Volcanic crater lake

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Crater Lake in Oregon, US Crater lake oregon.jpg
Crater Lake in Oregon, US
Heaven Lake, the crater lake of Paektu Mountain on the China-North Korea border Baitou Mountain Tianchi.jpg
Heaven Lake, the crater lake of Paektu Mountain on the China–North Korea border
Landsat image of Lake Toba, Indonesia, the largest volcanic crater lake in the world Toba zoom.jpg
Landsat image of Lake Toba, Indonesia, the largest volcanic crater lake in the world
Lake Pinatubo, Philippines, formed after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo Mount Pinatubo 20081229 01.jpg
Lake Pinatubo, Philippines, formed after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
Mount Aso crater lake, Japan Mount Aso acid lake seen from helicopter by ET.jpg
Mount Aso crater lake, Japan
Taal volcano, Philippines Taal volcano aerial.jpg
Taal volcano, Philippines
Irazu crater lake, Costa Rica Irazu crater lake from the mirador by ET.jpg
Irazú crater lake, Costa Rica
Maderas crater lake (Ometepe Island), Nicaragua Laguna de Maderas by ET.jpg
Maderas crater lake (Ometepe Island), Nicaragua
Lake Ilopango, El Salvador crater lake Ilopango caldera.jpg
Lake Ilopango, El Salvador crater lake
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador crater lake Teopan.jpg
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador crater lake
Cuicocha, Ecuador Cuicocha, Ecuador.jpg
Cuicocha, Ecuador
Niuafo'ou crater lake, Tonga Satellite view of Niuafo'ou, 2005-03-19.jpg
Niuafo'ou crater lake, Tonga
Katmai crater lake, Alaska, US Katmai Crater 1980.jpg
Katmai crater lake, Alaska, US
Kelimutu crater lake, Indonesia Kelimutu 2007-07-21.jpg
Kelimutu crater lake, Indonesia
Mount Dendi double crater lake, Ethiopia (seen from the ISS) Dendi Caldera.jpg
Mount Dendi double crater lake, Ethiopia (seen from the ISS)
Wonchi crater lake, Ethiopia Wonchi Lake of Ethiopia.jpg
Wonchi crater lake, Ethiopia
Dziani Dzaha, Mayotte Lac dziani vue.jpg
Dziani Dzaha, Mayotte
Kerid crater lake, Iceland Iceland2009-BradWeber-Kerid.jpg
Kerið crater lake, Iceland
Lake Yeak Laom, Cambodia Yak Loum.jpg
Lake Yeak Laom, Cambodia
Soda Lakes maar volcano in Nevada, US Kluft-photo-SodaLake-rim-2018-11.jpg
Soda Lakes maar volcano in Nevada, US

A volcanic crater lake is a lake in a crater that was formed from explosive activity or collapse during a volcanic eruption.


Lakes in calderas fill large craters formed by the collapse of a volcano during an eruption. Lakes in maars fill medium-sized craters where an eruption deposited debris around a vent.

Crater lakes form as the created depression, within the crater rim, is filled by water. The water may come from precipitation, groundwater circulation (often hydrothermal fluids in the case of volcanic craters) or melted ice. Its level rises until an equilibrium is reached between the rates of incoming and outgoing water. Sources of water loss singly or together may include evaporation, subsurface seepage, and, in places, surface leakage or overflow when the lake level reaches the lowest point on its rim. At such a saddle location, the upper portion of the lake is contained only by its adjacent natural volcanic dam; continued leakage through or surface outflow across the dam can erode its included material, thus lowering lake level until a new equilibrium of water flow, erosion, and rock resistance is established. If the volcanic dam portion erodes rapidly or fails catastrophically, the occurrence produces a breakout or outburst flood. With changes in environmental conditions over time, the occurrence of such floods is common to all natural dam types.

A well-known crater lake, which bears the same name as the geological feature, is Crater Lake in Oregon. It is located in the caldera of Mount Mazama. It is the deepest lake in the United States with a depth of 594 m (1,949 ft). Crater Lake is fed solely by falling rain and snow, with no inflow or outflow at the surface, and hence is one of the clearest lakes in the world. [1]

The highest volcano in the world, 6,893-m (22,615-ft) Ojos del Salado in Chile, has a permanent crater lake about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter at an elevation of 6,390 m (20,965 ft) on its eastern side. [2] This is most likely the highest lake of any kind in the world.

