of sunshine, ranging from only 0.5 hours of sunshine per day in December to 4.1 hours in March. [45] At the winter solstice daylight lasts for only 6 hours. [46]

Spring starts out cool, with freezing temperatures common in March and April but gradually becomes warmer in late May when daytime temperatures average 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) although nighttime temperatures still remain cool, averaging −1.0 to 5.2 °C (30.2 to 41.4 °F) from March to May. Snowfall is common in March and can occur in April. [44]

Summers are mild with daytime temperatures hovering around 19 to 21 °C (66 to 70 °F) and nighttime temperatures averaging between 9.6 to 12.7 °C (49.3 to 54.9 °F) from June to August. The warmest month is usually July, with an average of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). Periods of hot weather are rare during the summer months, with only 31 days per year where the temperature reaches or exceeds 21.0 °C (69.8 °F). [47] During summer, partly cloudy or clear days are common [44] and it is the sunniest season, ranging from 7.4 hours of sunshine in August to 10.1 hours in June although precipitation is higher during these months. [45] As a consequence of its high latitude, at the summer solstice, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours and 30 minutes. [48]

Fall starts out mild, with a September average of 11.3 °C (52.3 °F) and increasingly becomes cooler and cloudier towards the end of November. [44] In the early parts of fall, temperatures commonly reach 15 °C (59 °F) on some days and at least one day above 21 °C (70 °F) in September. In the latter months of fall, freezing temperatures become more common and snowfall can occur.

Tallinn receives 618 millimeters (24.3 in) of precipitation annually which is evenly distributed throughout the year although March and April are the driest months, averaging about 30 millimeters (1.2 in) while July and August are the wettest months with 74 millimeters (2.9 in) of precipitation. The average humidity is 81%, ranging from a high of 88% to a low of 69% in May. Tallinn has an average windspeed of 3.5 metres per second (11 ft/s) with winters being the windiest (around 4.0 metres per second (13 ft/s) in January) and summers being the least windy at around 2.9 m/s (9.5 ft/s) in July and August. [44] Extremes range from −31.1 °C (−24.0 °F) in January 1940 to 34.3 °C (93.7 °F) in July 1994. [44]

Climate data for Tallinn, Estonia (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)9.2
(48.6)
10.2
(50.4)
15.9
(60.6)
27.2
(81.0)
29.4
(84.9)
30.7
(87.3)
34.3
(93.7)
34.2
(93.6)
28.0
(82.4)
21.8
(71.2)
12.1
(53.8)
10.7
(51.3)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F)−1.0
(30.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
2.3
(36.1)
9.2
(48.6)
15.3
(59.5)
18.9
(66.0)
21.9
(71.4)
20.4
(68.7)
15.2
(59.4)
9.5
(49.1)
3.5
(38.3)
0.4
(32.7)
9.5
(49.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−4.3
(24.3)
−1.0
(30.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.1
(50.2)
14.1
(57.4)
17.2
(63.0)
16.0
(60.8)
11.3
(52.3)
6.5
(43.7)
1.3
(34.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
5.9
(42.6)
Average low °C (°F)−5.9
(21.4)
−7.1
(19.2)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.6
(33.1)
5.2
(41.4)
9.5
(49.1)
12.7
(54.9)
12.0
(53.6)
7.6
(45.7)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
−4.3
(24.3)
2.4
(36.3)
Record low °C (°F)−31.4
(−24.5)
−28.7
(−19.7)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−12.0
(10.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
2.4
(36.3)
−4.1
(24.6)
−10.5
(13.1)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−24.3
(−11.7)
−31.4
(−24.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)56
(2.2)
36
(1.4)
37
(1.5)
32
(1.3)
36
(1.4)
64
(2.5)
84
(3.3)
86
(3.4)
67
(2.6)
78
(3.1)
70
(2.8)
57
(2.2)
704
(27.7)
Average rainy days1089121113131417181612153
Average snowy days19181350.4000.10.12111887
Average relative humidity (%)88858173697476798285888881
Mean monthly sunshine hours 25.055.7129.3202.8292.9285.7307.4240.7151.587.428.618.81,825.8
Source #1: Estonian Weather Service [49] [50] [51] [52]
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (rainy and snowy days) [44]

