From top to bottom, left to right: The Kyrenia Gate and the İnönü Square, Selimiye Mosque (former St. Sophia Cathedral), historical Samanbahçe neighborhood, the Büyük Han, Bedesten, Sarayönü and the Venetian Column, the entertainment center of Dereboyu, the Near East Medical School, part of North Nicosia skyline at night
|Claimed by|| Republic of Cyprus (internationally recognized)|
Northern Cyprus (recognized only by Turkey)
|Administered by||Northern Cyprus|
|Northern Cyprus District||Lefkoşa|
|• Mayor||Mehmet Harmancı (TDP)|
|• City||92.8 km2 (35.8 sq mi)|
|• Metro||165.2 km2 (63.8 sq mi)|
|• Density||660/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Website||Nicosia Turkish Municipality|
North Nicosia or Northern Nicosia (Turkish : [Kuzey] Lefkoşa [kuˈzej lefˈkoʃa] ) is the capital and largest city of the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. It is the northern part of the divided city of Nicosia and is governed by the Nicosia Turkish Municipality. As of 2011 [update] , North Nicosia had a population of 61,378 and a metropolitan area with a population of 82,539.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official EU language, even though Turkey is not a member state.
In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognised by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.
Northern Cyprus, officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, is a de facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus.
Following the intercommunal violence of the 1960s, the capital of Republic of Cyprus was divided between the island's Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities in the south and north respectively in 1963.A coup by the Greek military junta in an attempt to unite the island with Greece in 1974 led to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and the international community considers North Nicosia to have been under Turkish occupation since then.
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus. It was launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974.
The city is the economic, political and cultural centre of Northern Cyprus, with many shops, restaurants and shopping malls. It is home to a historic walled city, centred on the Sarayönü Square, and a modern metropolitan area, with the Dereboyu region as its centre of business and entertainment. Described as a city with high levels of welfare, it has seen great urban growth and development in the 21st century, including the construction of new highways and high-rises. It hosts a significant number of tourists and a variety of cultural activities, including its international festivals of theatre and music. With a student population over 34,000, North Nicosia is an important centre of education and research and is home to four universities, of which the Near East University is the biggest.
Sarayönü, officially Atatürk Square, is a square in North Nicosia. It is the centre of the Turkish part of the city and was the administrative center of the island for centuries.
Dereboyu Avenue, also known simply as Dereboyu and officially as Mehmet Akif Avenue, is the busiest avenue in North Nicosia, as well as its centre of entertainment. The term "Dereboyu" means "alongside the river", and although in the traditional sense this is only used for Mehmet Akif Avenue running alongside the Pedieos river, the term has expanded in meaning to denote a region extending to the neighbouring Osman Paşa Avenue.
Near East University is a private university located in North Cyprus. It was founded in North Nicosia in 1988, by Suat Günsel, a Turkish Cypriot who is the 100% owner of NEU. The chairman of the board of trustees is his son, Irfan Günsel.
In 1963, in the aftermath of constitutional amendments by the Greek Cypriots which were rejected by the Turkish Cypriots, intercommunal violence broke out. Nicosia was divided into Greek and Turkish Cypriot quarters by the Green Line, named after the colour of the pen used by the United Nations officer to draw the line on a map of the city.This resulted in the ceasing of Turkish Cypriot participation in the government, and following more intercommunal violence in 1964, a number of Turkish Cypriots moved to the Turkish quarter of Nicosia, causing serious overcrowding.
Greek Cypriots are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community. According to the 2011 Cypriot census, 659,115 citizens in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus, which excluding citizens in Northern Cyprus, recorded their ethnicity as "Greek Cypriot", forming 78% of the population in the internationally recognized territories.
Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus. Following the Ottoman conquest of the island in 1571, about 30,000 Turkish settlers were given land once they arrived in Cyprus. Additionally, many of the islanders converted to Islam during the early years of Ottoman rule. Nonetheless, the influx of mainly Muslim settlers to Cyprus continued intermittently until the end of the Ottoman period. Today, while Northern Cyprus is home to a significant part of the Turkish Cypriot population, the majority of Turkish Cypriots live abroad, forming the Turkish Cypriot diaspora. This diaspora came into existence after the Ottoman Empire transferred the control of the island to the British Empire, as many Turkish Cypriots emigrated primarily to Turkey and the United Kingdom for political and economic reasons. The emigration was exacerbated by the intercommunal violence in the 1950s and 1960s, as Turkish Cypriots had to live in enclaves in Cyprus.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 15 July 1974, there was an attempted coup d'état led by the Greek military junta to unite the island with Greece. The coup ousted president Makarios III and replaced him with pro-enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson.In response to the prospect of enosis, on 20 July 1974, the Turkish army invaded the island, and from then occupied the 37% of the north part of the Republic of Cyprus. The invasion included two phases. The second phase was performed on 14 August 1974, where the Turkish army advanced their positions, eventually capturing a total of 37% of Cypriot territory, including the northern part of Nicosia and the cities of Kyrenia and Famagusta.
The 1974 coup d'état in Cyprus was a military coup d'état by the Greek Army in Cyprus, the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974. On 15 July 1974 the coup plotters ousted President Makarios III and replaced him with pro-Enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson as dictator. The Sampson regime was described as a puppet state, whose ultimate aim was the annexation of the island by Greece; in the short term, the coupists proclaimed the establishment of the "Hellenic Republic of Cyprus". The coup was viewed as illegal by the United Nations and violated human rights laws.
The Greek military junta of 1967–1974, commonly known as the Regime of the Colonels, or in Greece simply The Junta, The Dictatorship and The Seven Years, was a series of far-right military juntas that ruled Greece following the 1967 Greek coup d'état led by a group of colonels on 21 April 1967. The dictatorship ended on 24 July 1974 under the pressure of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. The fall of the junta was followed by the Metapolitefsi, and the establishment of the current Third Hellenic Republic.
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.
On 23 April 2003, the Ledra Palace crossing was opened through the Green Line, the first time that crossing was allowed since 1974.This was followed by the opening of Ayios Dometios crossing point on 9 May 2003. On 3 April 2008, the Ledra Street crossing was also reopened.
Ledra Street is a major shopping thoroughfare in central Nicosia, Cyprus, which links North Nicosia, the part of the city under the control of the de facto Northern Cyprus, and south Nicosia.
As the capital, North Nicosia is Northern Cyprus's political, economic and cultural centre. North Nicosia hosts the ministries of Northern Cyprus. The city is governed by the Nicosia Turkish Municipality, which is recognized by the constitution of the Republic of Cyprus.
The Nicosia Turkish Municipality is headed by the mayor, Mehmet Harmancı from the Communal Democracy Party (TDP).He came to power in the local elections in 2014 with 38% of the popular vote, defeating the candidates of two major parties who were considered to be candidates with the highest chances by the Turkish Cypriot media in a feat that was seen as a major surprise victory. The organisation of the municipality features a 22-member City Council, composed of 8 councilors from the Republican Turkish Party (CTP), 6 from the National Unity Party (UBP), 6 from the Communal Democracy Party, 1 from the Democratic Party (DP-UG) and 1 from the New Cyprus Party (YKP).
Below is a list of mayors of the Nicosia Turkish Municipality since its establishment in 1958:
Nicosia is divided into several administrative divisions known as mahalleler (singular: mahalle) or quarters. Each of these quarters are headed by a muhtar , who is elected by the residents in local elections. There are 25 quarters within the jurisdiction of the Nicosia Turkish Municipality, of which 12 are in the walled city and 13 are outside,and below is list of them sorted according to population according to the 2011 census:
The walled city of Nicosia is very rich in history, culture and architecture. The northern part is richer in historical buildings and cultural works, with its Selimiye quarter retaining its complete historical character and atmosphere.The walled city overall has been declared a protected area by the Turkish Cypriot Department of Antiquities, and 672 buildings and places of historical value have been registered in it.