Due to their unstable environments, some crater lakes exist only intermittently. Caldera lakes in contrast can be quite large and long-lasting. For instance, Lake Toba (Indonesia) formed after its eruption around 75,000 years ago. At around 100 km (60 miles) by 30 km (18 miles) in extent and 505 m (1,656 ft) deep at its deepest point, Lake Toba is the largest crater lake in the world. [3]

While many crater lakes are picturesque, they can also be deadly. Gas discharges from Lake Nyos (Cameroon) suffocated 1,800 people in 1986, and crater lakes such as Mount Ruapehu's (New Zealand) often contribute to destructive lahars.

Certain bodies of water, although their formation is directly related to volcanic activity, are not usually referred to as crater lakes, including:

List of volcanic crater lakes

Waw an Namus (three small salt lakes in the caldera) Libya
Deriba Caldera Sudan
Meme River Basin lakes (Lake Barombi Koto, Lake Barombi Mbo, Lake Mboandong and Lake Dissoni/Soden) Cameroon
Lake Nachtiga (between Mount Cameroon and the Atlantic coast)Cameroon
Bakossi Mountains: Lake Bermin and Mount Manengouba lakes (lac Mâle and lac Femelle)Cameroon
Adamawa crater lakes (Tison, Mbalang)Cameroon
Oku Volcanic Field, including Lake Nyos, Lake Oku, Lake Monoun, Mount Mbapit crater lake, Lake Awing and the Bambili lakesCameroon
Dallol (various acid ponds) Ethiopia
Zengena Lake Ethiopia
Enyo Lake (or Haro Dandii, a lake filling a double crater caldera on Mount Dendi) and Lake Wonchi [4] (Badda Rogghie Mountains)Ethiopia
Debre Zeyit crater lakes (Bishoftu, Hora, Bishoftu Guda, Koriftu and seasonal Cheleklaka)Ethiopia
Lake Dembel, Mount Zuqualla Ethiopia
Lake Ara Shetan (Butajiri-Silti Volcanic Field)Ethiopia
O'a Caldera, with Lake Shala and the smaller Chitu water-filled maarEthiopia
Bilate River Volcanic Field (several water-filled maars)Ethiopia
El Sod (small salt lake), South Omo ValleyEthiopia
Mount Biao, Bioko Island Equatorial Guinea
Lago a Pot, Annobón Island Equatorial Guinea
Lake Assal Djibouti
Kabarole District lakes (including lakes Nyinabulitwa, Nyabikere, Nkuruba, Kifuruka) Uganda
Many crater lakes in the Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru (or Kichwambe) volcanic fields, respectively on the North and South sides of the Kazinga Channel (including Lake Katwe in the Queen Elizabeth National Park)Uganda
Muhavura (small crater lake) Rwanda / Uganda
Mount Bisoke Rwanda / Democratic Republic of Congo
Crocodile Lake, Flamingo Lake, Tilapia Lake, on Central Island (Lake Turkana) Kenya
Mount Marsabit (at least two lakes)Kenya
Emuruangogolak (several maar lakes)Kenya
Lake Simbi, Mount Homa Kenya
Lake Sonachi (Crater Lake Game Sanctuary)Kenya
Lake Chala Kenya / Tanzania
Southern Highlands crater lakes (Lake Ngozi, Kiungululu Crater, Masoko Crater) Tanzania
Lakes Magadi and Empakaai (Ngorongoro Conservation Area)Tanzania
Lake Dziani Boundouni, Mohéli Island Comoros
Dziani Dzaha, Petite-Terre Mayotte
Lake Tritriva Madagascar
Nosy Be crater lakesMadagascar
Itasy crater lakes (close to the larger Lake Itasy)Madagascar
Trou aux Cerfs Mauritius
Ganga Talao lakeMauritius
Piton de l'Eau Réunion
Lagoa do FanalPortugal, Madeira
Laguna de los Ciclos (Charco Verde), El Golfo, Lanzarote Spain, Canary Islands
Pedra de Lume (salt lake in the crater), Sal Island Cape Verde
Queen Mary's Peak (heart-shaped crater lake) Tristan da Cunha
Lake Toba Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Sibayak Indonesia, Sumatra
Lake Maninjau Indonesia, Sumatra
Lake Asam (Suwoh Caldera)Indonesia, Sumatra
Lake Gunung Tujuh Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Talang (Talang and Dibawah Lakes)Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Singgalang (Dewi and Kumbang Lakes)Indonesia, Sumatra