Administrative districts

Districts of Tallinn Districts of Tallinn.jpg
Districts of Tallinn
DistrictPopulation
(November 2017) [53]
Area [54] Density
1. Haabersti 45,33922.26 km2 (8.6 sq mi)2,036.8/km2 (5,275.3/sq mi)
2. Kesklinn (centre)63,40630.56 km2 (11.8 sq mi)2,074.8/km2 (5,373.7/sq mi)
3. Kristiine 33,2027.84 km2 (3.0 sq mi)4,234.9/km2 (10,968.5/sq mi)
4. Lasnamäe 119,54227.47 km2 (10.6 sq mi)4,351.7/km2 (11,270.9/sq mi)
5. Mustamäe 68,2118.09 km2 (3.1 sq mi)8,431.5/km2 (21,837.5/sq mi)
6. Nõmme 39,54029.17 km2 (11.3 sq mi)1,355.5/km2 (3,510.7/sq mi)
7. Pirita 18,60618.73 km2 (7.2 sq mi)993.4/km2 (2,572.8/sq mi)
8. Põhja-Tallinn 60,20315.9 km2 (6.1 sq mi)3,786.4/km2 (9,806.6/sq mi)

For local government purposes, Tallinn is subdivided into 8 administrative districts (Estonian : linnaosad, singular linnaosa). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned to them by Tallinn legislation and statutes.

Each district government is managed by an elder (Estonian : linnaosavanem). They are appointed by the city government on the nomination of the mayor and after having heard the opinion of the administrative councils. The function of the administrative councils is to recommend to the city government and commissions of the city council how the districts should be administered.

The administrative districts are further divided into subdistricts or neighbourhoods (Estonian : asum). Their names and borders are officially defined. There are 84 subdistricts in Tallinn. [55]

Demographics

Largest ethnic groups [56]
Ethnic groupPopulation (2017)%
Estonians226,96753.21
Russians156,91536.78
Other, incl:33,2817.80
Ukrainians12,3352.89
Belarusians6,2111.43
Finns2,2510.52
Jews1,4780.34
Tatars1,0270.24
Lithuanians9290.21
Poles7880.18
Latvians7790.18
Germans6950.16
Unknown9,3752.19

The population of Tallinn on 1 January 2018 was 430,805. [57]

According to Eurostat, in 2004 Tallinn had one of the largest number of non-EU nationals of all EU member states' capital cities with Russians forming a significant minority (~37% belong to the Russian ethnic group, but a majority now hold Estonian citizenship). [58] Ethnic Estonians make up about 55% of the population (as of 2014).

The official language of Tallinn is Estonian. In 2011, 206,490 (50.1%) spoke Estonian as their native language and 192,199 (46.7%) spoke Russian as their native language. Other spoken languages include Ukrainian, Belarusian and Finnish. [59]

Year137217721816183418511881189719251959198920002005201020172018
Population3,2506,95412,00015,30024,00045,90058,800119,800283,071478,974400,378401,694406,703426,538430,805

Economy

Tornimae business area Tallinn-Tornimae.jpg
Tornimäe business area
Rotermann business district Rotermann Quarter.jpg
Rotermann business district

Tallinn is the financial and business capital of Estonia. The city has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in information technology, tourism and logistics. Over half of the Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn. [60] In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average. [61]

Information technology

In addition to longtime functions as seaport and capital city, Tallinn has seen development of an information technology sector; in its 13 December 2005, edition, The New York Times characterized Estonia as "a sort of Silicon Valley on the Baltic Sea". [62] One of Tallinn's sister cities is the Silicon Valley town of Los Gatos, California. Skype is one of the best-known of several Estonian start-ups originating from Tallinn. Many start-ups originated from the Soviet-era Institute of Cybernetics. In recent years,[ when? ] Tallinn has gradually been becoming one of the main IT centres of Europe, with the Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCD COE) of NATO, the EU Agency for large-scale IT systems and the IT development centres of large corporations, such as TeliaSonera and Kuehne + Nagel being based in the city. Smaller start-up incubators like Garage48 and Game Founders have helped to provide support to teams from Estonia and around the world looking for support, development and networking opportunities. [63]

Tourism

Tallinn receives 4.3 million visitors annually, [64] a figure that has grown steadily over the past decade.

Tallinn's Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist attraction; others include the Seaplane Harbour of Estonian Maritime Museum, the Tallinn Zoo, Kadriorg Park, and the Estonian Open Air Museum. Most of the visitors come from Europe, though Tallinn has also become increasingly visited by tourists from Russia and the Asia-Pacific region. [65]

Tallinn Passenger Port is one of the busiest cruise destinations on the Baltic Sea, serving more than 520,000 cruise passengers in 2013. [66] From year 2011 regular cruise turnarounds in cooperation with Tallinn Airport are organised.

