Equinor

Last updated
Equinor ASA
FormerlyStatoil (until 15 May 2018 (2018-05-15))
Type State-owned
Allmennaksjeselskap
Industry Petroleum industry
Founded14 June 1972;50 years ago (1972-06-14)
Headquarters Stavanger, Norway
Key people
Jon Erik Reinhardsen (Chair)
Anders Opedal (CEO) [1]
Products
RevenueIncrease2.svg US$90.92 billion (2021) [2]
Increase2.svg US$33.66 billion (2021) [2]
Increase2.svg US$8.58 billion (2021) [2]
Total assets Increase2.svg US$147.12 billion (2021) [2]
Total equity Increase2.svg US$39.01 billion (2021) [2]
Owner
Number of employees
21,126 (2021) [2]
Website www.equinor.com

Equinor ASA (formerly Statoil and StatoilHydro) is a Norwegian state-owned multinational energy company headquartered in Stavanger. It is primarily a petroleum company, operating in 36 countries with additional investments in renewable energy. In the 2020 Forbes Global 2000, Equinor was ranked as the 169th-largest public company in the world. [3] As of 2021, the company has 21,126 employees. [2]

Contents

The current company was formed by the 2007 merger of Statoil with the oil and gas division of Norsk Hydro. [4] As of 2017, the Government of Norway is the largest shareholder with 67% of the shares, while the rest is public stock. The ownership interest is managed by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. [5] The company is headquartered and led from Stavanger, while most of their international operations are currently led from Fornebu, outside Oslo.

The name Equinor was adopted in 2018 and is formed by combining "equi", the root for words such as equity, equality and equilibrium, and "nor", indicating that the company is of Norwegian origin. [6] The Norwegian meaning of the former name Statoil is State-Oil, indicating that the oil company is state owned. [7]

History

The heritage of Equinor derives from three major Norwegian petroleum companies Statoil, Norsk Hydro, and Saga Petroleum (the latter two merged in 1999).

Old Statoil

Den Norske Stats Oljeselskap A/S was founded as a limited company owned by the Government of Norway on 14 July 1972 by a unanimous act passed by the Norwegian parliament Stortinget. The political motivation was Norwegian participation in the oil industry on the continental shelf and to build up Norwegian competency within the petroleum industry to establish the foundations of a domestic petroleum industry. Statoil was required to discuss important issues with the Minister of Industry, later Minister of Petroleum and Energy. Statoil was also required to submit an annual report to the parliament.

In 1973, the company started work acquiring a presence in the petrochemical industry. This resulted in the development of processing plants in Rafnes and, in partnership with Norsk Hydro, the Mongstad plant in 1980. In 1981, the company acquired, as the first Norwegian company, operator rights on the Norwegian continental shelf on the Gullfaks field. 1987-88 saw the largest scandal in the company's history, the Mongstad scandal that made the until then unassailable CEO Arve Johnsen withdraw.

In the 1980s, Statoil decided to become a fully integrated petroleum company and started building the Statoil fuel station brand. The stations in Norway originated as Norol stations, while the stations in Denmark and Sweden were purchased from Esso in 1985, and the stations in Ireland were purchased from British Petroleum in 1992 and ConocoPhillips Jet in the mid '90s, then sold by Statoil to Topaz Energy in 2006. Statoil also built up a network of stations in part of Eastern Europe in the 1990s.

In 1991, a controversy arose between Statoil and local environmentalists, mainly from Natur og Ungdom and Friends of the Earth Norway, who protested the building of a new research and development centre at Rotvoll, in Trondheim, Norway, a wetlands area close to the city with significant bird life. The controversy climaxed with civil disobedience by the environmentalists, but the centre was still built.[ citation needed ]

The company was privatised and made a public limited company (allmennaksjeselskap) in 2001, becoming listed on both the Oslo Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. At the same time, it changed its name to Statoil ASA. The government retained 81.7% of the shares. Through further privatization in 2004 and 2005, the government's share was reduced to 70.9%. [8]

The Statoil/Horton case refers to the company's use of bribes in Iran in 2002–2003 in an attempt to secure lucrative oil contracts in that country. This was mainly achieved by hiring the services of Horton Investments, an Iranian consultancy firm owned by Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani, son of former Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani. Horton Investments was paid $15.2 million by Statoil to influence important political figures in Iran to grant oil contracts to Statoil. The corruption scandal was uncovered by the Norwegian paper Dagens Næringsliv on September 3, 2003.[ citation needed ] In 2006, the company accepted a $10.5 million fine for violating the U.S Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. [9]

In September 2007, Statoil and the Brazilian oil company Petrobras signed a deal aimed at expanding exploration, sub-sea, and biofuels cooperation. Under the agreement, Statoil became a partner on six offshore licenses, as well as expanding biofuels production. Petrobras and Statoil announced plans to create dozens of refineries in Brazil and the rest of the world where vegetable oil will be added to crude to create a no-sulphur fuel. On 4 March 2008, Statoil bought Anadarko Petroleum's 50% share of the Peregrino oil field for US$1.8 billion. [10]

In 2007, Statoil bought a large area in the Athabasca oil sand field in Canada after purchasing North American Oil Sands Corporation for $2.2 billion. (In 2012, Statoil had 4 oil sand licences (oljesandlisensene ) as part of the Kai Kos Deh Seh project: Leismer, Corner, Hangingstone, and Thornberry). [11]

In 2009, Statoil launched the world's first operational deep-water floating large-capacity wind turbine, Hywind. [12] The 120 metres (390 ft) tall tower with a 2.3 MW turbine was towed 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) offshore into the Amoy Fjord in 220 metres (720 ft) deep water, off of Stavanger, Norway on 9 June 2009 for a two-year test run. [13]

Hydro

In 1965, Hydro joined Elf Aquitaine and six other French companies to form Petronord to perform searches for oil and gas in the North Sea. Hydro soon became a large company in the North Sea petroleum industry, and also became operator of a number of fields, the first being Oseberg.[ citation needed ]

In the late 1980s, Hydro acquired the Mobil service stations in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, changing their name to Hydro. In 1995, Hydro merged its stations in Norway and Denmark with Texaco, creating the joint venture HydroTexaco. The service station chain was sold in 2006 to Reitangruppen. In 1999, Hydro acquired Norway's third largest petroleum company Saga Petroleum, which had major upstream operations primarily in Norway and the United Kingdom. The British operations were later sold.[ citation needed ]

Merger

The logo of StatoilHydro StatoilHydro.svg
The logo of StatoilHydro
The New York Stock Exchange on 20 June 2011, on the 10th anniversary of when Statoil's shares were listed. Statoil NYSE listing 2011 Shankbone.jpg
The New York Stock Exchange on 20 June 2011, on the 10th anniversary of when Statoil's shares were listed.

