|Country|| Georgia (de jure)|
South Ossetia (de facto)
|• Total||7.4 km2 (2.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||860 m (2,820 ft)|
(1 January 2019)
|Time zone||UTC+3 (Moscow time)|
Tskhinvali (Georgian :ცხინვალი [t͡sʰχinvali] ( listen )) or Tskhinval (Ossetian : Цхинвал, Чъреба, romanized: Tskhinval, Chreba, Ossetian pronunciation: [ʃχinvɒɫ]; Russian:Цхинва́л(и), tr. Tskhinvál(i), [tsxʲɪnˈval(ʲɪ)] ) is the capital of the disputed de facto independent Republic of South Ossetia, internationally considered part of Shida Kartli, Georgia (except by the Russian Federation and four other UN member states), and previously the capital of the erstwhile Soviet Georgian South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast. It is located on the Great Liakhvi River approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of the Georgian capital Tbilisi.
The name of Tskhinvali is derived from the Old Georgian Krtskhinvali (Georgian :ქრცხინვალი), from earlier Krtskhilvani (Georgian :ქრცხილვანი), literally meaning "the land of hornbeams", which is the historical name of the city. See ცხინვალი for more.
From 1934 to 1961, the city was named Staliniri (Georgian :სტალინირი, Ossetian : Сталинир), which was compilation of Joseph Stalin's surname with Ossetian word "Ir" which means Ossetia. Modern Ossetians call the city Tskhinval (leaving off the final "i", which is a nominative case ending in Georgian); the other Ossetian name of the city is Chreba (Ossetian : Чъреба) which is only spread as a colloquial word.
The area around the present-day Tskhinvali was first populated back in the Bronze Age. The unearthed settlements and archaeological artifacts from that time are unique in that they reflect influences from both Iberian (east Georgia) and Colchian (west Georgia) cultures with possible Sarmatian elements.
Tskhinvali was first chronicled by Georgian sources in 1398 as a village in Kartli (central Georgia) though a later account credits the 3rd century AD Georgian king Aspacures II of Iberia with its foundation as a fortress. By the early 18th century, Tskhinvali was a small "royal town" populated chiefly by monastic serfs. Tskhinvali was annexed to the Russian Empire along with the rest of eastern Georgia in 1801. Located on a trade route which linked North Caucasus to Tbilisi and Gori, Tskhinvali gradually developed into a commercial town with a mixed Georgian Jewish, Georgian, Armenian and Ossetian population. In 1917, it had 600 houses with 38.4% Georgian Jews, 34.4% Georgians, 17.7% Armenians and 8.8% Ossetians.
The town saw clashes between Georgian People's Guard and pro-Bolshevik Ossetian peasants during the 1918–20 period, when Georgia gained brief independence from Russia. Soviet rule was established by the invading Red Army in March 1921, and a year later, in 1922, Tskhinvali was made a capital of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the Georgian SSR. Subsequently, the town became largely Ossetian due to intense urbanisation and Soviet Korenizatsiya ("nativization") policy which induced an inflow of the Ossetians from the nearby rural areas into Tskhinvali. It was essentially an industrial centre, with lumber mills and manufacturing plants, and had also several cultural and educational institutions such as a venerated Pedagogical Institute (currently Tskhinvali State University) and a drama theatre. According to the last Soviet census (in 1989), Tskhinvali had a population of 42,934, and according to the census of Republic of South Ossetia in 2015, the population was 30,432 people.
During the acute phase of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, Tskhinvali was a scene of ethnic tensions and ensuing armed confrontation between Georgian and Ossetian forces. The 1992 Sochi ceasefire accord left Tskhinvali in the hands of Ossetians.
A considerable part of the population of South Ossetia (at least, 30,000 out of 70,000) fled into North Ossetia–Alania prior or immediately after the start of the war.However, many civilians were killed during the shelling and the following Battle of Tskhinvali (162 civilian deaths were documented by the Russian team of investigators and 365 – by the South Ossetian authorities ). The town was heavily damaged during the battle. Andrey Illarionov visited the town in October 2008, and reported that Jewish Quarter indeed was in ruins, though he observed that the ruins were overgrown with shrubs and trees, which indicates that the destruction took place during the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War. However, Mark Ames, who was covering the last war for The Nation, stated that Tskhinvali's main residential district, nicknamed Shanghai because of its population density (it's where most of the city's high-rise apartment blocks are located), and the old Jewish Quarter, were completely destroyed.
Located in the Caucasus, at 860 metres (2,820 ft) above sea level, Tskhinvali has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb), with an average annual precipitation of 805 millimetres (31.7 in). Summers are mild and winters are cold, with snowfalls.
|Climate data for Tskhinvali|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||46|
Currently, Tskhinvali functions as the capital of South Ossetia. Before the 2008 war it had a population of approximately 30,000.[ citation needed ] The town remained significantly impoverished in the absence of a permanent political settlement between the two sides in the past two decades.
The city contains several monuments of medieval Georgian architecture,[ citation needed ] with the Kavti Church of St. George being the oldest one dating back to the 8th–10th centuries.[ citation needed ]
On August 21, 2008, a world-knownRussian conductor and director of the Mariinsky Theatre, of Ossetian origin, Valery Gergiev conducted a concert near the ruined building of South Ossetian parliament in memory of the victims of the war in South Ossetia.
There was a railway service before 1991 at the Tskhinvali Railway station connecting the city with Gori.
Tskhinvali is twinned with the following cities:
|Look up ცხინვალი in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tskhinvali .|
South Ossetia, officially the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania, is a breakaway state in the South Caucasus. It has an officially stated population of just over 53,000 people, who live in an area of 3,900 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi), on the south side of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, with 30,000 living in the capital city, Tskhinvali. Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria recognise South Ossetia as a sovereign state. Although Georgia does not control South Ossetia, the Georgian government and the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast disbanded in 1990.