The Tallinn Card is a time-limited ticket to visitors. It allows the holder free use of public transport, free entry to many museums and other places of interest, and discounts or free gifts from shops or restaurants.

Energy

Eesti Energia, a large oil shale to energy company, [67] has its headquarters in Tallinn. The city also hosts the headquarters of Elering, a national electric power transmission system operator and member of ENTSO-E, the Estonian natural gas company Eesti Gaas and energy holding company Alexela Energia, part of Alexela Group. Nord Pool Spot, the largest market for electrical energy in the world, established its local office in Tallinn.

Finance

SEB main building, located in Tornimae district SEB Eesti Uhispank - peahoone 2006-08-14.jpg
SEB main building, located in Tornimäe district

Tallinn is the financial centre of Estonia and also a strong economic centre in the Scandinavian-Baltic region. Many major banks, such as SEB, Swedbank, Nordea, DNB, have their local offices in Tallinn. LHV Pank, an Estonian investment bank, has its corporate headquarters in Tallinn. Two crypto-currencies exchanges officially recognized by the Estonian government, CoinMetro [68] and DX.Exchange [69] have their headquarters in Tallinn. Tallinn Stock Exchange, part of NASDAQ OMX Group, is the only regulated exchange in Estonia.

Logistics

Port of Tallinn is one of the biggest ports in the Baltic sea region. [70] Old City Harbour has been known as a convenient harbour since the 10th century[ dubious ][ verification needed ], but nowadays the cargo operations are shifted to Muuga Cargo Port and Paldiski Southern Port. There is a small fleet of oceangoing trawlers that operate out of Tallinn. [71]

Manufacturing sector

Tallinn industries include shipbuilding, machine building, metal processing, electronics, textile manufacturing. BLRT Grupp has its headquarters and some subsidiaries in Tallinn. Air Maintenance Estonia and AS Panaviatic Maintenance, both based in Tallinn Airport, provide MRO services for aircraft, largely expanding their operations in recent years.

Food processing

Liviko, the maker of Vana Tallinn liqueur, strongly associated with the city, is based in Tallinn. The headquarters of Kalev, a confectionery company and part of the industrial conglomerate Orkla Group, is located in Lehmja, southeast of Tallinn.

Retail

The city draws large numbers of shopping tourists from countries within the region. When new planned retail developments are completed, Tallinn will have almost 2 square metres of shopping floor space per inhabitant. As Estonia is already ranked third in Europe in terms of shopping center space per inhabitant, ahead of Sweden and being surpassed only by Norway and Luxembourg, it will further improve the positions of the city as the major centre of shopping. [72]

Notable headquarters

The Fahle House grouping several headquarters Fahle.jpg
The Fahle House grouping several headquarters

Among others:

Education

The buildings of Tallinn University of Technology Tallinn University of Technology.png
The buildings of Tallinn University of Technology

Institutions of higher education and science include:

Culture

Museums

Tallinn is home to more than 60 museums and galleries. [81]

Estonian Art Museum Kadrioruloss1.jpg
Estonian Art Museum

Most of them are located in Kesklinn, central district of the city and cover Tallinn's rich history. One of the most visited historical museums in Tallinn is Estonian History Museum located in Great Guild Hall at Vanalinn, the old part of the city. [82]

Mikkel Museum Kadrioru lossikompleksi koogihoone, A.Weizenbergi 28 (1).jpg
Mikkel Museum

Museum covers Estonia's history from prehistoric times up until the end of the 20th century. [83] It features film and hands-on displays that show how Estonian dwellers lived and survived. [83]

KUMU Art Museum KUMU (3538621253).jpg
KUMU Art Museum

Estonian Maritime Museum provides a detailed overview of nation's seafaring past. This museum in also located in city's Old Town, where it occupies one of Tallinn's former defensive structures - Fat Margaret's Tower. [84] Another historical museum that can be found at city's Old Town, just behind the Town Hall is Tallinn City Museum. It covers Tallinn's history from pre-history until 1991, when Estonia regained its independence. [85] Tallinn City Museum owns 9 more departments and museums around the city. [85] Tallinn's Museum of Photography that is also located just behind the Town Hall is one of its branches. It features permanent exhibition that covers 100 years of photography in Estonia. [86] Estonia's Museum of Occupation is yet another historical museum located in Tallinn's central district. It covers 52 years when Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. [87] Not far from Museum of Occupation located another museum that relates to Soviet occupation of Estonia. KGB Museum that occupies 23rd floor of Sokos Hotel Viru features equipment, uniforms and documents of Russian Secret Service agents. [88]

