Peninsula

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The Fennoscandian Peninsula in March 2002, photo taken by Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite Scandinavia M2002074 lrg.jpg
The Fennoscandian Peninsula in March 2002, photo taken by Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite

A peninsula (Latin : paeninsula from paene 'almost' and insula 'island') is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. [1] [2] [3] [4] The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a body of water. A river which courses through a very tight meander is also sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the (almost closed) loop of water. A peninsula is land with bodies of water on three sides of it.

Contents

Florida, an example of a peninsula, photo taken during STS-95 STS-95 Florida From Space.jpg
Florida, an example of a peninsula, photo taken during STS-95

There is no precise definition distinguishing peninsulas from less prominent extensions, and extensions conventionally considered peninsulas are not always named as such; they can also be referred to as a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, point, fork, or spit. [5] A point is generally considered a piece of land projecting into a body of water that is less prominent than a cape. [6] The area of peninsulas can range from tiny to very large.

Manifestations

A form of the peninsula is the headland [7] and the particularly narrow spit [8] that has been washed up . If a peninsula is located in an inland body of water (lake, river) it is also referred to as an "inland peninsula".

Notable peninsulas

Europe

Africa

Asia

Australia

Americas

Antarctica

See also

Related Research Articles

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Øresund The strait between Denmark and Sweden

Øresund or Öresund, commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden). The strait has a length of 118 kilometres (73 mi); its width varies from 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to 28 kilometres (17 mi). It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden.

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Esker Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel associated with former glaciers

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Landforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as their creating process, shape, elevation, slope, orientation, rock exposure, and soil type.

Spit (landform) Coastal bar or beach landform deposited by longshore drift

A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores. It develops in places where re-entrance occurs, such as at a cove's headlands, by the process of longshore drift by longshore currents. The drift occurs due to waves meeting the beach at an oblique angle, moving sediment down the beach in a zigzag pattern. This is complemented by longshore currents, which further transport sediment through the water alongside the beach. These currents are caused by the same waves that cause the drift.

Longshore drift Sediment moved by the longshore current

Longshore drift from longshore current is a geological process that consists of the transportation of sediments along a coast parallel to the shoreline, which is dependent on the angle incoming wave direction. Oblique incoming wind squeezes water along the coast, and so generates a water current which moves parallel to the coast. Longshore drift is simply the sediment moved by the longshore current. This current and sediment movement occur within the surf zone. The process is also known as littoral drift.

Cape Blanco (Oregon)

Cape Blanco is a prominent headland on the Pacific Ocean coast of southwestern Oregon in the United States, forming the westernmost point in the state. Cape Blanco extends further west than any point of land in the contiguous United States except portions of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, including Cape Alava, the true westernmost point. The cape is part of Cape Blanco State Park and is the location of the Cape Blanco Light, first lit in 1870.

Dungeness Spit

Dungeness Spit is a long sand spit jutting out approximately 5 miles (8 km) from the northern edge of the Olympic Peninsula in northeastern Clallam County, Washington, USA, into the Strait of Juan de Fuca. It is the longest natural sand spit in the United States. The spit is growing in length by about 15 feet (4.6 m) per year. The body of water it encloses is called Dungeness Bay. The Dungeness Spit is entirely within the Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge and home of the New Dungeness Lighthouse. Its land area, according to the United States Census Bureau, is 1,271,454 square meters. The lighthouse once was run by United States Coast Guard, but in 1976 the agency installed an automatic light. Since 1994 the lighthouse has been staffed and maintained by the volunteer "New Dungeness Light Station Association". The spit is open to the public year around. The spit has a campground and "Dungeness Recreation Area" that is also open year-round. The campground features a 1-mile long scenic bluff trail, several miles of hiking/biking trails, and a designated equestrian trail.

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Leslie Street Spit

The Leslie Street Spit, or officially the Outer Harbour East Headland, is a man-made headland in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, extending from the city's east end in a roughly southwesterly direction into Lake Ontario. It is about 5 kilometres (3 mi) long. The Spit is the result of five decades of lakefilling by the Toronto Port Authority. It was conceived as an extension of Toronto Harbour, and has evolved into a largely passive recreation area. Naturalization had not been planned but the process is now actively managed by the Toronto Region Conservation Authority. A large portion of it is classified as an Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) and it is recognized as an Important Bird Area.

Diapir Type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks

A diapir is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks. Depending on the tectonic environment, diapirs can range from idealized mushroom-shaped Rayleigh–Taylor-instability-type structures in regions with low tectonic stress such as in the Gulf of Mexico to narrow dikes of material that move along tectonically induced fractures in surrounding rock. The term was introduced by the Romanian geologist Ludovic Mrazek, who was the first to understand the principle of salt tectonics and plasticity. The term diapir may be applied to igneous structures, but it is more commonly applied to non-igneous, relatively cold materials, such as salt domes and mud diapirs.

Coastal geography Study of the region between the ocean and the land

Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography and the human geography of the coast. It includes understanding coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weather, and the ways in which humans interact with the coast

Bay Recessed, coastal body of water connected to an ocean or lake

A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or even another bay. A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a small, circular bay with a narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity.

Arrowsmith Peninsula

Arrowsmith Peninsula is a cape about 40 miles (64 km) long on the west coast of Graham Land, west of Forel Glacier, Sharp Glacier and Lallemand Fjord, and northwest of Bourgeois Fjord, with Hanusse Bay lying to the northwest. It was surveyed by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) in 1955-58 and named for Edwin Porter Arrowsmith, Governor of the Falkland Islands.

Barff Peninsula is a peninsula forming the east margin of Cumberland East Bay, South Georgia Island. It is 8 miles (13 km) long and extends northwest from Sörling Valley to Barff Point, its farthest extremity. It was probably first seen by the British expedition under James Cook in 1775. The peninsula as a whole takes its name from Barff Point, which was named for Royal Navy Lieutenant A.D. Barff of HMS Sappho, who, assisted by Captain C.A. Larsen, sketched a map of Cumberland Bay in 1906. Barff Point is considered the eastern headland of East Cumberland Bay.

A headland, also known as a head, is a coastal landform, a point of land usually high and often with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water. It is a type of promontory. A headland of considerable size often is called a cape. Headlands are characterised by high, breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion, and steep sea cliff.

A graded shoreline is a stage in the cycle of coastal development characterised by a flat and straight coastline. It is formed under the influence of wind and water from the original bays, islands, peninsulas and promontories. Sand and gravel is carried away and dumped at other locations depending on the direction and strength of sea currents. Typical of graded shorelines are the formation of dunes, wide sandy beaches and sometimes a lagoon or a spit. Where two graded shorelines meet, a headland may form with a sandy reef in the sea beyond it. Parallel to the graded shoreline sandbanks may form as a result of sediments transported away from the shore.

References

  1. Word Histories and Mysteries: From Abracadabra to Zeus. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2004. p. 216. ISBN   978-0547350271. OCLC   55746553.
  2. "pen·in·su·la". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  3. "Definition of peninsula". Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Cambridge University Press . Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  4. "Definition of peninsula". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  5. "List of peninsulas". Encyclopædia Britannica . 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  6. "Fourah Point / Fourah Point, Northern, Sierra Leone, Africa". travelingluck.com. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  7. "Headland Landforms" . Retrieved 2021-03-13.
  8. heart; Working, When He Is Not; Life, He Is Probably Exploring the Secrets of (2019-06-07). "What is a Spit Landform in Geography? How are Spits Formed and 7 Most Famous Spits on Our Planet". Earth Eclipse. Retrieved 2021-03-13.