At the centre of the walled city lies the Atatürk Square, widely known as Sarayönü. The square has been dubbed as "the heart of Nicosia" and historically has been the cultural center of the Turkish Cypriot community, with the visiting Turkish prime ministers having delivered speeches before and during the conflict in Cyprus. It still hosts mass rallies during political campaigns and the headquarters of the National Unity Party.In the middle of the square stands the Venetian Column, known simply as "the Obelisk" ("Dikiltaş") to the locals and symbolic of the country's government. The column was brought from the ancient city of Salamis by the Venetians in 1550. The coats of arms of six Italian noble families still remains at the bottom of the column, even though the statue of the lion on it has been replaced with a copper ball. The square used to be the seat of a Lusignan palace, which was replaced with the present-day law courts by the British government.
The Girne Avenue connects Sarayönü to the Kyrenia Gate and the İnönü Square in front of it. The avenue has been described as "the symbol of the walled city", and is filled with numerous shops and restaurants. as of 2015 [update] to redesign the area with a better infrastructure, visual quality and accessibility.A project is underway
Near the entrance of the walled city, to the west of the Girne Avenue, lies the Samanbahçe neighbourhood, built in the 19th century by the government, considered to be the first example of social housing in the island. The houses are uniform and contiguous, and in the center of the neighborhood is a historic fountain. Still a residential area, the neighborhood is considered to be one of the best representations of the Cypriot culture.
Further south, next to the Ledra Street checkpoint, is the Arasta area. The area was pedestrianized in 2013 and is home to a network of historic shopping streets, reflecting an eastern shopping tradition with food and traditional items. The area is frequented by tourists.
Nearby Büyük Han, the largest caravanserai in the island and considered to be one of the finest buildings in Cyprus, was built in 1572 by the Ottomans. The building has 68 rooms and a small mosque in the middle, and currently functions as a tourist-frequented cultural centre, with souvenir and handicraft shops, cafés with traditional food and cultural activities such as small-scale opera concerts.Just across from the road is the Kumarcılar Hanı (Gamblers' Inn), built in the 17th century as a typical example of Ottoman trading inns.
Another central point in the walled city is the Selimiye Mosque, originally built as the St. Sophia Cathedral. The mosque is the chief religious centre in Northern Cyprus. It was built between 1209 and 1228 by the Latin Church of Cyprus, in a Gothic style resembling French cathedrals. Its columns are older, from the Roman era, indicating the possible presence of a Byzantine church before its construction. It used to be the place of coronation of Lusignan kings, and was converted to the largest mosque in the island by the Ottomans in 1571. It remains as a chief landmark of the city. Next to the mosque is the Bedesten, a large Greek church in the Byzantine and Gothic styles, built in the 6th and 14th centuries. It was used as a marketplace in the Ottoman era. Today, it is used as a cultural centre where various cultural activities such as concerts and festivals take place.The two buildings overlook a square, named the Selimiye Square, which also hosts cultural activity and occasional dance shows. The Library of Sultan Mahmud II, which hosts manuscripts in Turkish, Arabic and Persian that are over 500 years old and considered fine examples of calligraphy, is also located in the Selimiye Square.
Among the quarters of the old city are Yenicami and Arabahmet. Yenicami hosts the Haydar Pasha Mosque that used to be the second largest church in the city before its conversion by the Ottomans, and with its Gothic architecture, it is home to richly carved doorways. The Arabahmet neighbourhood hosts the Arabahmet Mosque, which was built in 1845.
Outside the walled city, North Nicosia has expanded to become a large city, with an urban area that has absorbed the neighboring town of Gönyeli and the former village of Hamitköy that is part of the Nicosia Turkish Municipality. The larger North Nicosia metropolitan area by definition includes the Haspolat region which is also considered to be a part of the city proper as it is within the Nicosia Turkish Municipality jurisdiction, the municipality of Alayköy and the village of Kanlıköy under the jurisdiction of Gönyeli, where North Nicosia is projected to grow. The metropolitan area has an area of 165.2 square kilometres.
The quarters of Nicosia outside the walled city are more spacious than the walled city, with wider roads and junctions. These areas are characterized by multi-floor concrete buildings. In the outskirts of the city, a number large and imposing villas have been built that belong to the middle and upper-classes.Upper and middle class Turkish Cypriots have left the walled city to settle in areas such as Küçük Kaymaklı and Hamitköy, which have seen a corresponding boom in economic and commercial activity. As the city started to expand out of the walled city in the first half of the city, large and imposing houses were built in the Köşklüçiftlik and Çağlayan areas, which characterize these central quarters today. The Yenişehir quarter was planned by the British administration in the 1940s in an optimal design to minimize distances and allow healthy social interaction, and the quarter is still considered as a masterpiece of city planning in Cyprus.