Tallinn is also home to two major natural science museums - Estonian Museum of Natural History and Estonian Health Care Museum; both are located in Old Town. Estonian Museum of Natural Science features several seasonal and temporary themed exhibitions that provide an overview of wildlife in Estonia and around the world. [89] Estonian Health Care Museum features permanent exhibitions on anatomy and health care. It collects and displays heritage related to the history of medicine in Estonia. [90] Estonia's capital is also home to many art and design museums. Estonian Art Museum, country's biggest art museum that was originally based in Kadriorg Palace, now consists of 4 branches - Kumu Art Museum, Kadriorg Art Museum, Mikkel Museum and Niguliste Museum. Kumu Art Museum features country's largest collection of contemporary and modern art. It also displays Estonian art starting from the early 18th century. [91] Those who are interested in Western European and Russian art may enjoy Kadriorg Art Museum collections. Museum is located in Kadriorg Palace, a beautiful Baroque building erected by Peter the Great. It stores and displays about 9,000 works of art from the 16th to 20th centuries. [92] Mikkel Museum that is also located in Kadriorg park displays a collection of mainly Western art - ceramics and Chinese porcelain donated by Johannes Mikkel in 1994. Niguliste Museum occupies former St. Nicholas' Church, Tallinn and displays collections of historical ecclesiastical art spanning nearly seven centuries from the Middle Ages to post-Reformation art. Those that are interested in design and applied art may enjoy Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design collection of Estonian contemporary designs. It displays up to 15.000 pieces of work made of textile art, ceramics, porcelain, leather, glass, jewellery, metalwork, furniture and product design. [93] In order to experience a more relaxed, culture oriented exhibits one may turn to Museum of Estonian Drinking Culture. This museum showcases the historic Luscher & Matiesen Distillery as well as the history of Estonian alcohol production. [94]

Danse Macabre by Bernt Notke on display at St. Nicholas' Church Bernt Notke Danse Macabre.jpg
Danse Macabre by Bernt Notke on display at St. Nicholas' Church

Lauluväljak

The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluvaljak) Estonia - Flickr - Jarvis-4.jpg
The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak)

The Estonian Song Festival (in Estonian: Laulupidu) is one of the largest choral events in the world[ dubious ][ verification needed ], listed by the UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. It is held every five years in July on the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) simultaneously with the Estonian Dance Festival. [95] The joint choir has comprised more than 30,000 singers performing to an audience of 80,000. [95] [96]

Often referred to as The Singing Nation, the Estonians have one of the biggest collections of folk songs in the world[ dubious ][ verification needed ], with written records of about 133,000 folk songs. [97] From 1987, a cycle of mass demonstrations featuring spontaneous singing of national songs and hymns that were strictly forbidden during the years of the Soviet occupation to peacefully resist the illegal oppression. In September 1988, a record 300,000 people, more than a quarter of all Estonians, gathered in Tallinn for a song festival. [98]

Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival

Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival (Estonian: Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival, or PÖFF), is an annual film festival held since 1997 in Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. PÖFF is the only festival in the Nordic and Baltic region with a FIAPF (International Federation of Film Producers Association) accreditation for holding an international competition programme in the Nordic and Baltic region with 14 other non-specialised festivals, such as Cannes, Berlin, Venice. With over 250 feature films screened each year and over 77500 attendances (2014), PÖFF is one of the largest film events of Northern Europe and cultural events in Estonia in the winter season. During its 19th edition in 2015 the festival screened more than 600 films (including 250+ feature-length films from 80 different countries), bringing over 900 screenings to an audience of over 80, 000 people as well as over 700 accredited guests and journalists from 50 different countries. In 2010 the festival held the European Film Awards ceremony in Tallinn.

Cuisine

World's largest kiluvoileib, some 20 m in length, created at Tallinn Town Hall Square on 15 May 2014 Kiluvoileib.IMG 4378.JPG
World's largest kiluvõileib, some 20 m in length, created at Tallinn Town Hall Square on 15 May 2014

The traditional cuisine of Tallinn is reflecting culinary traditions of the Northern Estonia, an important role of the city as a fishing port, as well as the Baltic German influence. Numerous cafés (Estonian : Kohvik) have played a major role in a social life of the city since the 19th century, as well as bars, especially in the Kesklinn district.