A merger proposal was announced in December 2006. [14] Under the rules of the EEA, the merger was approved by the European Union on 3 May 2007 [15] and by the Norwegian Parliament on 8 June 2007. [16] Statoil's shareholders hold 67.3% of the new company, with Norsk Hydro shareholders owning the remaining 32.7%. [15] The Norwegian Government, the biggest shareholder in both Statoil and Norsk Hydro, holds 67% of the company. [17] Jens Stoltenberg, the then Norwegian Prime Minister, commented that he viewed the merger as "the start of a new era...creating a global energy company and strengthening Norway’s oil and gas industry." [18]

It has been noted within the analyst community that a proposal will create an entity with much more competitive strength versus its much larger European rivals, including BP, Total, and Shell, while also increasing the ability of the company to make strategic acquisitions, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico. [19] It is the ninth largest oil company in the world, and would be the 48th largest company in the world on the current Fortune Global 500 list with a revenue of NOK 480 billion. [20]

The company's management team was initially to be led by President and CEO Helge Lund (who previously held the same posts at Statoil), with Eivind Reiten, the President and CEO of Hydro, acting as Chairman. [14] However, Reiten decided to resign as chairman three days after the merger because of a possible corruption case in Hydro's former oil division. The Vice-Chair and former Minister of Petroleum and Energy Marit Arnstad served as chairperson until 1 April 2008, when Svein Rennemo took up the post on a permanent basis after resigning as the CEO of the Norwegian oil services company Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS).

To reflect a merger of the two companies and with regards of the minor partner, Hydro, it was decided that the joint company should be given a new name. An actual new name was not decided upon at the time of the merger, and StatoilHydro was created for temporary usage only. The firm announced its intention to revert to the name Statoil ASA, and this was approved by the Annual General Meeting in May 2009. [21] The name was changed on 2 November 2009 [22]

The Norwegian state's share of the company after the merge was initially 62.5%. As a parliamentary decision in 2001 said it was a goal that the government should own 67% of Statoil, it was announced that the Norwegian government intended to increase its share. In 2009, it was announced that the Norwegian government had reached its goal of obtaining 67% of Statoil's share. [8]

Investments and developments after 2009

In 2010, Statoil separated its downstream business into a separate listed company Statoil Fuel & Retail. [23] [24] In 2012 Alimentation Couche-Tard bought Statoil Fuel & Retail for $2.8 billion. [25]

On 24 May 2010, Statoil sold a 40% stake in the Peregrino field to Sinochem, the Chinese state-controlled oil company, for a cash sum of $3.07 billion, but retained 60% and the operatorship.

On 7 April 2010, Statoil announced finding oil and gas reserves in the Fossekall prospect just north of the Norne oil field in the Norwegian Sea. The proved recoverable oil resources were provisionally estimated at between 37 and 63 million barrels (5,900,000 and 10,000,000 m3), while the volume of associated and free gas was estimated at between 1 and 3 billion standard cubic metres. [26]

In early June 2011, Statoil ASA has divested 24.1% shares in Gassled joint venture for NOK 17.35 billion ($3.25 billion) to Solveig Gas Norway AS and still has 5% shares in the partnership. [27] In 2016 Statoil sold the Leismer oil sand operation in Canada to Athabasca Oil. [28]

In 2011–2012, Statoil announced a new discovery in the North Sea of 0.5 to 1.2 billion barrels (79 to 191 million cubic metres), a large new find at its Aldous Major South prospect on the Norwegian continental shelf with recoverable oil between 0.9 to 1.5 billion barrels (140 to 240 million cubic metres), a large new find at the Skrugard prospect in the northern Norwegian Sea (Barents Sea in Statoil terminology) north of the Snøhvit field off Hammerfest, and a find in the Havis Prospect of the Barents Sea of 200 to 3,000 million barrels (32 to 477 million cubic metres) of oil. [29] [30] [31]

In 2011, Statoil bought Brigham Exploration for $4.4 Billion to gain access to its oil shale operations in North Dakota's Bakken formation. [32] In 2012, Statoil sent 45,000 barrels of oil per day by railroad cars from North Dakota. [33] [34]

In November 2011, a Statoil consultant and two others were tried for having received 7 million Norwegian kroner, in exchange for contracts and payments totaling "several tenfold" of millions of Norwegian kroner. [35]

In June 2013, Statoil announced a funded joint venture with Petrofrontier Corp. in Australia. Petrofrontier's Georgina Basin shale oil and gas bearing structures consistent with other producing areas in Australia and North America. [36]

In 2016, Statoil licensed 66% of the Carcará field in the Santos basin from Petrobras for $2.5 billion. [37]

In October 2014, Statoil sold its 15.5% stake in the Shah Deniz gas field in Azerbaijan to Petronas for a fee of $2.25 billion. [38]

Since 1 October 2014, Statoil also supplies natural gas to Ukraine's Naftogaz. [39] [40]

In 2016, Statoil acquired a $3m share of a US wind turbine leasing company. [41] Statoil expects oil demand to peak in the 2020s, and continually decline thereafter due to electric transportation. [42]

