Gau Franconia

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Gau Franken
Gau Franconia
Gau of Nazi Germany
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
1933–1945 Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
Flag of German Reich (1935-1945).svg Reichsadler.svg
FlagCoat of arms
Location of Gau Franken NS administrative Gliederung 1944.png
Location of Gau Franken
Map of Nazi Germany showing its administrative
subdivisions ( Gaue and Reichsgaue ). Gau Franken in dark brown.
Capital Nuremberg
Gauleiter
  19331940 Julius Streicher
  19401942 (acting) Hans Zimmermann
  19421944 (acting) Karl Holz
  19441945 Karl Holz
History
   Establishment 30 January 1933
   Disestablishment 8 May 1945
Population
  17 May 1939 [1] 1,065,122 
Today part ofFlag of Germany.svg  Germany

Gau Franconia (German: Gau Franken) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Middle Franconia, Bavaria, from 1933 to 1945. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany

Gaue were the de facto main administrative divisions of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Middle Franconia Regierungsbezirk in Bavaria, Germany

Middle Franconia is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. It is located in the west of Bavaria and borders the state of Baden-Württemberg. The administrative seat is Ansbach, however the most populous city is Nuremberg.

Contents

History

The Nazi Gau (plural Gaue) system was originally established in a party conference on 22 May 1926, in order to improve administration of the party structure. From 1933 onward, after the Nazi seizure of power, the Gaue increasingly replaced the German states as administrative subdivisions in Germany. [2]

Nazi Party Fascist political party in Germany (1920-1945)

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920.

At the head of each Gau stood a Gauleiter, a position which became increasingly more powerful, especially after the outbreak of the Second World War, with little interference from above. Local Gauleiter often held government positions as well as party ones and were in charge of, among other things, propaganda and surveillance and, from September 1944 onward, the Volkssturm and the defense of the Gau. [2] [3]

<i>Gauleiter</i> party leader of a regional branch of the Nazi Party

A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the Nazi Party or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. The word can be singular or plural, depending on the context. Gauleiter was the second highest Nazi Party paramilitary rank, subordinate only to the higher rank Reichsleiter and to the position of Führer. During World War II, the rank of Gauleiter was obtained only by direct appointment from Adolf Hitler.

<i>Volkssturm</i> military unit

The Volkssturm was a national militia established by Nazi Germany during the last months of World War II. It was not set up by the German Army, the ground component of the combined German Wehrmacht armed forces, but by the Nazi Party on the orders of Adolf Hitler and its existence was only officially announced on 16 October 1944. It was staffed by conscripting males between the ages of 16 and 60 years who were not already serving in some military unit. The Volkssturm comprised one of the final components of the total war promulgated by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, part of a Nazi endeavor to overcome their enemies' military strength through force of will.

The position of Gauleiter in Franken was originally held by Julius Streicher until 1940 when he was removed from the position. Streicher was later executed for crimes against humanity on 16 October 1946. The position of Gauleiter was not filled again until 1944, with Hans Zimmermann (1940–42) and Karl Holz (1942–44) being the acting Gauleiter. Holz officially took up the post in 1944 and held it until his own death in April 1945. [4] [5]

Julius Streicher German politician and publisher

Julius Streicher was a prominent member of the Nazi Party. He was the founder and publisher of the semi-pornographic and virulently anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer, which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm also released three anti-Semitic books for children, including the 1938 Der Giftpilz, one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, which warned about the supposed dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. The publishing firm was financially very successful and made Streicher a multi-millionaire.

Hans Zimmermann German Nazi politician

Hans Zimmermann was a German politician of the Nazi Party.

Karl Holz (Nazi) Nazi leader

Karl Holz was the NSDAP Gauleiter of Gau Franconia and an SA Gruppenführer.

Related Research Articles

Gau Main Franconia

The Gau Main Franconia, named Gau Lower Franconia until July 30, 1935, was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, from 1933 to 1945. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau March of Brandenburg

The Gau Mark Brandenburg was formed in 1933 initially under the name Gau Kurmark in Nazi Germany initially as a district within the Free State of Prussia. In 1935, Germany's constituent states were dissolved and the Gaus replaced the states and their responsibilities. In 1940, Kurmark was renamed Mark Brandenburg. The Gau was dissolved in 1945, following Allied Soviet occupation of the area and Germany's formal surrender in 1945. After the war, the territory of the former Gau became part of the state of Brandenburg in East Germany except one of beyond Oder-Neisse line, which was given to People's Republic of Poland. Most territories of it are divided between Germany's State of Brandenburg and Poland's Lubusz Voivodeship now.