Bukit Daun Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Kerinci Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Kaba Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Dempo Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Kunyit Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Sumbing Indonesia, Sumatra
Sorikmarapi Indonesia, Sumatra
Ijen Indonesia, Java
Kawah Putih, Mount Patuha Indonesia, Java
Mount Lamongan (several maare)Indonesia, Java
Kelut (no crater lake anymore after 2007–2008 slow eruptions with hot lava dome, but in 2014 eruption lava dome is thrown away and in rainy season, the crater is initial fill with water)Indonesia, Java
Lake Ngebel, Gunung WilisIndonesia, Java
Mount Lawu Indonesia, Java
Talagabodas Indonesia, Java
Tengger caldeira (several maar lakes on Semeru summit, seasonnal lake in Bromo crater)Indonesia, Java
The Triangle of Lakes (Ranu Klakah, Ranu Bedali, Ranu Pakis)Indonesia, Java
Mount Galunggung crater lake Indonesia, Java
Merdodo (Dieng Volcanic Complex)Indonesia, Java
Telaga Warna (Dieng Volcanic Complex)Indonesia, Java
Danau Batur, Bali Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Lake Segara Anak (Mount Rinjani), Lombok Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Tambora (ephemeral lake), Sumbawa Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Kelimutu (three crater lakes), Flores Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Inielika (several small temporary dark lakes), Flores Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Sano Nggoang (the deepest volcanic crater lake in the world with depth of 600 meters), West Manggarai Regency, Flores Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Mount Sirung, Pantar Island Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Kawah Masem, Mount Sempu Indonesia, Sulawesi
Mount Mahawu Indonesia, Sulawesi
Lake Tondano Indonesia, Sulawesi
Mount Klabat Indonesia, Sulawesi
Makian Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Mount Ibu (several small crater lakes), Halmahera Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Todoko-Ranu, Halmahera Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Lake Telaga Paca, Halmahera Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Four crater lakes in the Lower Chindwin volcanic area, including Twin Taung Burma (Myanmar)
Yak Loum Cambodia
Nong Fa Lake Laos
Toroeng Prong Vietnam
Khorgo Uul (at least two lakes) Mongolia
Chaihe scenic spot [5] near Zhalantun (several crater lakes in this volcanic area)China, Inner Mongolia
Longwanqun crater lakesChina, Jilin
Heaven Lake (Chonji/Tianchi), Baekdu Mountain North Korea / China, Jilin
White Deer Lake (Baengnokdam), Mulyeongari-Oreum, Muljangori-Oreum South Korea, Jeju Island
Akan caldera lakes (Akan, Mashū, Kussharo) Japan, Hokkaidō
Lake Shikotsu Japan, Hokkaidō
Lake Tōya Japan, Hokkaidō
Lake Kuttara Japan, Hokkaidō
Towada Japan, Honshū
Tazawa (deepest lake in Japan)Japan, Honshū
Mount Zaō (lake Okama)Japan, Honshū
Mount Kusatsu-Shirane (three lakes, including the acidic Yu-gama with sulfur rafts floating on its turquoise surface)Japan, Honshū
Izu-Tobu (Ippeki lake)Japan, Honshū
Lake Haruna Japan, Honshū
Mount Hakone (Lake Ashi)Japan, Honshū
Naruko (Lake Katanuma)Japan, Honshū
Aizu-Bandai-san (various lakes)Japan, Honshū
Mount Iwate Japan, Honshū
Mount Ontake (five crater lakes)Japan, Honshū
Oguni-numa Pond Japan, Honshū
Numazawa-numa lakeJapan, Honshū
Hachoike, Mount Amagi Japan, Honshū
Mount Aso (Naka-dake)Japan, Kyūshū
Satsuma Peninsula, Lake Ikeda and Lake Unagi-ikeJapan, Kyūshū
Mount Kirishima lakes (including Mi-ike, Oonamino-ike, Rokkannonmi-ike, Byakushi-ike)Japan, Kyūshū
Imuta-ike Japan, Kyūshū
Tairo-ike, Miyake-jima Japan, Izu Islands
Otake, Nakanoshima Japan, Ryukyu Islands
Lake Pinatubo Philippines, Luzon