Despite finding no oil at its large exploration prospect in the Arctic in 2017, Statoil announced in October 2017 that the company would not give up exploring the Arctic. [43]

In October 2017, Statoil commissioned the 30-MW Hywind Scotland floating wind farm 29 kilometres (18 mi) off Peterhead, Scotland. [44] [45] [46] Equinor was contracted to build a wind tower assembly farm in New York City that same year. [47]

In March 2018, Statoil acquired a 50% stake in the Polish Bałtyk Środkowy III and Bałtyk Środkowy II (Middle Baltic II/III) offshore wind farms. [48]

Rebranding to Equinor

Equinor headquarters building in Fornebu (2012) Statoil fornebu IMG 4600.JPG
Equinor headquarters building in Fornebu (2012)

On 15 March 2018, Statoil announced that it would change its name to Equinor following approval by the annual general meeting. [49]

Between 2007 and 2019, the company reported massive losses, [50] including over USD $21.5 billion lost from its US-based assets. [51] In 2019, the company sold its assets in Eagle Ford, Texas to Repsol for $325 million. [52]

In August 2020, Equinor appointed Anders Opedal as its new CEO. [53] That year, the company announced that it would be decreasing employee numbers by 20% and contractor numbers by half in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, in response to falling oil prices. [54]

In January 2021, Equinor acquired a contract to provide off-shore wind power to the city of New York in partnership with BP. [55] [56] The contract with New York State was reportedly the largest offshore wind deal offered by an American state to date. [57]

In February 2021, Equinor completed the sale of its shale assets in the Bakken formation of North Dakota to Grayson Mill Energy for $900 million. [58] [51] That month, a spokesperson for the company stated that Equinor was considering further sales of energy assets in the US, in the aftermath of the global oil price war. [59]

In May 2021, Equinor and Italian energy company Eni announced that they were partnering on developing floating wind farms in the North Sea under a contract with the Norwegian government. [60]

Equinor partnered with Norwegian renewable energy company Vårgrønn in 2021 to acquire wind acreage in the Utsira Nord region of the North Sea. [61]

Operations

Oil and gas exploration and production

Statoil is operator of Statfjord in the Norwegian North Sea StatfjordA(Jarvin1982).jpg
Statoil is operator of Statfjord in the Norwegian North Sea

Equinor is the largest operator on the Norwegian continental shelf, with 60% of the total production. The fields operated are Brage, Heimdal, Grane, Glitne, Gullfaks, Heidrun, Huldra, Kristin, Kvitebjørn, Mikkel, Njord, Norne, Ormen Lange, Oseberg, Sleipner, Snorre, Snøhvit, Statfjord, Sygna, Tordis, Troll, Veslefrikk, Vigdis, Visund, Volve, and Åsgard. The company also has processing plants at Kolsnes, Kårstø, Mongstad, Tjeldbergodden, and Melkøya.

In addition to the Norwegian continental shelf, Equinor operates oil and gas fields in Australia, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, China, Libya, Nigeria, Russia, United States, and Venezuela. Statoil has offices that are looking for possible ventures in the countries of Mexico, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The company has processing plants in Belgium, Denmark, France, and Germany. In 2006, Statoil was given approval to implement the world's largest carbon sequestration project as a means to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere.[ citation needed ]

Equinor is a partner in Brazil's offshore Peregrino oil field, which came on-stream in 2011. Equinor holds a 15.625% interest in the Deep Blue well on Green Canyon 723 in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. [62]

Equinor has a long history of attempting to get involved in the Russian petroleum sector. Many partnerships have been entered, but the company has never had a major success in Russia. It partnered with Gazprom and Total on the Shtokman project in the Barents Sea, [63] but this was shelved due to high costs and low gas prices. It then shifted from partnership with Gazprom to Rosneft, and in the two companies, have drilled for oil in several areas of Russia, again without any major finds. [64] After the introduction of sanctions against Russia over the conflict in Ukraine, [65] Equinor has kept a much lower public profile on its Russian activities while continuing largely as before.

The Norwegian economics professor Karl Ove Moene has, in the Norwegian business daily Dagens Næringsliv , raised the question of Equinor and resource curse. Much economic research show that, while natural resources are positive for nations with sound political structures, such as Norway, they are negative for nations with unsound political structures, and will, despite the riches, result in a lower economic growth. Besides his own research, Moene also points to similar results from Paul Collier. [66] [67] [68]

Pipeline operations

Equinor is involved in a number of pipelines, including Zeepipe, Statpipe, Europipe I and Europipe II, and Franpipe from the Norwegian continental shelf to Western Europe in addition to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in Caucasus. The pipelines from Norway are organized through Gassled. In the North Sea, Equinor operates the Oseberg Transport System, Kvitebjørn oil pipeline, Heidrun gas pipeline, Sleipner East pipeline and Vestprosess pipeline.

The company has trading offices for crude oil, refined petroleum products, and natural gas liquids in London, Stamford, Connecticut, and Singapore.

Biofuels

Wind energy

Equinor owns and operates the 30-MW Hywind Scotland floating wind farm 29 kilometres (18 mi) off Peterhead, Scotland. [44] [45] [46] Equinor owns 50% stake in the Polish 1,200-MW Bałtyk Środkowy III and Bałtyk Środkowy II offshore wind farms. [48] It also owns 25% stake in the 385-MW Arkona wind farm offshore Germany. [69] Equinor operates the Sheringham Shoal Offshore Wind Farm with 40% stake in the project and has 50% stake in each Creyke Beck A and B and Teesside A wind farms of the Dogger Bank Wind Farm development in the United Kingdom. [70]

Petrol stations

The company operated fuel stations under the main brand Statoil, fully automated stations under 1-2-3 and some of the stations under Ingo brand in Denmark and Sweden. In September 2007 Statoil acquired all Nordic Jet stations and continued to use the brand name until 2014 when the Nordic stations were rebranded to the new brand name Ingo. [71] After the aquistion of Norsk Hydro in 2007 also operated 118 Hydro and Uno-X fuel station networks in Sweden until were sold togheter with 40 Jet stations in Norway in 2009 to finnish company St1. [72]

