Reichsgau Wien

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Reichsgau Wien
Reichsgau of Nazi Germany
1938–1945
Flag of German Reich (1935-1945).svg
Flag
Reichsadler.svg
Coat of arms
NS administrative Gliederung 1944.png
Map of Nazi Germany showing its administrative
subdivisions ( Gaue and Reichsgaue )
Capital Vienna
Population 
 1939
1920390
Government
Gauleiter  
 19381939
Odilo Globocnik
 19391940
Joseph Bürckel
 19401945
Baldur von Schirach
History 
  Anschluss
12 March 1938
8 May 1945
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Vienna (state).svg Vienna
Flag of Niederosterreich (state).svg Lower Austria
Vienna Flag of Vienna (state).svg
Lower Austria Flag of Niederosterreich (state).svg
Today part ofFlag of Austria.svg  Austria

The Reichsgau Wien (English: Gau Vienna) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany based in Vienna, Austria. It existed between 1938 and 1945. Parts of Lower Austria were annexed to establish Greater Vienna, which then became the biggest city of Nazi Germany by area.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Vienna Capital of Austria

Vienna is the national capital, largest city, and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union.

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a land-locked country in Central Europe composed of nine federated states (Bundesländer), one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and its largest city. Austria occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people. It is bordered by Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. While German is the country's official language, many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects.

Contents

History

The Nazi Gau (plural Gaue) system was originally established in a party conference on 22 May 1926, in order to improve administration of the party structure. From 1933 onwards, after the Nazi seizure of power, the Gaue increasingly replaced the German states as administrative subdivisions in Germany. In March 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria, with the latter being sub-divided into Reichsgaue. [1] [2]

Nazi Party a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920.

<i>Anschluss</i> annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938

Anschluss refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. The word's German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996, was Anschluß and it was also known as the Anschluss Österreichs.

<i lang="de" title="German language text">Reichsgau</i> Nazi administrative subdivision

A Reichsgau was an administrative subdivision created in a number of areas annexed by Nazi Germany between 1938 and 1945.

At the head of each Gau stood a Gauleiter, a position which became increasingly more powerful, especially after the outbreak of the Second World War. Local Gauleiter were in charge of propaganda and surveillance and, from September 1944 onwards, the Volkssturm and the defence of the Gau. [1] [3]

<i>Gauleiter</i> party leader of a regional branch of the Nazi Party

A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the Nazi Party or the head of a Gau or Reichsgau. The word can be singular or plural, depending on its context. Gauleiter was the second highest Nazi Party paramilitary rank, subordinate only to the higher rank Reichsleiter and to the position of Führer. During World War II, the rank of Gauleiter was obtained only by direct appointment from Adolf Hitler.

<i>Volkssturm</i> military unit

The Volkssturm was a national militia established by Nazi Germany during the last months of World War II. It was not set up by the German Army, the ground component of the combined German Wehrmacht armed forces, but by the Nazi Party on the orders of Adolf Hitler, and its existence was only officially announced on 16 October 1944. It was staffed by conscripting males between the ages of 16 and 60 years who were not already serving in some military unit. The Volkssturm comprised one of the final components of the total war promulgated by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, part of a Nazi endeavor to overcome their enemies' military strength through force of will.

The position of Gauleiter in Wien was initially held by Odilo Globocnik from 1938 to 1939, by Josef Bürckel from 1939 to 1940 and by Baldur von Schirach for the remainder of the Reichsgau's history up to 1945. [4] [5]

Josef Bürckel German Nazi politician, Gauleiter of Vienna

Joseph Bürckel was a Nazi Germany politician and a member of the German parliament. He was an early member of the Nazi Party and was influential in the rise of the National Socialist movement.

Baldur von Schirach German Nazi leader convicted of crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg trial

Baldur Benedikt von Schirach was a Nazi German politician who is best known for his role as the Nazi Party national youth leader and head of the Hitler Youth from 1931 to 1940. He later served as Gauleiter and Reichsstatthalter of Vienna. After World War II, he was convicted of crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg trials and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

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References

  1. 1 2 "Die NS-Gaue" [The Nazi Gaue]. dhm.de (in German). Deutsches Historisches Museum . Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  2. "Der "Anschluss" Österreichs 1938" [The annexation of Austria 1938]. dhm.de (in German). Deutsches Historisches Museum . Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  3. "The Organization of the Nazi Party & State". nizkor.org. The Nizkor Project . Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  4. "Übersicht der NSDAP-Gaue, der Gauleiter und der Stellvertretenden Gauleiter zwischen 1933 und 1945" [Overview of Nazi Gaue, the Gauleiter and assistant Gauleiter from 1933 to 1945]. zukunft-braucht-erinnerung.de (in German). Zukunft braucht Erinnerung . Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  5. "Reichsgau Wien". verwaltungsgeschichte.de (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2016.