Taal Lake (caldera-filling) and the crater lake on its island's volcanoPhilippines, Luzon
Laguna de Bay Philippines, Luzon
Seven Lakes of San Pablo (Bunot, Calibato, Yambo, Pandin, Palakpakin, Muhikap, Sampaloc)Philippines, Luzon
Lake Tikub Philippines, Luzon
Mount Talinis (lakes Balinsasayao, Danao and Kabalin-an, within the Guintabon Caldera), Negros Island Philippines, Visayas
Margaja Valley caldera, Kanlaon Volcano, Negros Island Philippines, Visayas
Lakes Danao and Malagsom, Mahagnao Volcano, Leyte Island Philippines, Visayas
Lake Duminagat, Mount Malindang Philippines, Mindanao
Lake Leonard, Leonard Kniaseff Philippines, Mindanao
Mount Apo Philippines, Mindanao
Lake Maughan, Mount Parker Philippines, Mindanao
Jolo Island, Lakes Seit, Panamao, Timpuak and Sani CraterPhilippines, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago
Lake Khaiyr Russia, Yakutia
Khangar Russia, Kamchatka
Kizimen Russia, Kamchatka
Lake Dalny, Uzon CalderaRussia, Kamchatka
Maly Semyachik Russia, Kamchatka
Bolshoy Semyachik Russia, Kamchatka
Karymsky Lake, Akademia Nauk Russia, Kamchatka
Balshoe and Kraternoe, Ksudach Russia, Kamchatka
Kurile Lake Russia, Kamchatka
Gorely Russia, Kamchatka
Ebeko, Paramushir Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Onekotan Island (Kal'tsevoe Lake in the Tao-Rusyr Caldera and Nemo Lake/Caldera)Russia, Kuril Islands
Ketoy Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Zavaritski Caldera, Simushir Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Rudakov, Urup Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Iturup Island lakes (Medvezhia, Chirip, Grozny Group, Bogatyr Ridge)Russia, Kuril Islands
Sabalan Iran
Nemrut Turkey
Meke Golu (Karapınar Field)Turkey
Lake Acıgöl (bitter lake), also called Lake Nar (pomegranate lake)Turkey
Karagöl (Lake Tantalus), Mount Yamanlar Turkey
Lake Ram Israel
Bir Ali crater Yemen
Zubayr Group Islands (crater lakes on Saba Island and on the new island formed during the 2011–2012 eruption)Yemen
Eifel volcanic field (where maare were originally described), including Laacher See and Daun maars Germany
Eyjafjallajökull (volcano) Iceland
Kerið Iceland
Askja (Öskjuvatn and Viti lakes)Iceland
Krafla Iceland
Lake Bardarlaug Iceland
Grímsvötn (subglacial lake in the caldera, now exposed following the 2011 eruption)Iceland
crater lakes in the Landmannalaugar area (Blahylur, Ljotipollur)Iceland
Chaîne des Puys (Gour de Tazenat, Lac Pavin, Lac de Servière, Lac Chauvet, Lac du Bouchet, Lac d'En-Haut) France
Lac d'Issarlès France
Lazio crater lakes (Albano, Bolsena, Bracciano, Martignano, Nemi, Vico, Mezzano) Italy
Lake Avernus (close to Phlegraean Fields)Italy
Lake Sfânta Ana, Ciomadul volcano Romania
Lakes of Monticchio (Lago di Monticchio Grande and Lago di Montichhio Piccolo, twin crater lakes)Italy
Lago Vecchienna Italy
Lago Specchio di Venere (Venus Mirror Lake) or Bagno dell’Acqua (hydrothermal lake within a calderic depression)Italy, Pantelleria
seasonal maar lakes in the Provincia Volcánica de Calatrava (Hoya del Acebuche, Hoya de Cervera)Spain
Lagoa do Caldeirão, Corvo Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoa da Caldeira, Faial Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoas Funda das Lajes, Branca, Comprida, Seca, da Lomba, Rasa, Funda/Negra, Flores Island Portugal, Azores
Caldeira do Enxofre (underground lake filled with cold sulphur water), Graciosa Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoas Seca, da Rosada, Pico Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoa do Pico Pinheiro, São Jorge Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoa das Sete Cidades, do Fogo, das Furnas, Azul, Verde, São Miguel Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoas Negra, do Negro, Terceira Island Portugal, Azores
Mount Samsari (several small lakes in the caldera) Georgia