In 2010, the downstream operations were separated into new listed company Statoil Fuel & Retail. [73] In total Statoil had about 2,300 fuel station services in Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, and Sweden, as well as significant lubricants and aviation fuel operations. [74]

In 2012 Canadian company Alimentation Couche-Tard agreed to buy the company for $2.8 billion. [75] In 2016, Couche-Tard decided to rebrand all fuel stations into the Circle K brand. [76]

Finances

[ needs update ] For the fiscal year 2018, Equinor reported earnings of US$7.535 billion, with an annual revenue of US$79.593 billion, an increase of 30.1% over the previous fiscal cycle. Equinor's shares traded at over $18 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$55.5 billion in October 2018. [77] In the fourth quarter of 2021, Equinor had a profit of $15 billion. [78]

YearRevenue
in mil. USD$
Net income
in mil. USD$
Total Assets
in mil. USD$
Price per Share
in USD$
Employees
200560,6904,77544,90720.16
200666,1556,34449,27627.30
200789,3997,64382,72729.12
2008117,2917,784104,05827.99
200973,9672,83490,05420.83
201087,3306,242106,61121.91
2011119,76614,079137,35024.95
2012124,42511,851134,91725.28
2013108,6136,799150,90623.3223,413
201499,2643,871132,70226.5322,516
201559,642−5,192109,74217.1121,581
201645,873−2,922104,53015.9320,539
201761,1874,590111,10018.5020,245
201879,5937,535112,50824.9720,525

Human rights

In 2016, Equinor (then Statoil) was ranked as the 5th best of 92 oil, gas, and mining companies on indigenous rights in the Arctic. [79]

Controversies

Mongstad scandal

In November 1987, several members of the board offered their resignation over approximately $780 million worth of cost overruns at the Mongstad refinery. [80] It was seen as a big scandal in the Norwegian press.

Corrib gas project

Equinor was a partner of Royal Dutch Shell in the Corrib gas project, which had been developing a natural gas field off the northwest coast of County Mayo, Ireland. Citizens protested the project on the grounds that they had been insufficiently consulted and that the pipeline posed a danger. [81] In the summer of 2005, five men from Rossport were jailed for contempt of court after refusing to obey a temporary court injunction, which forbade interfering with the project. [82] The ensuing protests led to the Shell to Sea campaign which opposed the project. In November 2021, Equinor exited the project after selling its 36.5% stake to Vermilion Energy for $434 million (€382 million). [83]

Corruption lawsuit: Iran

The Statoil corruption case, also known as the Statoil-Horton case (Norwegian: Statoils Horton-sak) [84] refers to Norwegian oil company Statoil’s misconduct and extensive use of bribery in Iran between 2002 and 2003, in an attempt to secure lucrative oil contracts for the company in that country. On June 29, 2004, Statoil was found guilty of corruption by the Norwegian courts and was ordered to pay NOK 20 million in fines. [85] On October 13, 2006, Statoil reached a settlement with US authorities for its involvement in the case and was ordered by a US court to pay US$21 million in fines. [86]

North Sea oil projects

In March 2011, Statoil halted work on two North Sea oil field projects and laid off thousands of people due to a £2 billion U.K. tax on the sector. [87] [88]

Charges of unethical practices in Athabasca

In 2012, a UK company, Ecclesiastical Investment, announced they were selling their stake in Statoil, as a result of perceived unethical practices related to Athabasca oil sands projects. [89]

Arctic

In May 2012, Equinor signed an Arctic exploration deal with Rosneft. [90] [64] In June 2014, Statoil announced it had completed a 12-month exploration program of its Castberg license project in the Arctic and found less-than-expected oil reserves. Production, which had originally been planned to start in 2018, was temporarily shelved while the company and its partners reassessed the viability of the project and explored ways to reduce development costs. [91]

Great Australian Bight

Exploration for oil and gas in the Great Australian Bight first began in the late 1960s. [92] Not long ago, several oil majors, BP, Statoil/Equinor, and Chevron proposed plans to drill exploration wells in the southern part of the area from 2017 onwards. [93] On October 11, 2016, BP withdrew its plans to explore the area claiming that it was not competitive and did not align with BP's strategic goals. [94] The proposal to explore in the bight was the focus of community opposition. The Wilderness Society showed that a worst-case scenario leak of oil could have a catastrophic effect on the southern coastline of Australia. [95] The Australian Senate commenced an inquiry into oil or gas production in the Great Australian Bight on 22 February 2016. The committee was reestablished on 13 September 2016 following the Australian Federal Election. [96] In October 2017, Chevron withdrew from the project, [97] but it returned alongside BP in 2019. [98] Though the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority approved exploration plans in late 2019, [99] Equinor withdrew from the project in February 2020, citing profitability reasons. [100]

Losses in the United States

In 2020, a report revealed important issues regarding $20 billion lost in the United States. According to Equinor chairman Jon Erik Reinhardsen, the losses were driven by an ambitious growth strategy and overly optimistic price assumptions. [101] [102]

Corporate structure

Board of Directors

Comprised as follows as of February 2017: [103]

Lobbying

Equinor engages professional lobbyists to represent its interests in various jurisdictions. In South Australia, they were represented by the firm Hawker Britton. [104]

Environmental record

Statoil was responsible for 0.52% of global industrial greenhouse gas emissions from 1988 to 2015. [105]

Equinor and Shell were planning on building a gas-fired powerplant in Norway that would infuse CO2 underground or beneath the seabed, but they discarded the plan due to economic reasons. [106] Equinor has injected CO2 into the Utsira formation on the Sleipner gas field for environmental storage purposes since 1996. Natural gas (methane) containing approximately 8.5% CO2 is produced on the Sleipner Vest field. The gas is transported to the Sleipner Treatment platform, where the CO2 is removed. The gas is exported to the UK, Germany, and Belgium, and the CO2 is injected into the Utsira formation. [107]