North Nicosia is mainly inhabited by Turkish Cypriots and Turkish settlers (including migrant workers). Turkish settlers make up the majority of the population in the walled city, while Turkish Cypriots predominantly inhabit the areas of the city outside the walls. Turkish Cypriots follow a more secularized lifestyle than the more conservative settlers, leading to tension between the communities.However, in the 2010s, a significant number of settled workers in the walled city left Northern Cyprus.
Historically, Turkish Cypriots had concentrated to the north of the riverbed and Greek Cypriots to the south.The Green Line was drawn to separate the Turkish quarters of the city from the Greek quarters, and 7000 Turkish Cypriots, around 30% of the Turkish population of Greater Nicosia, were displaced from quarters of the walled city and some suburbs such as Küçük Kaymaklı/Omorphita. North Nicosia also received a great number of displaced Turkish Cypriots from surrounding villages. The Göçmenköy quarter (literally meaning "village of the displaced") was founded to resettle these displaced people. The Arab Ahmet quarter had had an Armenian Cypriot presence since the Ottoman conquest; having been a minority until the 1920s, they constituted the overwhelming majority of the area by the 1950s. 200 Armenians from Arab Ahmet, Köşklüçiftlik and Kumsal fled the quarter during the inter-communal violence of 1963. Greek Cypriots fled from the Ayluka/Ayios Loukas quarter in 1963, and from the Trachones/Kızılbaş and Küçük Kaymaklı/Omorphita quarters in 1974. The number of Greek Cypriots displaced from these quarters in 1974 was around 4700.
North Nicosia is the financial and economic centre of Northern Cyprus. In 2012, Lefkoşa District had 39.9% of the workplaces and 49.5% of the employees in Northern Cyprus.The Central Bank of Northern Cyprus is located on the Bedrettin Demirel Avenue. The city has seen great urban growth in the last decades, but the authorities have been criticized over the lack of city planning. Between 2008 and 2010, the construction rates in the North Nicosia urban area grew by 23.9%, with the largest boom observed in the construction of new industrial facilities in the city, which grew by 87.5% over two years. North Nicosia also grew in importance as a centre of commerce as the construction of offices grew by 74.2%. Recently, programmes have been put to place to regulate the growth of the city that has expanded uncontrollably. North Nicosia has been identified as a city with a high amount of development and welfare.
One aspect of North Nicosia that gives it the advantage for economical growth is its central position in Northern Cyprus, where transport links from Kyrenia, Famagusta and Morphou intersect. North Nicosia is home to the Nicosia International Fair and an Organized Industrial Area, where many businesses and manufacturers are located. Their location, along with other facilities such as the large sports complex, were chosen to be on the connection between the highways linking Morphou to Famagusta. North Nicosia hugely influences the economy of the surrounding district, as far as the Ercan International Airport, along with Dikomo in the Girne District.
The economy in the walled city has stagnated through the 2000s and 2010s, with the central Municipal Market losing its popularity, as of 2014 [update] and programs have been put to place to reinvigorate the region with cultural activities being organized. In 2014, the Arasta shopping region close to the Ledra Street crossing was pedestrianized, which increased the popularity of the area.even though it has started to receive investment
Tourism is an important sector of the economy. In 2012, North Nicosia hosted more than 146,000 tourists, accounting for 13.8% of the total touristic stays in Northern Cyprus.In 2008, after the opening of the Ledra Street crossing, the Arasta area saw an influx of visitors as around 2300 Greek Cypriots and tourists used the crossing to cross into the area daily. The city has seen the construction of large hotels in the late 2000s and early 2010s. The constructions have changed the city's skyline, with the newly constructed Merit Hotel on the Bedrettin Demirel Avenue and the Golden Tulip Hotel in the Dereboyu region being highly visible high-rises. The country's oldest hotel, the Saray Hotel was also renovated and each of the three hotels has its own casino, with a total capacity of around 700 people.