Lake Akna, Geghama mountains Armenia
Mount Ruapehu New Zealand, North Island
Lake Taupo New Zealand, North Island
Lakes of Rotorua, including Rotorua, Tarawera, Rotomahana, Rotokakahi, Tikitapu, Okareka and Okataina and smaller lakes from the Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley (Inferno Crater Lake, Frying Pan Lake, Southern Crater Lake)New Zealand, North Island
Lake Pupuke New Zealand, North Island
Mangere Lagoon New Zealand, North Island
Mount Tongariro (Tama Lakes, Blue Lake and the Emerald Lakes)New Zealand, North Island
Whakaari / White Island (Bay of Plenty), Crater LakeNew Zealand, off North Island coast
Tuhua / Mayor Island (Bay of Plenty), Lake Aroarotamahine and Lake Te Paritu New Zealand, off North Island coast
Raoul Island (Blue Lake, Green Lake, Rui Lake)New Zealand, Kermadec Islands
Victory Volcano crater lake Papua New Guinea, New Guinea
Lake Wisdom, Long Island Papua New Guinea, off New Guinea coast
Mount Balbi lakePapua New Guinea, Bougainville
Billy Mitchell Papua New Guinea, Bougainville
Loloru (crescent-shaped crater lake)Papua New Guinea, Bougainville
Dakataua (horseshoe-shaped caldera lake)Papua New Guinea, New Britain
Sakar Island Papua New Guinea, off New Britain coast
Mount Gambier maar complex (including Blue Lake)Australia, South Australia
Atherton Tableland (Lake Euramoo, Lake Eacham, Lake Barrine, Mount Hypipamee Crater, Lynch's Crater, Bromfield Swamp)Australia, Queensland
Mount Le Brun (two intermittent crater lakes)Australia, Queensland
Leura maar complex (Purrumbete, Bullen Merri, Gnotuk, Keilambete, Elingamite, Wangoom, Red Rock intermittent lakes)Australia, Victoria
Tower Hill Australia, Victoria
Mount Eccles Australia, Victoria
Green Lake, [6] Kapoho Crater, Kīlauea, Big Island,USA, Hawaii
Lake Waiau, crater of the Pu'u Waiau cinder cone, Mauna Kea, Big Island,USA, Hawaii
Kalaupapa crater lake, Molokai USA, Hawaii
Salt Lake (filled in for an urbanization project, except for a pond in a golf course), Honolulu, Oahu USA, Hawaii
Rano Kau, Rano Raraku and Rano Aroi (Ma′unga Terevaka)Chile, Easter Island
Anatahan (intermittent lake in the caldera) Northern Mariana Islands
Lake Te Roto, Tikopia Solomon Islands
Lake Lanoto'o, Upolu Samoa
Vai Lahi and Vai Si'i, Niuafo'ou Tonga
Tofua Tonga
Late (ephemeral lake)Tonga
Home Reef (newly formed island, crater lakes observed in 2006)Tonga
Lakes Lalolao, Lano, Lanutavake, Lanutuli, Lanumaha and Alofivai (intermittent), Wallis Island Wallis and Futuna
Lake Tagimaucia, Taveuni Island Fiji
Lake Letas, Gaua Island Vanuatu
Lombenben Volcano (lakes Vui, Manaro Ngoru, Manaro Lakua), Aoba Island Vanuatu
North America
Kasatochi volcano, Kasatochi Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Okmok, Umnak Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Kanaga, Kanaga Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Fenner Lake, Semisopochnoi Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Fisher Caldera (several lakes), Unimak Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Katmai United States, Alaska
Ukinrek Maars United States, Alaska
Mount Kaguyak United States, Alaska
Mount Martin (intermittent acidic lake)United States, Alaska
Mount Douglas United States, Alaska
Devil Mountain Lakes United States, Alaska
Surprise Lake, Mount Aniakchak United States, Alaska
Mount Emmons United States, Alaska
Mount Spurr United States, Alaska
Mount Chiginagak United States, Alaska
Fiftytwo Ridge (several crater lakes)Canada, British Columbia
Mount Rainier United States, Washington
Battle Ground Lake United States, Washington
Crater Lake United States, Oregon
Blue Lake Crater United States, Oregon
Malheur Maar, Diamond Craters United States, Oregon
Newberry Volcano (twin crater lakes: Paulina Lake and East Lake)United States, Oregon