Gau Eastern Hanover

Gau Eastern Hanover was a regional district of the NSDAP established in 1925 in the north eastern part of the Prussian Province of Hanover, comprising the governorates of Stade and Lunenburg in their then boundaries. Initially the Gau was a mere regional Nazi party subsection, but with the growing subjection of all public administration to Nazi party influence after the Machtergreifung, the Gau usurped from 1933 to 1935 more and more the functions of the Provincial government and its superordinate Free State of Prussia. However, after the German constituent states were de facto abolished in 1935, the Gaue replaced them in their responsibilities. Gau East Hannover - like all Nazi party structures - was dismantled after Nazi Germany's defeat in 1945. In 1946 the Control Commission for Germany - British Element (CCG/BE) reconstituted the Province of Hanover as the State of Hanover and later the same year it merged with three smaller neighbouring reconstituted German states to form the new state of Lower Saxony within the British Zone of Occupation. The municipality of Amt Neuhaus was allocated to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

Gau Southern Hanover-Brunswick

Gau Southern Hanover–Brunswick was a regional district established in 1933 in Nazi Germany. Initially the gau was a territorial component of both the Free State of Prussia and the Free State of Brunswick from 1933 to 1935. However, after the German constituent states were abolished in 1935, the Gaus replaced them in their responsibilities. Gau Southern Hanover-Brunswick was dismantled after Germany's defeat in 1945. The territory after the war became part of Lower Saxony in West Germany.

Gau Thuringia

The Gau Thuringia was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Thuringia from 1933 to 1945. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Westphalia-North

The Gau Westphalia-North was an administrative division of Nazi Germany encompassing the Free State of Lippe, Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe and the northern half of the Prussian province of Westphalia between 1933 and 1945. From 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party for these areas.

Gau Württemberg-Hohenzollern

The Gau Württemberg-Hohenzollern was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Württemberg and the Prussian province of Hohenzollern. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Saxony

The Gau Saxony was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Saxony. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Düsseldorf

The Gau Düsseldorf was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the Düsseldorf region of the Prussian Rhine Province. Before that, from 1930 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Essen administrative division of Nazi Germany

The Gau Essen was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the northern parts of the Prussian Rhine Province. Before that, from 1928 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Hesse-Nassau

The Gau Hesse-Nassau was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the People's State of Hesse and the southern parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. Before that, from 1927 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Cologne-Aachen

The Gau Cologne-Aachen was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the north-central part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Before that, from 1931 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Electoral Hesse

The Gau Electoral Hesse was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 the northern parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. Before that, from 1927 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Schleswig-Holstein

The Gau Schleswig-Holstein was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Free City of Lübeck and parts of the Free State of Oldenburg. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Moselland

The Gau Moselland, or Gau Koblenz-Trier until January 1942, was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the Prussian Rhine Province and, from 1940 onward, the occupied country of Luxembourg. Before that, from 1931 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Weser-Ems

The Gau Weser-Ems was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the core part of the Free State of Oldenburg, the state Bremen and the western parts of the Prussian Province of Hanover. Before that, from 1928 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Mecklenburg

The Gau Mecklenburg, named Gau Mecklenburg-Lübeck until 1937, was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Magdeburg-Anhalt

The Gau Magdeburg-Anhalt was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Anhalt and the Prussian province of Saxony. Before that, from 1927 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gau Silesia

The Gau Silesia was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1941 in the Prussian Province of Silesia. From 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party for these area. The Gau was split into Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia in 1941. The majority of the former Gau became part of Poland after the Second World War, with small parts in the far west becoming part of the future East Germany.

Gau Berlin

The Gau Berlin was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German capital Berlin. Before that, from 1928 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area. From 1925 to 1928 Berlin was part of the Gau Berlin-Brandenburg which was eventually split into two separate Gaue.

References

  1. Bayrisches Landesamt für Statistik, accessed 26 June 2008.
  2. 1 2 "Die NS-Gaue" [The Nazi Gaue]. dhm.de (in German). Deutsches Historisches Museum . Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  3. "The Organization of the Nazi Party & State". nizkor.org. The Nizkor Project . Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  4. "Gau Franken". verwaltungsgeschichte.de (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  5. "Übersicht der NSDAP-Gaue, der Gauleiter und der Stellvertretenden Gauleiter zwischen 1933 und 1945" [Overview of Nazi Gaue, the Gauleiter and assistant Gauleiter from 1933 to 1945]. zukunft-braucht-erinnerung.de (in German). Zukunft braucht Erinnerung . Retrieved 24 March 2016.