The city saw around 117 million Turkish liras of new construction in the year 2011 alone. In this year, a large amount of construction of dwellings was observed especially in the Hamitköy area and Gönyeli, which is part of the Nicosia urban area, but also in the regions of Küçük Kaymaklı and Aydemet region, indicating a residential growth in these areas.
North Nicosia is home to cultural diversity. Students from different backgrounds in the universities celebrate their national festivals with activities, at which their national dances and traditions are performed.Different religious groups conduct cultural activities; the Alevi Cultural Association is headquartered in Nicosia.
The Near East University annually holds a spring fest, during which famous Turkish Cypriot, Turkish and international singers and bands perform, dance festivals, sports and board game competitions are held.In 2014, the university built the Park Near East on an area of 220,000 thousand square metres, and the concerts of Deep Purple and Turkish bands such as Yüksek Sadakat drew tens of thousands of spectators from Cyprus and Turkey. During the festival, the Moscow State Ballet also performed in the university. It also hosts the annual Rock 'n Cyprus festival, at which bands from Turkey perform, and organizes the NEU Nicosia Carnival at the Dereboyu region of the city, at which the students display their culture and the locals crowd into the streets.
The city has hosted other musical organizations, such as the Shark Virgin Island Festival, which is the greatest electronic music organisation in the island. The Dereboyu region has become a centre of entertainment, where street parties,festivals and concerts of local bands and singers take place. The walled city has also seen investment in the recent years, with cultural centres and bars being opened. To reinvigorate the region, monthly street parties are organized.
The city has fine arts institutions at university levels, with the fine arts faculties of the Near East University and Cyprus International University. The universities contribute to the artistic culture of the city by participating in exhibitions and competitions, and students are involved in creating artistic depictions of Nicosia.In 2014, an arts and culture centre in the Arabahmet region was reopened with the contribution of the Girne American University. In 2013, a new exhibition hall was unveiled in the Near East University, whose students participate in organizations abroad.
Photography exhibitions and competitions take place in the city, organized by the state and private institutions alike.Traditional handicrafts are also actively practiced, with exhibitions taking place.
The city is home to a number of museums. The Dervish Pasha Mansion is similar in architecture to the Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion, reflecting typical late Ottoman urban architecture, and functions as an ethnographic museum today. It hosts artifacts relating to the Ottoman era and the archaeological history of Cyprus.Another example of a house preserved as such is the Lusignan House, reflecting the architecture of the Lusignan era and the Gothic style, and is furnished with Lusignan and Ottoman items.
The Mevlevi Tekke Museum used to be the headquarters of the Mevlevi sect, associated with the Whirling Dervishes. It was designed for purposes that are similar to monasteries, and now functions as an ethnographic museum as well, reflecting the rites of the sect.
The Lapidary Museum was originally built as a guesthouse for the pilgrims visiting the St. Sophia Cathedral (now the Selimiye Mosque). It hosts a collection of architectural artifacts and antiquities that have been excavated.
The Near East University campus is also home to three museums: the Communications Museum, the Art Museum and the Classical Cars Museum.
The Turkish Cypriot State Theatre and Nicosia Municipal Theater are headquartered in Nicosia and put on a number of plays each year. The Nicosia Turkish Municipality organizes the Cyprus Theatre Festival annually, and prominent theatrical groups from Turkey as well as the Nicosia Municipal Theatre participate in the festival that takes place in the Atatürk Culture and Congress Centre of the Near East University. Theatre is very popular in Northern Cyprus, and as such, long queues form for the ticket sales of the festival, with the number of theatre-goers increasing every year.The Nicosia Municipal Theatre children as well and the Gönyeli municipality holds its own theatre workshop that puts on plays. Nicosia Artistic Theatre is another theatrical group that is active in the city.