Teardrop Pool South Sister United States, Oregon
Yellowstone Lake United States, Wyoming
Soda Lakes United States, Nevada
Medicine Lake Volcano United States, California
Mono–Inyo Craters United States, California
Clear Lake United States, California
Shastina (three small crater lakes)United States, California
Zuni Salt Lake (maar)United States, New Mexico
Lago Los EspinosMexico, Michoacán
La Alberca lake (also known as La Joya or Lago del Sangre)Mexico, Guanajuato
Nevado de Toluca (several lakes)Mexico, State of Mexico
Laguna de Aljojuca Mexico, Puebla
Oriental Basin axalapazcos (maar lakes)Mexico, Puebla / Tlaxcala / Veracruz
Sangangüey Mexico, Nayarit
Santa María del Oro Mexico, Nayarit
El Chichón Mexico, Chiapas
Central America & Caribbean
Lago de Amatitlán Guatemala
Lake Ipala Guatemala
Lago de Atitlán Guatemala
Laguna de Ayarza Guatemala
Laguna de Calderas (Pacaya)Guatemala
Laguna Chicabal Guatemala
Tecuamburro Guatemala
Lago de Coatepeque (Coatepeque Lake) El Salvador
Laguna Verde (Apaneca)El Salvador
Lago de Ilopango (Ilopango Lake) El Salvador
Tecapa volcano (Laguna de Alegría)El Salvador
Chanmico maar (at the foot of the San Salvador volcano)El Salvador
Santa Ana Volcano crater lakeEl Salvador
Cosigüina Nicaragua
Laguna Asososca, Las Pilas Nicaragua
Lakes within the Monte Galan caldera, close to the Momotombo (Laguna Monte Galan, La Sulfatosa, Agua Dulce, El Cachital, Las Piedras)Nicaragua
Chiltepe peninsula (Apoyeque and Xiloá lagoons)Nicaragua
Managua lagoons (Tiscapa, Asososca, Nejapa)Nicaragua
Masaya lakeNicaragua
Apoyo Lagoon Nicaragua
Zapatera Laguna (Zapatera Island, on Lake Nicaragua)Nicaragua
Maderas (Ometepe Island, on Lake Nicaragua)Nicaragua
Lake Diego de la Haya, Irazú volcano Costa Rica
Rincón de la Vieja Costa Rica
Poás volcano (Laguna Caliente and Laguna Botos)Costa Rica
Cerro Chato Costa Rica
Barva Volcano Costa Rica
Mount Liamuiga crater lake, Saint Kitts Saint Kitts and Nevis
La Grande Soufrière (la Citerne) Guadeloupe
Boiling Lake (Morne Trois Pitons National Park) Dominica
Soufrière Saint Vincent
Grand Etang Lake Grenada
Lac Antoine, Mount Saint Catherine Grenada
South America
Azufral (Laguna Verde, Laguna Negra, Laguna Cristal) Colombia
Lagunas Verdes, Chiles Volcano Ecuador
Mojanda lakes (Caricocha, Yanacocha and Huarmicocha)Ecuador
Laguna Collanes, El Altar Ecuador
Cuicocha Ecuador
Quilotoa Ecuador
Black Lakes of Jumbura Ecuador
La Cumbre, Fernandina Island (ephemeral lake)Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Tagus Cove, Isabela Island Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Lake Arcturus, Genovesa Island Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Laguna El Juncos, San Cristóbal Island Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Santiago Island (small salt crater lake)Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Jayu Quta (also known as Miguel y Alex Tejada or Maracanacito crater) Bolivia
Laguna del Maule Chile
Nevado Ojos del Salado (likely the highest lake in the world)Chile
Licancabur Lake Chile
Chaitén (crater lakes might have disappeared with the 2008–09 eruption)Chile
Aguas Calientes Chile
Acamarachi Chile
Copahue Chile / Argentina
Planchón-Peteroa Chile / Argentina
Laguna Potrok Aike (Pali-Aike Volcanic Field)Argentina
Aracar Argentina
Laguna Diamante, Cerro Galán Argentina
Antarctica & Subantarctic Islands
Deception Island maareoff Antarctic Peninsula coast
Mount Larson crater lake, Thule Island South Sandwich Islands
Small crater lakes on the top of various scoria cones, Marion Island Prince Edward Islands
Bassin du Cratère (connected to sea since 1780, now an 'almost crater lake'), Saint-Paul Saint-Paul and Amsterdam Islands
Lac bleu [7] , Amsterdam Saint-Paul and Amsterdam Islands
Grand Cratère, Île de la Possession Crozet Islands