Sponsorship

Equinor sponsors talents in art, education, and sports through the program Morgendagens helter (Tomorrow's heroes). [108]

Two musical prizes are included in the program. [109] As of 2013, the grant for both awards is of 1 million NOK (about $166,000). The Statoil classical music award has been awarded since 1999. The Statoil stipend to a Norwegian pop/rock artist or group has been awarded since 2008 during the by:Larm festival and is meant to stimulate an international career. [110] [111]

The program also includes an art prize, Statoils kunstpris, that has been awarded every second year since 2007 to a talented artist in Norway. The grant is 500,000 NOK (about $83,000) which makes it Norway's largest prize of its kind. [112]

Sponsorship for sports includes support for football and skiing. Sponsorship for education focuses on natural sciences and included a yearly competition for high school students in Norway where Statoils realfagspris is awarded. [113]

Statoil was an official sponsor of the 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships that was held in Oslo. [114]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Statoil (1972–2007)</span>

Statoil ASA was a Norwegian petroleum company established in 1972. It merged with the oil and gas division of Norsk Hydro in 2007 and was known as StatoilHydro until 2009, when the name was changed back to Statoil ASA. The brand Statoil was retained as a chain of fuel stations owned by StatoilHydro. Statoil was the largest petroleum company in the Nordic countries. In the 2013 Fortune 500, Statoil was ranked as the 39th -largest company in the world. While Statoil was listed on both the Oslo Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange, the Norwegian state still held majority ownership, with 64%. The company's headquarters are located in Norway's oil capital Stavanger. The name Statoil was a truncated form of the State's oil (company).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Norsk Hydro</span> Norwegian aluminium and renewable energy company

Norsk Hydro ASA is a Norwegian aluminium and renewable energy company, headquartered in Oslo. It is one of the largest aluminium companies worldwide. It has operations in some 50 countries around the world and is active on all continents. The Norwegian state owns 34.3% of the company through the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries. A further 6.5% is owned by Folketrygdfond, which administers the Government Pension Fund of Norway. Norsk Hydro employs approximately 35,000 people. Hilde Merete Aasheim has been the CEO since May, 2019.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Sea oil</span> Hydrocarbons from the North Sea

North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snøhvit</span>

Snøhvit(English: Snow White) is the name of a natural gas field in the Norwegian Sea, situated 140 kilometres (87 mi) northwest of Hammerfest, Norway. The northern part of the Norwegian Sea is often described as the Barents Sea by offshore petroleum companies. Snøhvit is also the name of a development of Snøhvit and the two neighbouring natural gas fields Albatross and Askeladden. Estimated recoverable reserves are 193 billion cubic metres of natural gas, 113 million barrels of condensate, and 5.1 million tonnes of natural gas liquids (NGL). The development comprises 21 wells. The Snøhvit development is operated by Equinor on behalf of six gas companies owning licenses:

The Shtokman field, one of the world's largest natural gas fields, lies in the northwestern part of the South Barents Basin in the Russian sector of the Barents Sea, 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Kola Peninsula. Its reserves are estimated at 3.8 trillion cubic metres of natural gas and more than 37 million tons of gas condensate.

Ørsted A/S is a Danish multinational power company based in Fredericia, Denmark. It is the largest energy company in Denmark. The company adopted its current name on 6 November 2017.

Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli or Azeri–Chirag–Deepwater Gunashli is a complex of oil fields in the Caspian Sea, about 120 kilometres (75 mi) off the coast of Azerbaijan. It consists of the Azeri and Chirag oil fields, and the deepwater portion of the Gunashli oil field. An overall estimate of the area of the development is 432.4 square kilometres (167.0 sq mi). It is developed by the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, a consortium of international oil companies, and operated by BP on behalf of the consortium. The ACG fields have estimated recoverable reserves of about 5 to 6 billion barrels of petroleum. Peak oil production of 835,000 barrels per day (132,800 m3/d) was reached in 2010, however by the first quarter of 2022 production had declined to 434,000 barrels per day (69,000 m3/d), or about one-half of peak value. As of 2021, ACG oil accounted for 95% of all Azerbaijani oil exports.

This is an overview of Equinor's operations in various countries. Equinor is a Norwegian petroleum company.

State's Direct Financial Interest (SDFI) is a portfolio of the Norwegian government's directly owned exploration and production licenses for petroleum and natural gas on the Norwegian continental shelf. The Norwegian government-owned company Petoro has managed the SDFI portfolio since 2001.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Petroleum exploration in the Arctic</span> Industry in the Arctic

The exploration of the Arctic for petroleum is considered to be quite technically challenging. However, recent technological developments, as well as relatively high oil prices, have allowed for exploration. As a result, the region has received significant interest from the petroleum industry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Energy in Norway</span>

Norway is a large energy producer, and one of the world's largest exporters of oil. Most of the electricity in the country is produced by hydroelectricity. Norway is one of the leading countries in the electrification of its transport sector, with the largest fleet of electric vehicles per capita in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mongstad</span>

Mongstad is an industrial site in Vestland county, Norway. The site sits on the border of the municipalities of Alver and Austrheim, with most of the site in Alver. The site features an oil refinery for Equinor and other oil companies, including Shell. At Mongstad, Equinor has a crude oil terminal with a capacity of 9.5 million barrels (1,510,000 m3). The port at Mongstad is the largest in Norway, measured in tonnage. The refinery at Mongstad is modern, and has been extensively upgraded, with a capacity of 12 million tonnes of crude oil per year. The refinery is the largest in Norway, though medium-sized by European standards. It is owned by a company called Mongstad Refining, in which Equinor has whole ownership.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Floating wind turbine</span> Type of wind turbine

A floating wind turbine is an offshore wind turbine mounted on a floating structure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in water depths where fixed-foundation turbines are not feasible. Floating wind farms have the potential to significantly increase the sea area available for offshore wind farms, especially in countries with limited shallow waters, such as Japan, France and US West coast. Locating wind farms further offshore can also reduce visual pollution, provide better accommodation for fishing and shipping lanes, and reach stronger and more consistent winds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">BP</span> British multinational oil and gas company

BP plc is a British oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. It is one of the world's seven oil and gas "supermajors". It is a vertically integrated company operating in all areas of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and extraction, refining, distribution and marketing, power generation, and trading.