Gori is a city in eastern Georgia, which serves as the regional capital of Shida Kartli and is located at the confluence of two rivers, the Mtkvari and the Liakhvi. Gori is the fifth most populous city in Georgia. Its name comes from the Georgian word gora (გორა), meaning "heap", "hill", or "mountain".
Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyty is an Ossetian politician who served as President of the partially recognized state of South Ossetia. His term in office lasted just under ten years, beginning December 2001 and ending December 2011.
The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast was an autonomous oblast of the Soviet Union created within the Georgian SSR on April 20, 1922. Its autonomy was revoked on December 11, 1990 by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, leading to the First South Ossetian War. Currently, its territory is controlled by the breakaway Republic of South Ossetia.
The Communist Party of South Ossetia is a communist party in South Ossetia. The party was founded in 1993. As of 2004, the party claimed a membership of 1,500. The party seeks recognition of the Republic of South Ossetia, which is considered by most countries as part of Georgia
The Georgian–Ossetian conflict of 1918–1920 comprised a series of uprisings, which took place in the Ossetian-inhabited areas of what is now South Ossetia, a breakaway republic in Georgia, against the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and then the Menshevik-dominated Democratic Republic of Georgia which claimed several thousand lives and left painful memories among the Georgian and Ossetian communities of the region.
The Battle of Tskhinvali was a battle for the city of Tskhinvali, capital of the breakaway state of South Ossetia. It was the only major battle in the Russo-Georgian War. Georgian ground troops entered the city on early 8 August 2008, after an artillery assault. Georgians took control of most of the city in hours. Russian main forces began entering South Ossetia through the Roki tunnel. After being initially forced to withdraw, the Georgian troops made several attempts to retake the city. Due to the difficult logistics of the terrain, the arrival of Russian reinforcements was slow. After fierce fighting, Georgian troops were finally forced to withdraw from the city on the evening of 10 August. On 11 August, all Georgian troops left South Ossetia. Parts of Tskhinvali were devastated in the three-day fighting.
Khetagurovo is a 150-house village in South Ossetia, de facto independent partially recognized republic in the South Caucasus, formerly the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. The village has been controlled by the South Ossetian forces since the armed clashes with the Georgian troops in 1991/1992. Until 1991 village was part of Tskhinvali district, Gori municipality. Sakrebulo center.
This article documents the aid given by several countries to the people who suffered due to the Russo-Georgian War.
Russia–South Ossetia relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Russia and the Republic of South Ossetia, a disputed region in the South Caucasus, located on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
The Armed Forces of South Ossetia is the military of the partially recognised state of South Ossetia. The force consists of 16,000 soldiers: 2,500 officers and active-duty soldiers and 13,500 reservists. It includes an Army and an Air Corps.
Abkhazia–South Ossetia relations are bilateral foreign relations between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia, whose international status is disputed – they are both considered part of Georgia by the majority of the world's states.
Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev is a Russian businessman who was Prime Minister of the Republic of South Ossetia from 5 August 2009 to 26 April 2012, as well as Acting President from December 11, 2011 to April 19, 2012.
Presidential elections were held in South Ossetia on 13 November 2011. A referendum was held on the same day. A run-off was held on 27 November, but the result were invalidated by the Supreme Court of South Ossetia. A new election was scheduled for 25 March 2012.
Infrastructure damage during the Russo-Georgian War became noticeable on 12 August when local authorities claimed that about 70 percent of Tskhinvali's buildings had been damaged during the Georgian military operation. According to later Russian statements, about 20 percent of Tskhinvali's buildings had been damaged and 10 percent were "beyond repair". In late August, South Ossetian parliament deputy speaker Tarzan Kokoity claimed that according to a preliminary assessment, Georgian damage in South Ossetia was valued at 100 billion rubles.
The St. Mary's Church also called Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, is the name given to a temple of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the center of the city of Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, an independent region de facto that Georgia claims as part of his territory. The church was damaged in the night of 7 to 8 August 2008 during a bombing in the war between Russia and Georgia. The church is currently used by various Orthodox Christian groups in the country.
The Independence Day or Republic Day is the main state holiday in the partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia. This date is celebrated on September 20. It commemorates South Ossetia's declaration of independence from the Georgian SSR in 1990, and the country's recognition as a sovereign state by Russia in 2008.
The Eredvi basilica of Saint George is an early 10th-century Georgian Orthodox church in the village of Eredvi in the Shida Kartli region, currently in the disputed territory of South Ossetia. It was constructed by the architect Tevdore Taplaisdze, who laid foundation of the church in 906 as related in a Georgian inscription on the building. The church is a three-nave basilica, which, despite later reconstructions, has largely preserved its original architectural features. The church is inscribed on the list of the Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance of Georgia. After the 2008 Russo-Georgian War, the Georgians lost access to the church and services there were restricted by the South Ossetian authorities.
The 4th Guards Military Base is a sizable overseas military base of the Russian Armed Forces stationed in the disputed territory of South Ossetia. Russia considers South Ossetia to be an independent state and justifies its military deployment in the area by an intergovernmental agreement, while Georgia considers the entity as its territory occupied by Russia.
Dzari is a settlement at the head of the river Kornisistskali in the Tskhinvali District of South Ossetia, Georgia. It is located 12 kilometers west of Tskhinvali. Community center, villages: Brili, Gardanta, Dampaleti, Zemo Dodoti, Kverneti, Mebrune, Rustavi, Kvemo Dodoti, Chelekhsata, Jabita.