Nicosia Turkish Municipality founded its Lefkoşa Municipal Orchestrain 1987. Since then, the orchestra has grown and developed several branches, including the Children's Choir, Folk Music Choir, Pop Orchestra, Latin Orchestra and the Chamber Music Orchestra, with about 90 participants, most of whom are volunteers. The orchestra frequently delivers concerts and participates in big musical festivals held in the country. At times, the orchestra delivers concerts at open spaces, such as parks and squares. It also holds composing contests. The Presidential Symphony Orchestra of Northern Cyprus, founded in 2015, is based in North Nicosia and as of 2018, the works for building a concert hall and headquarters for the orchestra are underway. The city is home to the annual Nicosia Walled City Jazz Festival, at which both local and Turkish jazz musicians take the stage.
The city hosts several folk dance groups, which organize annual festivals to perform Cypriot folk dances.The foreign students or delegations visiting universities perform their own traditional dances. The city hosts folk dance shows of children from other countries in the annual children's day on 23 April. North Nicosia annually hosts the Nicosia International Folk Dance Festival, where groups from various countries perform all around the city in parks and squares.
Several modern dance activities also take place in the city, where several dance schools are established. Internationally renowned musicals and dance shows are performed in front of crowded audiences in the Atatürk Culture and Congress Centre.In 2010, the city was part of the international Earthdance activity, which was witnessed by thousands of locals.
Nicosia is the seat of four Turkish Cypriot universities, namely the Near East University (NEU), Cyprus International University (CIU), University of Mediterranean Karpasia and the American University of Cyprus. It also hosts a campus of the Turkish Anadolu University, along with two vocational schools (Atatürk Academy of Teachers and the Police Academy) that are equivalent to universities. As of the 2014–2015 educational year, North Nicosia was home to a student population of over 34,000; Near East University is the largest university in Northern Cyprus with 25,068 students; Cyprus International University has 8324 students and the University of Mediterranean Karpasia has 632.The universities are home to great diversity, with the Near East University and Cyprus International University having students from 96 and 64 different countries respectively.
The Near East University was founded in 1988 and its campus is a few kilometers away from Nicosia proper.The Cyprus International University followed in 1997 with a campus that is located at the Haspolat region, outside the proper city of Nicosia. The University of Mediterranean Karpasia was founded in 2011, and is located at a building in the Küçük Kaymaklı region, within the city of Nicosia.
The Near East University owns a supercomputer that ranks the 13th in the world and the first in the region in terms of computation speed and capacity, used to help universities from Turkey in their research along with the university itself, and has participated in the Large Hadron Collider experiment at CERN, as well as Ebola virus disease treatment research.The NEU has also locally developed and manufactured a completely solar energy-powered car and has research centers in topics ranging from tissue engineering to history. The Cyprus International University is home to eight research centers. Examples of research conducted include excavations that have uncovered the earliest human bones that have ever been found in Cyprus and possible devices that could be implanted on the human body to facilitate communication.
The Grand Library of the Near East University is home to over 1 million printed and 150 million electronic resources and is visited by more than 7000 people daily, and agreements have been signed to share these resources with Turkish institutions.
In the North Nicosia urban area there are 21 state-owned institutions that offer primary education, along with three special institutions for children with disabilities.The city hosts three kinds of high schools: state-owned highschools (lise) that teach in Turkish, state-owned "colleges" (kolej) that teach in English and private high schools. The Türk Maarif Koleji is a state-owned high school with over 1000 students that teaches in English, was established in 1964 and prepares students for the British educational system. The private high schools in Nicosia are the Near East College, the Levent College and the TED College. There are also the state-owned Anadolu High School of Fine Arts and four vocational high schools.
North Nicosia is a major transport hub in Northern Cyprus, where the highways from the other major cities of Northern Cyprus, Famagusta, Kyrenia and Morphou intersect. It is connected to the other cities with modern, four-lane highways: the D-30 highway from Morphou to Famagusta passes through Nicosia, D-25 to Kyrenia.Ercan International Airport has been used for international flights. There is no train or metro system nor plans to develop one. In 2011, plans to build a tram system were put forward but rejected, yet the popular opinion is strongly in favor of establishing one.
North Nicosia has seen the construction of new highways and roads recently to solve its traffic problem, including the construction of two ringroads in the 2010s. One of these links the Metehan area and indirectly the Dereboyu region to Alayköy and indirectly the highway to Morphou, and was completed and opened to public traffic in 2014.The other one, the Nicosia Northern Ringroad, is currently under construction and will connect D-30 from Famagusta to Morphou directly to D-25 from Kyrenia, preventing the entry of vehicles from Kyrenia going to the airport and from Famagusta to Kyrenia, Gönyeli or Morphou into the city. Whilst the construction stalled for a time due to land disputes, the work on the project recommenced in 2018.