Heimdal is an offshore natural gas field in the North Sea located 212 kilometres (132 mi) northwest of the Stavanger, Norway. Heimdal serves as a connection hub for processing and distribution of natural gas from satellite fields.

Vale is an offshore gas field in the North Sea located 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) north of the Heimdal gas field. The depth of the water in the field area is 115 metres (377 ft). Vale is considered a satellite to Heimdal field and is connected to it by a pipeline. Estimated reserves at Vale stand at 2.5 billion cubic metres of natural gas and 21 million barrels (3,300,000 m3) of gas condensate. Vale gas field is expected to produce 1.6 million cubic metres per day of natural gas and 2,600 barrels per day (410 m3/d) of condensate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gjøa oilfield</span> Oilfield in North Sea

Gjøa oilfield is an oilfield in the Norwegian section of the North Sea. It lies about 70 kilometres (43 mi) off the Troll field.

The Johan Sverdrup oil field is an oil field in the North Sea, about 140 kilometres (87 mi) west of Stavanger, Norway. The field lies in two different production licenses and consists of two different discoveries called Avaldsnes and Aldous Major South. When it was revealed that these discoveries constituted one single field, it was renamed Johan Sverdrup after the father of Norwegian parliamentarism. The field has not yet been unitized between production licenses 501, 501B, and 265. Johan Sverdrup is expected to hold 1.9–3.0 billion barrels of oil. According to Statoil, the field is in 110 to 120 metres water depth, and the reservoir is at 1900 meters depth.

The Rosebank oil and gas field lies west of Shetland. It is operated by Equinor; Suncor and Siccar Point. The discovery well was drilled in 2004. A final investment decision for Rosebank is planned to be taken by May 2022.

Hywind Scotland is the world's first commercial wind farm using floating wind turbines, situated 29 kilometres (18 mi) off Peterhead, Scotland. The farm has five 6 MW Siemens direct-drive turbines on Hywind floating monopiles, with a total capacity of 30 MW. It is operated by Hywind (Scotland) Limited, a joint venture of Equinor (75%) and Masdar (25%).

