German-occupied Europe

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Europe at the height of German military expansion, 1942 Europe under Nazi domination.png
Europe at the height of German military expansion, 1942

German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied and civil occupied including puppet government by the military forces and the government of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945, during and shortly before World War II, generally administered by the Nazi regime. [1] The farthest east in Europe the German Wehrmacht managed to occupy was the town of Mozdok in the Soviet Union; the farthest north was the settlement of Barentsburg in the Kingdom of Norway; the farthest south in Europe was the island of Gavdos in the Kingdom of Greece; and the farthest west in Europe was the island of Ushant in the French Republic.

Contents

Background

Several German-occupied countries initially entered World War II as Allies of the United Kingdom [2] or the Soviet Union. [3] Some were forced to surrender before outbreak of the war such as Czechoslovakia; [4] others like Poland (invaded on 1 September 1939) [1] were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile, in other cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries. [5] Some countries occupied by Nazi Germany were officially neutral. Others were former members of the Axis powers that were occupied by German forces at a later stage of the war. [6] [7]

Occupied countries

The countries occupied included all, or most of the following:

Country or territory of occupationPuppet state(s) or military administration(s)Timeline of occupation(s)German annexed or occupied territoryResistance movement(s)
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albanian Kingdom Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom 8 September 1943  – 29 November 1944None Albanian resistance
Flag of Guernsey.svg Guernsey Alderney & Sark Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in France 30 June 1940  – 9 May 1945None Guernseyian resistance
Flag of Jersey.svg Jersey Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in France 1 July 1940  – 9 May 1945None Jerseyian resistance
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Republic

Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czecho-Slovak Republic


Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Republic

Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Zone of Protection in Slovakia

1 October 1938  – 11 May 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Bayreuth
Flag of Bohmen und Mahren.svg Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Niederdonau
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Oberdonau
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Sudetenland
Czechoslovakian resistance
Flag of Austria.svg Federal State of Austria None. Although there was substantial popular support in Austria for some type of (re)unification with Germany, Chancellors Engelbert Dollfuss and his successor Kurt Schuschnigg wanted to maintain at least some type of independence. Dollfuss had implemented an authoritarian regime now termed Austrofascism, continued by Schussnigg, which imprisoned many members of the Austrian Nazi Party and the Social Democratic Party which both favored unification. Violence by Austrian Nazi Party members including the assassination of Dollfuss, along with German propaganda and ultimately threats of invasion by Adolf Hitler, eventually led Schuschnigg to capitulate and resign. Hitler, however, did not wait for his hand-picked successor, Austrian Nazi Arthur Seyss-Inquart, to be sworn in and ordered German troops to invade Austria at dawn on 12 March 1938, where they were met with cheering crowds and an Austrian army previously ordered not to resist.12 March 1938  – 9 May 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Kärnten
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Niederdonau
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Oberdonau
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Salzburg
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Steiermark
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Wien
Austrian resistance
Flag of the Free City of Danzig.svg Free City of Danzig None1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Danzigian resistance
Flag of France.svg French Republic

Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Free France


Flag of France.svg Provisional Government of the French Republic

Flag of France (1794-1958).svg French State

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in France


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

10 May 1940  – 9 May 1945Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Baden
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Westmark
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Wallonien
French resistance
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration of Luxembourg

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Civil Administration Area of Luxembourg

10 May 1940  – February 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Moselland Luxembourg resistance
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Italian Islands of the Aegean Flag of Italy.svg Italian Islands of the Aegean 8 September 1943  – 8 May 1945None
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

10 May 1940  – February 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Cologne-Aachen

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Wallonien

Belgian resistance
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark protectorate state9 April 1940  – 5 May 1945None Danish resistance
Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Kingdom of Greece Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in Greece
6 April 1941  – 8 May 1945None Greek resistance
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg Kingdom of Hungary Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg Kingdom of Hungary

19 March 1944  – May 1945None Hungarian resistance
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Kingdom of Italy Flag of Italy.svg Italian Social Republic

8 September 1943  – 2 May 1945None Italian resistance
Flag of Norway.svg Norway Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories

9 April 1940  – 8 May 1945None Norwegian resistance
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories 10 May 1940  – 20 May 1945None Dutch resistance
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom

Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918 & 1941-1944).svg German occupied territory of Montenegro


Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia


Flag IMARO.svg Independent State of Macedonia


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

6 April 1941  – 15 May 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Kärnten
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Steiermark
Yugoslav resistance
Flag of Monaco.svg Monaco None8 September 1943  – 3 September 1944None
Flag of Finland.svg Finland None15 September 1944  – 25 April 1945None Finnish resistance
Flag of Lithuania.svg Republic of Lithuania

Provisional Government of Lithuania

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat East 22 March 1939  – 21 July 1940

23 June 1941  – 5 August 1941

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau East Prussia Lithuanian resistance
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Republic of Poland Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in Poland

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg General Government administration


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat East


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat Ukraine

1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Bezirk Bialystok
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau East Prussia
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Niederschlesien
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg General Government
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Wartheland
Polish resistance
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino None17 September 1944  – 20 September 1944None
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg Commissioner Government

Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg Government of National Salvation

April 30, 1941  – January 1945None Serbian resistance
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Zone of Protection in Slovakia 23 March 1939  – May 1945None Slovakian resistance
Flag of Saar 1920-1935.svg Territory of the Saar Basin None. In a referendum in 1935, over 90% of residents supported reunification with Germany over remaining a League of Nations protectorate of France and the United Kingdom or joining France.1 March 1935  – April 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Palatinate-Saar