The company of LETTAŞ provides bus services in North Nicosia.Buses are the only form of public transport available, and the system is considered unreliable due to the unplanned city growth, resulting in private cars being the primary means of transport. There is a bus terminal in the region of Yenişehir. The walled city has been facilitated to be easily navigable on foot, but the municipality has been criticized over the lack of a reliable system of public transport.
A bicycle-sharing system called Velespeed was introduced by the municipality in 2018. The system consists of 410 bicycles and stations for rental or drop-off placed across the city, within 15 minutes of cycling distance of one another.
North Nicosia hosts five out of the fourteen teams of the Turkish Cypriot Süper Lig, the top football division in Northern Cyprus: Çetinkaya, Yenicami, Küçük Kaymaklı, Gönyeli and Gençlik Gücü.Çetinkaya is the most successful Turkish Cypriot team with 14 titles, and teams from Nicosia have won the majority of the trophies in the league. Çetinkaya is also the oldest member of the league, founded in 1930, and holds the distinction of having won the united Cypriot league prior to the division. There is also a large following of Turkish football teams in the city, with celebrations in the Dereboyu area for their victories.
The city annually hosts the Nicosia Marathon, to which over a thousand people participated in 2014, including leading political figures. The marathon passes through the city's popular avenues and landmarks with the categories of 4, 8 and 21 kilometres, the 4 km being regarded as a public walk. Among the other sports events in the city is the Lefkoşa Open tennis tournament. Lefkoşa Beach Volley Arena located in the city hosts the annual Zafer Beach Volleyball Cup that are part of the Turkish national cup. In 2015, the city hosted the first Nicosia Youth and Sports Festival, encompassing a number of sports activities from 22 sports, including a street basketball event, tennis, handball, shooting, boxing and table tennis tournaments.
North Nicosia is home to several sports venues. The center of sports in the city is considered to be the Atatürk Sports Complex, home of the Nicosia Atatürk Stadium, which is the biggest stadium in the island with a capacity of 28,000 people. The stadium is the home of Çetinkaya and Yenicami.The sports complex also hosts the Atatürk Sports Hall, which functions as an arena for basketball, volleyball and handball, the Atatürk Indoor Swimming Pool, where popular swimming completitions are held with Turkish teams also participating, tennis courts and headquarters of the Turkish Cypriots sports federations of several branches. The complex also hosts an athlete training facility, and is accessible to disabled athletes. The Nicosia Turkish Municipality is active in terms of building new sports facilities and has done so in the Metehan area, with projects underway in the Hamitköy and Haspolat regions.
North Nicosia has hosted international sports organizations. It hosted the 9th Global Taekwondo Federation World Taekwondo Championship in 2013and the Economic Cooperation Organization University Games in 2013. Its prospects of hosting and participating in many international tournaments are hindered by an international sports embargo. It was also part of the annual Cyprus Rally in 2014, which garnered huge popular attention and attracted crowds.
The universities contribute significantly to the sports life of North Nicosia. The Near East University has the only Olympic pool in the island with an area of 2700 square meters, and over 12000 people have attended swimming courses in the pool.It also has a modern sports hall and a health and wellness campus covering more than 2000 square meters. Its synchronised swimming team carries out regular performances and is active in several branches. The CIU Arena of the Cyprus International University has a total area of 22,500 square metres and is the biggest integrated sports complex in Northern Cyprus. It hosts an indoor sports hall, an indoor swimming pool, tennis courts and other facilities from a beach handball arena to a climbing wall. It also has the CIU Foxes teams, whose men's handball branch won the national league two times in a row.
North Nicosia is twinned with:
Nicosia is the largest city, capital, and seat of government of the island of Cyprus. It is located near the centre of the Mesaoria plain, on the banks of the River Pedieos.