See also

Related Research Articles

A caldera is a large cauldron-like hollow that forms shortly after the emptying of a magma chamber/reservoir in a volcanic eruption. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the rock above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the emptied or partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface. Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven caldera-forming collapses are known to have occurred since 1900, most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland in 2014.

Lake Toba Crater lake located in Sumatra, Indonesia

Lake Toba is a large natural lake in Sumatra, Indonesia occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is located in the middle of the northern part of the island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E to 2.35°N 99.1°E. The lake is about 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres (19 mi) wide, and up to 505 metres (1,657 ft) deep. It is the largest lake in Indonesia and the largest volcanic lake in the world. Lake Toba Caldera is one of the nineteen Geoparks in Indonesia, which is proposed to be included in the UNESCO Global Geopark.

Long Valley Caldera Depression in California, United States

Long Valley Caldera is a depression in eastern California that is adjacent to Mammoth Mountain. The valley is one of the Earth's largest calderas, measuring about 20 miles (32 km) long (east-west), 11 miles (18 km) wide (north-south), and up to 3,000 feet (910 m) deep.

Mount Mazama complex volcano in the Cascade Range

Mount Mazama is a complex volcano in the state of Oregon, United States, in a segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc and Cascade Range. Most of the mountain collapsed following a major eruption approximately 7,700 years ago. The volcano is in Klamath County, in the southern Cascades, 60 miles (97 km) north of the Oregon-California border. Its collapse formed a caldera that holds Crater Lake. The mountain is in Crater Lake National Park. Mount Mazama originally had an elevation of 12,000 feet (3,700 m), but following its climactic eruption this was reduced to 8,157 feet (2,486 m). Crater Lake is 1,943 feet (592 m) deep, the deepest freshwater body in the US and the second deepest in North America after Great Slave Lake in Canada.

Mount Pinatubo active stratovolcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines

Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano in the Zambales Mountains, located on the tripoint boundary of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac and Pampanga, all in Central Luzon on the northern island of Luzon. Its eruptive history was unknown to most before the pre-eruption volcanic activities of 1991, just before June. Pinatubo was heavily eroded, inconspicuous and obscured from view. It was covered with dense forests which supported a population of several thousand indigenous Aetas.

Ojos del Salado highest volcano in the world

Nevado Ojos del Salado is an active stratovolcano in the Andes on the Argentina–Chile border and the highest active volcano in the world at 6,893 m (22,615 ft). It is also the second highest mountain in both the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere behind Aconcagua at approximately 7,000 meters and it is the highest in Chile. Nevado Ojos del Salado is translated to Snowy Salty Eyes describing it being very snowy in the winter and salty with many lakes.

Mount Okmok mountain in United States of America

Mount Okmok is the highest point on the rim of Okmok Caldera on the northeastern part of Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of Alaska. This 5.8 mile (9.3 km) wide circular caldera truncates the top of a large shield volcano. A crater lake once filled much of the caldera, but the lake ultimately drained through a notch eroded in the northeast rim. The prehistoric lake attained a maximum depth of about 150 m (500 ft) and the upper surface reached an elevation of about 475 m (1560 ft), at which point it overtopped the low point of the caldera rim. Small, shallow remnants of the lake remained north of Cone D at an altitude of about 1075 feet: a small shallow lake located between the caldera rim and Cone D; a smaller lake farther north near the caldera's gate. After the 2008 eruption, the hydrogeology of the caldera was greatly changed with five separate sizable lakes now emplaced. In addition to the caldera lakes, Cone A, Cone E, Cone G and the new 2008 vent on Cone D contain small crater lakes. The last major eruptions of Okmok—with a VEI strength of 6—occurred 8,300 and 2,400 years Before Present.