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Saar-Palatinate
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Gau Westmark

Saar Basinian resistance
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukrainian National Government Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat Ukraine 30 June 1941  – September 1941 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg General Government Ukrainian resistance
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Lepel Republic

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in the Soviet Union


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat East


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat Ukraine

22 June 1941  – 10 May 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Bezirk Bialystok
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg General Government
Soviet resistance

Governments in exile

Allied governments in exile

Government in exileCapital in exileTimeline of exileOccupier(s)
Flag of Austria.svg Austrian Democratic Union Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London 1941 – 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich
Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Free France Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London
(1940 – 1941)

Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Algiers, French Algeria
(1942 – August 31, 1944)

1940 – August 31, 1944 Flag of France.svg French State

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Government of the Republic of Poland in exile Flag of France.svg Paris
(September 29/30, 1939 – 1940)
Flag of France.svg Angers, French Republic
(1940 – June 12, 1940)

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London
(June 12, 1940 – 1990)

September 29/30, 1939 – December 22, 1990 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat East
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat Ukraine
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Flag of Poland.svg People's Republic of Poland

Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London
(October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944)
October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark 1943 – 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London1940 – 1944 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich
State flag of Greece (1863-1924;1935-73).svg Kingdom of Greece Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg Cairo, EgyptApril 29, 1941 – October 12, 1944 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich

Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Kingdom of Italy
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria

Flag of Norway.svg Norway Flag of the United Kingdom.svg LondonJune 7, 1940 – May 31, 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia Flag of the United Kingdom.svg LondonJune 7, 1941 – March 7, 1945 Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom

Commissioner Government
Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918 & 1941-1944).svg German occupied territory of Montenegro
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich
Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg Government of National Salvation
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia
Flag IMARO.svg Independent Macedonia
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London1940 – 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia Flag of France.svg Paris
(October 2, 1939 – 1940)

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London
(1940 – 1941)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Aston Abbotts, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(1941 – 1945)

October 2, 1939 – April 2, 1945 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich

Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic

Axis governments in exile

Government in exileCapital in exileTimeline of exileOccupier(s)
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Vienna, Greater German Reich September 16, 1944 – May 10, 1945Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria

State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg Kingdom of Greece
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Flag of France.svg French State Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Sigmaringen, Greater German Reich 1944 – April 22, 1945 Flag of France.svg Provisional Government of the French Republic
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Vienna, Greater German Reich

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Munich, Greater German Reich

March 28/29, 1945 – May 7, 1945Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Republic

Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Vienna, Greater German Reich 1944 – 1945 Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania
Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918, 1941-1944).svg Montenegrin State Council Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Zagreb, Independent State of Croatia Summer of 1944 – May 8, 1945Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Kremsmünster, Great-German Reich April 4, 1945 – 8 May 1945Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Republic

Neutral governments in exile

Government in exileCapital in exileTimeline of exileOccupier(s)
Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991-1995).svg Belarusian Democratic Republic Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Prague, Czechoslovak Republic
(1923 – 1938)

Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Prague, Czecho-Slovak Republic
(1938 – 1939)


Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich
(1939 – 1945)

1919 – present Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Realm Commissariat East
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Realm Commissariat Ukraine
Flag of Poland.svg Republic of Poland
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Flag of Estonia.svg Republic of Estonia Flag of Sweden.svg Stockholm, Kingdom of Sweden
(1944 – August 20, 1991)

Flag of the United States.svg New York City, United States of America

June 17, 1940 – August 20, 1991 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Realm Commissariat East

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukrainian People's Republic Flag of Poland.svg Warsaw, Republic of Poland
(1920 – 1939)

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich
(1939 – 1944)

1920 – August 22, 1992 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich/Greater German Reich

Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Realm Commissariat Ukraine
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

See also

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The diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies of World War II and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II. The prewar diplomacy is covered in Causes of World War II and International relations (1919–1939).

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The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945. Throughout the entire course of the foreign occupation, the territory of Poland was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union (USSR) with the intention of eradicating Polish culture and subjugating its people by occupying German and Soviet powers. In summer-autumn of 1941, the lands annexed by the Soviets were overrun by Germany in the course of the initially successful German attack on the USSR. After a few years of fighting, the Red Army drove the German forces out of the USSR and across Poland from the rest of Central and Eastern Europe.

This is a bibliographyof works on World War II.

References

  1. 1 2 Encyclopædia Britannica, German occupied Europe. World War II. Retrieved 1 September 2015 from the Internet Archive.
  2. Prazmowska, Anita (1995-03-23). Britain and Poland 1939-1943: The Betrayed Ally. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521483858.
  3. Moorhouse, Roger (2014-10-14). The Devils' Alliance: Hitler's Pact with Stalin, 1939-1941. Basic Books. ISBN   9780465054923.
  4. Goldstein, Erik; Lukes, Igor (2012-10-12). The Munich Crisis, 1938: Prelude to World War II. Routledge. ISBN   9781136328329.
  5. Conway, Martin; Gotovitch, José (2001-08-30). Europe in Exile: European Exile Communities in Britain 1940-45. Berghahn Books. ISBN   9781782389910.
  6. Hanson, Victor Davis (2017-10-17). The Second World Wars: How the First Global Conflict Was Fought and Won. Basic Books. ISBN   9780465093199.
  7. Cornelius, Deborah S. (2011). Hungary in World War II: Caught in the Cauldron. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN   9780823233434.

Bibliography

Primary sources