Marzipan industry in Tallinn has a very long history. The production of marzipan has started in the Middle Ages practically simultaneously in Tallinn and Lübeck, both members of the Hanseatic League. In 1695, marzipan was mentioned as a medicine under the designation of Panis Martius in the price lists of the Tallinn Town Hall Pharmacy. [100] The modern era of marzipan in Tallinn began in 1806, when the Swiss confectioner Lorenz Caviezel set up his confectionery on Pikk Street. In 1864 it was bought and expanded by Georg Stude and now is known as the Maiasmokk café. In the late 19th century marzipan figurines made by Reval confectioners were supplied to the Russian Imperial Family, [101] whereas nowadays along with mass production unique projects are also being made, such as a 12 kg scale model of the Estonia Theatre. [102]

Among other seafood dishes of Tallinn, the most symbolic example is "Vürtsikilu" - spicy sprats, pickled with a distinctive set of spices including black pepper, allspice and cloves. The tradition of making vürtsikilu originated presumably from city outskirts, where it began in the late 18th or the early 19th century. In 1826 Tallinn merchants exported nearly 40,000 cans of vürtsikilu to Saint Petersburg, then the capital of the Russian Empire. [103] A closely associated dish is a "Kiluvõileib" - a traditional rye bread open sandwich with a thin layer of butter and a layer of vürtsikilu as a topping. Boiled egg slices, mayonnaise and culinary herbs are optional extra toppings.

Alcoholic beverages produced in the city include beers, vodkas and liqueurs, the latter (such as Vana Tallinn) being the most characteristic. Also, the number of craft beer breweries has expanded sharply in Tallinn over the last decade, entering local and regional markets.

Tourism

St. Olaf's Church may have been the tallest building in the world from 1549 to 1625 St Olaf's church, Tallinn, July 2008.jpg
St. Olaf's Church may have been the tallest building in the world from 1549 to 1625
Stenbock House on Toompea hill is the official seat of the Government of Estonia Stenbock House.jpg
Stenbock House on Toompea hill is the official seat of the Government of Estonia
View from Toompea hill, illustrating Tallinn's mix of ancient and contemporary architecture Ayuntamiento, vistas panoramicas desde Toompea, Tallin, Estonia, 2012-08-05, DD 21.JPG
View from Toompea hill, illustrating Tallinn's mix of ancient and contemporary architecture
A Christmas market at the Town Hall square Tallinn christmas market.jpeg
A Christmas market at the Town Hall square

What can arguably be considered to be Tallinn's main attractions are located in the old town of Tallinn (divided into a "lower town" and Toompea hill) which is easily explored on foot. The eastern parts of the city, notably Pirita (with Pirita Convent) and Kadriorg (with Kadriorg Palace) districts, are also popular destinations, and the Estonian Open Air Museum in Rocca al Mare, west of the city, preserves aspects of Estonian rural culture and architecture.

Toompea – Upper Town

This area was once an almost separate town, heavily fortified, and has always been the seat of whatever power that has ruled Estonia. The hill occupies an easily defensible site overlooking the surrounding districts. The major attractions are the medieval Toompea Castle (today housing the Estonian Parliament, the Riigikogu ), the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and the Lutheran St Mary's Cathedral, also known as the Dome Church (Estonian : Toomkirik).

All-linn – Lower Town

This area is one of the best preserved medieval towns in Europe and the authorities are continuing its rehabilitation. Major sights include the Town Hall square (Estonian : Raekoja plats), the city wall and towers (notably "Fat Margaret" and "Kiek in de Kök") as well as a number of medieval churches, including St Olaf's, St. Nicholas' and the Church of the Holy Ghost.

Kadriorg

Kadriorg is 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) east of the city centre and is served by buses and trams. Kadriorg Palace, the former palace of Peter the Great, built just after the Great Northern War, now houses the foreign art department of the Art Museum of Estonia, the presidential residence and the surrounding grounds include formal gardens and woodland.

The main building of the Art Museum of Estonia, Kumu (Estonian : Kunstimuuseum, Art Museum), was built in 2006 and lies in Kadriorg park. It houses an encyclopaedic collection of Estonian art, including paintings by Carl Timoleon von Neff, Johann Köler, Eduard Ole, Jaan Koort, Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt, Henn Roode and Adamson-Eric, among others.