Cerro El Cóndor stratovolcano

Cerro El Cóndor is a stratovolcano in Argentina.

Falso Azufre complex volcano at the border of Argentina and Chile

Falso Azufre is a complex volcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.

Volcanogenic lake

A volcanogenic lake is a lake formed as a result of volcanic activity. They are generally a body of water inside an inactive volcanic crater but can also be large volumes of molten lava within an active volcanic crater and waterbodies constrained by lava flows, pyroclastic flows or lahars in valley systems. The term volcanic lake is also used to describe volcanogenic lakes, although it is more commonly assigned to those inside volcanic craters.

San Salvador (volcano) Stratovolcano in El Salvador

The San Salvador Volcano is a stratovolcano situated northwest to the city of San Salvador. The crater has been nearly filled with a relatively newer edifice, the Boquerón volcano. San Salvador is adjacent to the volcano and the western section of the city actually lies among its slopes. Due to this close proximity, any geological activity of the volcano, whether eruptive or not, has the potential to result in catastrophic destruction and death to the city. Despite this, the volcano is iconic of the city, and several TV and radio antennas are situated on the El Picacho peaks and the crater of Boqueron. El Picacho, the prominent peak is the highest elevation.

Incahuasi mountain in Argentina

Incahuasi is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America. It lies on the border of the Argentine province of Catamarca, and the Atacama Region of Chile. Incahuasi has a summit elevation of 6,621 metres (21,722 ft) above sea level.

Volcanic dam A natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism

A volcanic dam is a type of natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism, which holds or temporarily restricts the flow of surface water in existing streams, like a man-made dam. There are two main types of volcanic dams, those created by the flow of molten lava, and those created by the primary or secondary deposition of pyroclastic material and debris. This classification generally excludes other, often larger and longer lived dam-type geologic features, separately termed crater lakes, although these volcanic centers may be associated with the source of material for volcanic dams, and the lowest portion of its confining rim may be considered as such a dam, especially if the lake level within the crater is relatively high.

Sollipulli mountain

Sollipulli is an ice-filled volcanic caldera and volcanic complex, which lies southeast of the small town of Melipeuco in the La Araucanía Region, Chile. It is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the four volcanic belts in the Andes chain.

Silverthrone Caldera Stratovolcano in Canada

The Silverthrone Caldera is a potentially active caldera complex in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, located over 350 kilometres (220 mi) northwest of the city of Vancouver and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of Mount Waddington in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains. The caldera is one of the largest of the few calderas in western Canada, measuring about 30 kilometres (19 mi) long (north-south) and 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide (east-west). Mount Silverthrone, an eroded lava dome on the caldera's northern flank that is 2,864 metres (9,396 ft) high, may be the highest volcano in Canada.

Lake A body of relatively still water, in a basin surrounded by land

A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams.

Lake Pinatubo summit crater lake of Mt. Pinatubo

Lake Pinatubo is the summit crater lake of Mount Pinatubo formed after its climactic eruption on June 15, 1991. The lake is located in Botolan, Zambales, near the boundaries of Pampanga and Tarlac provinces in the Philippines. It is about 90 km (56 mi) northwest of the capital city of Manila. While one paper by researchers from Japan suggested a depth of 600 m (2,000 ft), more detailed research suggests that 95–115 m (312–377 ft) is more accurate.

Wheelwright caldera is a caldera in Chile. It is variously described as being between 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) and 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide and lies in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A lake lies within the caldera, which is among the largest of the Central Andes. The caldera lies in the region of Ojos del Salado, the world's tallest volcano.


  1. "Facts and Figures about Crater Lake". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  2. Andes Website – Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the World's highest volcano Archived 2007-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
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  4. http://www.gtz.de/de/praxis/11695.htm Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine Description of Mount Wonchi crater lake on the website of GTZ
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2012-11-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. Kahumana Sanctuary – Geology
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