References

  1. "Anders Opedal taking over as president and CEO". Equinor.com. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Annual Report 2021" (PDF). Statoil. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  3. "Forbes Global 2000". Forbes . Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  4. "StatoilHydro signature unveiled". 2007-05-10. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  5. "Statoil Annual Report 2017" (PDF). Statoil. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  6. "Oil & Gas Giant Statoil Proposes Changing Name To Equinor". 15 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  7. "google translate" . Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  8. 1 2 "– Staten må selge seg ut av Statoil - NRK Rogaland - Lokale nyheter, TV og radio". Nrk.no. 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  9. Archived September 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  10. Archived June 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  11. Hilde øvrebekk Lewis (2012-02-20). "Statoil Vil for more oil sands" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten.
  12. Cox, Ramsey (February–March 2010). "Water Power + Wind Power = Win!". Mother Earth News. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
  13. Patel, Prachi (2009-06-22). "Floating Wind Turbines to Be Tested". IEEE Spectrum. Archived from the original on 2009-06-28.
  14. 1 2 "Hydro's oil and gas activities to merge with Statoil". 2006-12-18. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  15. 1 2 "EU regulators approve Statoil, Norsk Hydro merger". 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  16. "Okays Statoil-Hydro Merger". Norwegian Parliament. 2007-06-11. Archived from the original on 2007-11-22. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  17. "Top 20 shareholders". Statoil.com. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  18. "Merger of Statoil and Hydro oil- and gas division". Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  19. Cowley, Elizabeth; Wang, Michael; Cummins, Chip (2006-12-19). "Statoil, Norsk Hydro Create an Energy Behemoth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  20. "Blant verdens 50 største". 2006-12-19. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
  21. "Annual general meeting held in StatoilHydro ASA" (Press release). Hugin. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
  22. "StatoilHydro becomes Statoil" (Press release). Statoil. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-24.
  23. Farberg, Andreas L. (2010-09-28). "Mr. McStatoil vil vokse seg stor i Polen". E24 (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2010-10-02. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  24. Torp, Cathrine (2010-02-03). "Statoil opens for a new ownership structure for its energy and retail business" (Press release). Stavanger: Statoil ASA. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  25. Koranyi, Balazs (2012-04-18). "Canada's Couche-Tard to buy Statoil Fuel for $2.8 billion". Reuters.
  26. "Statoil reports oil and gas discovery just north of Norne (Scandinavian Oil-Gas Magazine)". Scandoil.com. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  27. "Statoil to divest in Gassled". Reuters.com. 2011-06-06. Archived from the original on 2014-12-18. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  28. "Statoil sells oilsands assets to Athabasca Oil in deal worth up to $832 million". CBC News. 2016-12-14. Retrieved 2016-12-15.
  29. "Norway Makes Its Second Huge Oil Discovery In The Past Year". Associated Press. January 9, 2012.
  30. Kahya, Damian (2011-10-13). "Statoil doubles estimated size of North Sea find". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  31. Archived April 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  32. Marianne StigsetStephen Treloar (2011-10-17). "Statoil Buys Brigham for $4.4 Billion to Get Bakken Shale - Bloomberg Business". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  33. González, Ángel (2012-08-29). "Statoil Leases Rail Cars to Ship Bottlenecked North Dakota Oil - WSJ". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  34. "Statoil to begin transporting Bakken crude from North Dakota by rail to overcome limited pipeline capacity; more than 1,000 cars for unit trains". Green Car Congress. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  35. "Falske fakturaer i fleng". Dagens Næringsliv . 2011-10-06. p. 17. Forholdet de er tiltalt for skal ha foregått over 7 år, fra 2003 til 2010. Tilsammen skal hovedmannen, en innleid Statoil-konsulent, ha mottatt over syv millioner kroner i bestikkelser. Motytelsen var kontrakter og utbetalinger på flere titall millioner kroner fra Statoil til et selskap de to andre er knyttet til. — To av tre erkjenner straffeskyld. — Saken er den største korrupsjonssaken siden Statoils Horton-sak
  36. "PetroFrontier Corp. | PetroFrontier Corp. announces Statoil to fully fund a US$50 million 2013/2014 exploration program in the Southern Georgina Basin". Newswire.ca. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  37. "Statoil gjør milliardkjøp på brasiliansk sokkel". Teknisk Ukeblad . 29 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  38. "Statoil exits Shah Deniz with $2.25 billion sale to Petronas" (Press release). Reuters. 13 October 2014.
  39. "Gas contract with Statoil more advantageous than with Gazprom – Yatseniuk". En.interfax.com.ua. 2014-11-18. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  40. "Norway's Statoil sells gas to Ukraine's Naftogaz". Reuters. Reuters Editorial. 3 October 2014.
  41. "Statoil Energy Ventures makes first investment: United Wind".
  42. Exxon backs ‘serious action’ on climate change Financial Times , October 2016. Quote: "Eldar Saetre, chief executive of Statoil, said that global oil demand could peak as soon as the 2020s as electric vehicles begin to replace those running on petroleum. "Then we will have a shrinking oil industry"
  43. Milne, Richard (October 29, 2017). "Statoil will not give up on exploration in Arctic". Financial Times . United Kingdom. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  44. 1 2 McCulloch, Scott (2 November 2015). "Statoil to pilot floating wind farm scheme offshore Peterhead". Dailyrecord.co.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  45. 1 2 "Floating wind farm to be UK first". Bbc.com. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  46. 1 2 "Hywind Scotland Pilot Park - 4C Offshore". 4coffshore.com. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  47. "For clean energy, buy American or buy it quick and cheap?". The Seattle Times. 2021-05-16. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  48. 1 2 Hill, Joshua S. (2018-03-06). "Statoil Acquires 50% Interest In 1.2 Gigawatt Polish Offshore Wind Farms". Clean Technica.
  49. "Statoil to change name to Equinor" (Press release). Statoil. 2018-03-15. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  50. "'Scandal' losses in US haunt Equinor". www.newsinenglish.no. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  51. 1 2 "Equinor sells U.S. Bakken shale assets, posts record loss for 2020". Reuters. 2021-02-10. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  52. Blum, Jordan (2019-11-07). "Equinor sells Eagle Ford position for $325 million to Repsol". Chron. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  53. "Equinor appoints new CEO to speed up renewable investments". Reuters. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  54. Reuters Staff (2020-08-26). "Equinor to cut jobs in U.S., Canada and UK following oil price fall". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  55. McFarlane, Sarah (2021-02-06). "Floating Wind Turbines Buoy Hopes of Expanding Renewable Energy". Wall Street Journal. ISSN   0099-9660 . Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  56. Frangoul, Anmar (2021-01-14). "Norway's Equinor clinches one of the largest ever renewable energy contracts in the U.S." CNBC. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  57. Reuters Staff (2021-01-13). "Norway's Equinor clinches New York offshore wind contract". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  58. "Equinor completes sale to Grayson Mills". Williston Herald. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  59. "EXCLUSIVE Equinor considers more US asset sales in global strategy revamp". Reuters. 2021-02-15. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  60. Reuters Staff (2021-05-06). "Equinor and Eni to collaborate on floating North Sea wind power". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  61. "Equinor, Vårgrønn to collaborate on wind farm bids offshore Norway". www.offshore-mag.com. May 6, 2021. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  62. "Noble Energy Announces Status of Deep Blue Exploration Well - HOUSTON, May 10 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/". Prnewswire.com. 2004-09-19. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  63. Jensen, Victor; Overland, Indra (2011). "Shtokman-prosjektets blindsone: Fransk-russiske relasjoner". Internasjonal Politikk. 69 (3): 387–411. doi:10.18261/ISSN1891-1757-2011-03-03 via ResearchGate.