Nicosia Atatürk Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in the North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus. It is the largest stadium in Northern Cyprus. It is currently used mostly for football matches and hosted some matches for the 2006 ELF Cup. It also serves as the home of Çetinkaya and Yenicami of the KTFF Süper Lig and Gençlik Gücü of the KTFF Birinci Lig. The stadium holds 28,000 people, and has a tartan track that is used for athletics competitions and for walking by the locals. The stadium also hosts celebrations in national holidays, and dance shows, attended by thousands.
Gönyeli is a town in Cyprus, near the capital city Nicosia. It is de facto under the control of Northern Cyprus. Over the years the town has merged with North Nicosia, making it connurbated with the city. Its population as of 2011 is 11,671.
Malia is a village in the Limassol District of Cyprus, located 4 km south of Omodos.
The culture of Northern Cyprus is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with Northern Cyprus and Turkish Cypriots. It features significant elements influenced by or developed upon the culture of Turkey, but combines these elements with a unique Cypriot approach and local traditions, as well as several other influences, such as the British and contemporary western cultures.
Bedrettin Demirel Avenue is an avenue in North Nicosia. It is one of the busiest avenues in the northern part of the city.
Kadri Fellahoğlu is a Turkish Cypriot politician, who was the mayor of the capital of Northern Cyprus, North Nicosia's Nicosia Turkish Municipality between 2013 and 2014. He was born in Paphos.
Taşkınköy is a quarter of North Nicosia in Northern Cyprus. As of 2011, it had a population of 3,847.
Presidential elections were held in Northern Cyprus in April 2015. In the first round, held on 19 April 2015, the incumbent president independent candidate Derviş Eroğlu and independent candidate Mustafa Akıncı progressed to the second round. The second round took place on 26 April 2015 and was won by Akıncı.
Köşklüçiftlik is a quarter of North Nicosia in Northern Cyprus. In 2011, it had a population of 2,939.
Göçmenköy is a quarter of North Nicosia in Northern Cyprus. As of 2011, it had a population of 3,003. It was founded in 1966 as a settlement for the Turkish Cypriots displaced by the intercommunal violence. The formerly rural area became heavily urbanized in the 1960s and 70s. Göçmenköy became a vibrant part of North Nicosia, and is home to the Atatürk Sports Complex, which is home to the Nicosia Atatürk Stadium, the largest stadium in Cyprus. It co-hosts an annual international festival.
Nicosia Municipal Theater is a prominent theatrical organization in Northern Cyprus. Headquartered in North Nicosia, it is organized under the Nicosia Turkish Municipality.
Tahsin Ertuğruloğlu is a Turkish Cypriot politician. He served as a member of the Assembly of the Republic representing the Lefkoşa District between 1998 and 2018. During this time, he was a member of the National Unity Party (UBP) between 1998 and 2010, serving as the leader of the party between 2006 and 2008. He returned to the UBP in 2012 and remained its representative until the end of his tenure as an MP. He served in different ministerial positions, including a five-year tenure as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defense between 1998 and 2004.
Cumhuriyet Park is a park in the Gönyeli quarter of North Nicosia. It is the resting place of Rauf Denktaş, the founder of Northern Cyprus, and is an important tourist attraction.
Nicosia Municipal Orchestra is an orchestra based in North Nicosia operated by the Nicosia Turkish Municipality. As of 2014, it was the largest orchestra in Northern Cyprus.
Doğuş Derya is a Turkish Cypriot activist and politician. She was elected a member of the Assembly of the Republic of Northern Cyprus in 2013.
Dervish Pasha Mansion is a historical mansion and ethnographic museum in the Arab Ahmet quarter of Nicosia, currently located in North Nicosia. It lies on the Beliğ Paşa Street and has two floors. It is considered to be one of the finest examples of Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Özdil Nami is a Turkish Cypriot politician. He has served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Northern Cyprus and the Turkish Cypriot Special Representative in the negotiations to solve the Cyprus dispute. He currently serves as the Minister of Economy and Energy of Northern Cyprus.
Below are the numbers of students registered in TRNC universities for the 2014–15 autumn term: 25,068 in the Near East University [...] As for the student numbers of our other universities; the Cyprus International University has 8324 [...] the University of Mediterranean Karpasia 632
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