Pirita

This coastal district is a further 2 kilometres north-east of Kadriorg. The marina was built for the Moscow Olympics of 1980, and boats can be hired on the Pirita River. Two kilometres inland are the Botanic Gardens and the Tallinn TV Tower.

Music culture

Tallinn has a few music venues for live music such as Kultuurikatel/Kanala, Ptarmigan, Tapper, EKKM – Museum and nightlife, DM Baar. Yearly festivals like Tallinn Music Week and Stalker Festival take place.

Transport

A CAF tram operating in Tallinn TTTK 502 in Parnu highway.JPG
A CAF tram operating in Tallinn

City transport

The city operates a system of bus (73 lines), tram (4 lines) and trolley-bus (4 lines) routes to all districts. A flat-fare system is used. The ticket-system is based on prepaid RFID cards available in kiosks and post offices. In January 2013, Tallinn became the first European capital to offer a fare-free service on buses, trams and trolleybuses within the city limits. This service is available to residents who register with the municipality. [104]

Air

A Nordica aircraft landing at Tallinn Airport Nordica Canadair CRJ-900ER.jpg
A Nordica aircraft landing at Tallinn Airport

The Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport is about 4 kilometres (2 miles) from Town Hall square (Raekoja plats). There is a tram (Line Number: 4 and local bus connection between the airport and the edge of the city centre (bus no. 2). The nearest railway station Ülemiste is only 1.5 km (0.9 mi) from the airport.

The construction of the new section of the airport began in 2007 and was finished in summer 2008.

There has been a helicopter service to and from Helsinki operated by Copterline and taking 18 minutes to cross the Gulf of Finland. The Copterline Tallinn terminal is located adjacent to Linnahall, five minutes from the city center. After a crash near Tallinn in August 2005, service was suspended but restarted in 2008 with a new fleet. [105] The operator cancelled it again in December 2008, [106] on grounds of unprofitability. On 15 February 2010, Copterline filed for bankruptcy, citing inability to keep the company profitable. In 2011 Copterline started again operating the Tallinn — Helsinki flights. In 2016, Copterline OÜ filed for bankruptcy [107] and there are no scheduled helicopter flights from Tallinn.

Ferry

The port of Tallinn is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe with over 10 million people passing through in 2016. Old City Harbour, Tallinn.jpg
The port of Tallinn is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe with over 10 million people passing through in 2016.

Several ferry operators, Viking Line, Linda Line, Tallink and Eckerö Line, connect Tallinn to Helsinki, Mariehamn, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. Passenger lines connect Tallinn to Helsinki (83 km (52 mi) north of Tallinn) in approximately 2–3.5 hours by cruiseferries.
Flag of Finland.svg Helsinki, Finland
Flag of Aland.svg Mariehamn, Åland
Flag of Sweden.svg Stockholm, Sweden
Flag of Russia.svg St. Petersburg, Russia

Railroad

The Elron railway company operates train services from Tallinn to Tartu, Valga, Türi, Viljandi, Tapa, Narva, Orava, Koidula and Pärnu. Buses are also available to all these and various other destinations in Estonia, as well as to Saint Petersburg in Russia and Riga, Latvia. The Russian railways company operates a daily international sleeper train service between Tallinn — Moscow.

Tallinn also has a commuter rail service running from Tallinn's main rail station in two main directions: east (Aegviidu) and to several western destinations (Pääsküla, Keila, Riisipere, Paldiski, and Kloogaranna). These are electrified lines and are used by the Elron railroad company. Stadler FLIRT EMU and DMU units are in service since July 2013. The first electrified train service in Tallinn was opened in 1924 from Tallinn to Pääsküla, a distance of 11.2 km (7.0 mi).

The Rail Baltica project, which will link Tallinn with Warsaw via Latvia and Lithuania, will connect Tallinn with the rest of the European rail network. A tunnel has been proposed between Tallinn and Helsinki, though it remains at a planning phase.

Roads

The Via Baltica motorway (part of European route E67 from Helsinki to Prague) connects Tallinn to the Lithuanian/Polish border through Latvia.

Frequent and affordable long-distance bus routes connect Tallinn with other parts of Estonia.

On 9 October 2013, the 320-meter-long Ülemiste tunnel was first opened.

Notable people

Click on show to view the contents of this section

Pre 1900

1900 to 1930

1930 to 1950

1950 to 1970

1970 to Date

Architects and Conductors

Sport

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Tallinn participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include: [108]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Estonian Knighthood House

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