  64. 1 2 Overland, Indra; Godzimirski, Jakub; Lunden, Lars Petter; Fjaertoft, Daniel (2013). "Rosneft's offshore partnerships: the re-opening of the Russian petroleum frontier?". Polar Record. 49 (2): 140–153. doi: 10.1017/S0032247412000137 .
  65. Fjaertoft, Daniel; Overland, Indra (2015). "Financial Sanctions Impact Russian Oil, Equipment Export Ban's Effects Limited". Oil and Gas Journal. 113: 66–72 via ResearchGate.
  66. "Olje, utvikling og ansvar". 21 September 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2018. Med andre ord fant vi at mer olje i land med gode institusjoner er en velsignelse, mens mer olje i land med dårlige institusjoner er en forbannelse. Når oljeselskapene bidrar til å hente ut ressurser til gode regimer, kan innbyggerne få økte muligheter og materiell fremgang. Når oljeselskapene bidrar til å hente ut ressurser til dårlige regimer, får landet økt konflikt, grabbing og sløsing med mennesker og talent.
  67. "Equinors bortforklaringer". 5 October 2018. Etter min vurdering har oljeressursene i udemokratiske land tre tragiske virkninger som forsterker hverandre: a) eliten tenderer til å ta alt – ressursene blir tappet ut før befolkningen skaffer seg demokratisk makt til å få del i inntektene; b) resten av økonomien utarmes – den økonomiske veksten går ned; c) det autoritære styresettet sementeres – oljen forhindrer demokrati. Dette ville ikke være mulig uten oljeselskapenes medvirkning.
  68. "Heleren og stjeleren". 2 November 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018. Å utvinne olje i udemokratiske regimer gir befolkningen en tredobbel straff: 1) mindre ressurser til fremtidens demokrati, 2) mindre sannsynlig med snarlige demokratiske reformer, 3) lavere økonomisk vekst enn om oljen ble liggende.
  69. "E.ON and Statoil to Jointly Build 385MW Arkona Offshore Wind Farm". Offshore Wind. 2016-04-25.
  70. "Revised ownership structure in UK offshore wind project" (Press release). Equinor. 2017-08-10.
  71. "Purchasing JET automated stations in Scandinavia". Stat Oil. 19 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-03.
  72. "Finnish retailer St1 buys 198 Statoil stations". Reuters . Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  73. "Statoil Fuel & Retail Rises in Oslo on First Day of Trading". bloomberg.com. 22 October 2010.
  74. Lindbæk, Jannik (2010-09-02). "Statoil files OSE application to list Statoil Fuel & Retail ASA". Stavanger: Statoil ASA . Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  75. "Couche-Tard Completes Acquisition of Statoil Fuel & Retail". lexpert.ca. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  76. "Statoil stations to change name to Circle K". scandinavianretail.se. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  77. "Statoil Revenue 2006-2018 | EQNR". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  78. "Rekordgodt Equinor-resultat: 132 milliarder kroner i justert driftsresultat i fjerde kvartal". Tu.no (in Norwegian). Teknisk Ukeblad. 9 February 2022.
  79. Overland, Indra (2016). "Ranking Oil, Gas and Mining Companies on Indigenous Rights in the Arctic". ResearchGate. Arran. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  80. Reuters (1987-11-21). "Oil Scandal In Norway". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2022-03-14.
  81. (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20120515095015/http://goldmanprize.org/sites/goldmanprize.org/files/Ouroboros_Spring_2010.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 2022-03-08.{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  82. "Five arrested after clashes at Corrib gas line protest". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  83. "Equinor Exits Ireland with $434M Sale of Corrib Gas Field Stake to Vermilion Energy". Offshore Engineering. 29 November 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  84. Ånestad, Morten (2011-10-06). "Falske fakturaer i fleng". Dagens Næringsliv . p. 17. Saken er den største saken siden Statoils Horton-sak
  85. "Statoil fined over Iranian bribes". 2004-06-29. Retrieved 2022-03-11.
  86. "Statoil admits bribe for Iran oil rights". Financial Times. 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2022-03-11.
  87. Mason, Rowena (2011-03-30). "Statoil halts North Sea oil projects" . Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  88. "Statoil halts North Sea oil development over windfall tax". the Guardian. 2011-03-29. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  89. "Etisk fond trekker seg ut av Statoil - Aftenposten". Aftenposten.no. 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  90. "Rosneft and Statoil in Arctic exploration deal - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  91. "Arctic Johan Castberg field decision postponed by Statoil to 2015". Europe News.Net. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  92. "Petroleum Exploration in the Great Australian Bight". South Australia State Development. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016.
  93. Christoper Russell (2015-08-28). "Oil giant Chevron aiming to begin drilling its first exploration well in the Great Australian Bight in 2017". The Advertiser. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
  94. "ABC news. BP withdraws from Great Australian Bight drilling". ABC.
  95. Oliver Milman (2015-10-09). "BP oil spill in Great Australian Bight would be catastrophic, modelling shows". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
  96. "Oil or Gas Production in the Great Australian Bight - Senate Committee".
  97. "Chevron drops Great Australian Bight drilling plans". ABC News. 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2022-03-14.
  98. "BP, Chevron to invest $116M on exploration in Australia after Bight exit". Offshore Energy. 2019-12-19. Retrieved 2022-03-14.
  99. "Environment Plan: Stromlo-1 exploration drilling program" . Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  100. "Great Australian Bight: Equinor abandons controversial oil drilling plans". BBC News. 2020-02-25. Retrieved 2022-03-14.
  101. "Equinor should have addressed 'significant' problems in U.S. sooner -chairman". Reuters. 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  102. "'Scandal' losses in US haunt Equinor". www.newsinenglish.no. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  103. "Board of Directors - Board of Directors - equinor.com". Statoil.com. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  104. "Lobbyist Portal". www.lobbyists.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
  105. "Top 100 producers and their cumulative greenhouse gas emissions from 1988-2015". The Guardian . Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  106. "Statoil, Shell shelve Draugen field CO2 injection | Environment". Reuters. 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  107. Technology as a driving force in climate policy (Bjørn-Erik Haugan, Cicerone, Number: 6. pp.8-9. 2005) Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
  108. "Kunstnerforbundet - Desemberutstillingen". Kunstnerforbundet.no. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  109. "Millionen som deler musikk-Noreg - NRK Kultur og underholdning - Nyheter og aktuelt stoff". Nrk.no. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  110. Nina Berglund (20 February 2012): Bernhoft wins Statoil stipend News in English, retrieved 12 May 2013
  111. Guro Havrå Bjørnstad: Vant en million kroner - igjen (in Norwegian) Dagbladet, retrieved 12 May 2013
  112. Thea Steen (2 November 2011): Her er de nominerte til Statoils kunstpris 2011 (in Norwegian) Dagbladet , retrieved 15 May 2013
  113. Ragnhild Lunner (11 May 2012): Her er vinnerne av Statoils realfagspris Archived 2013-07-31 at the Wayback Machine (in Norwegian) Teknisk Ukeblad , retrieved 14 May 2013
  114. "Oslo 2011 enjoys great sponsor interest, Statoil". FIS 23 December 2009 article accessed 25 December 2009.

Coordinates: 58°53′30.48″N5°43′2.82″E / 58.8918000°N 5.7174500°E / 58.8918000; 5.7174500