|Ivory Coast, Liberia, Burkina Faso|
|ISO 639-2 / 5||kro|
|Glottolog|| krua1234 (Kru) |
Kru languages, labeled as above
The Kru languages belong to the Niger–Congo language family and are spoken by the Kru people from the southeast of Liberia to the east of Ivory Coast. The term "Kru" is of unknown origin. According to Westermann (1952) it was used by Europeans to denote a number of tribes speaking related dialects. Marchese (1989) notes the fact that many of these peoples were recruited as "crew" by European seafarers; "the homonymy with crew is obvious, and is at least one source of the confusion among Europeans that there was a Kru/crew tribe".
Andrew Dalby noted the historical importance of the Kru languages for their position at the crossroads of African-European interaction. He wrote that "Kru and associated languages were among the first to be encountered by European voyagers on what was then known as the Pepper Coast, a centre of the production and export of Guinea and melegueta pepper; a once staple African seaborne trade".The Kru languages are known for some of the most complex tone systems in Africa, rivaled perhaps only by the Omotic languages.
Recent documentation has noted "Kru societies can now be found along the coast of Monrovia, Liberia to Bandama River in Côte d'Ivoire"."Villages maintain their ties based on presumed common descent, reinforced by ceremonial exchanges and gifts". The Kru people and their languages, although now many speak English (in Liberia) or French (in Côte d'Ivoire) as a second language, are said to be "dominant in the southwest region where the forest zone reaches the coastal lagoons". The Kru people rely on the forest for farming, supplemented by hunting for their livelihood. In 2010, Kru and associated languages were spoken by 95 percent of the approximately 3.5 million people in Liberia.
The Kru languages include many subgroups such as Kuwaa, Grebo, Bassa, Belle, Belleh, Kwaa and many others. According to Breitbonde, categorization of communities based on cultural distinctiveness, historical or ethnic identity, and socio-political autonomy "may have brought about the large number of distinct Kru dialects; "Although the natives were in many respects similar in type and tribe, every village was an independent state; there was also very little intercommunication".Breitbonde notes the Kru people were categorized based on their cultural distinctiveness, separate historical or ethnic identities, and social and political autonomy. This is the possible reason for so many subgroups of the Kru language. As noted by Fisiak, there is very little documentation on the Kru and associated languages.
Marchese's (1989) classification of Kru languages is as follows.Many of these languages are dialect clusters and are sometimes considered more than a single language.
Ethnologue adds Neyo, which may be closest to Dida or Godie.
Sample basic vocabulary of 12 Kru language from Marchese (1983):
Comparison of numerals in individual languages:
|Kuwaa||Kuwaa (Belleh)||dee||sɔ̃r||tãã̀||ɲìjɛ̀hɛ||wàyɔ̀ɔ||wɔ̀rfɔlɛ̀ (5 + 1)||kɔrlɔrɔ̃r (5 + 2)||kwatãã̀ (5 + 3)||kɔ̃yĩ̀yɛ̀hɛ (5 + 4)||kowaa|
|Seme||Seme (Siamou) (1)||byẽ́ẽ||nĩ́ĩ̄||tyáār||yūr||kwɛ̃̄l||kpã̄â||kĩ̄î||kprɛ̄n̂||kɛ̄l||fú|
|Seme||Seme (Siamou) (2)||dyuɔ̃15||nĩ15||tyɛr15||yur3||kwɛ̃l3||k͡pa4a34||kyi4ĩ34||k͡prɛ4ɛ̃34||kal3||fu1|
|Eastern, Bakwe||Bakwé||ɗôː||sɔ̂ː||tʌ̄ː||mɾɔ̄ː||ɡ͡bə̀ə̄||ŋǔːɗō (5 + 1)||ŋǔːsɔ̄ (5 + 2)||ŋǔːtʌ̄ (5 + 3)||ŋǔːmɾɔ̄ (5 + 4)||pʊ̀|
|Eastern, Bakwe||Wané||do³ / ɗo³||sɔ²||ta³||ⁱhɪɛ̃⁴||ŋʷũ⁴²||ŋʷũ⁴² kloː²⁴(5 + 1)||ŋʷũ⁴² sɔ² (5 + 2)||ŋʷũ⁴² ta³ (5 + 3)||ŋʷũ⁴² ⁱhɪɛ̃⁴ (5 + 4)||ŋʷũ⁴² bu⁴ or bu⁴|
|Eastern, Bete||Daloa Bété||ɓlʊ̄||sɔ̋||tá||mʊ̄wana||ŋ́ɡ͡bɨ́||ŋ́ɡ͡bʊplʊ (5 + 1)||ŋ́ɡ͡bisɔ́ (5 + 2)||ɡ͡bʊ̀wata (5 + 3)||ŋ́ɡ͡bimʊwana (5 + 4)||kʊ́ɡ͡ba|
|Eastern, Bete||Guiberoua Bété||ɓlʊ̄||sɔ̋||tá||mʊ̄wana||ŋ́ɡ͡bɨ́||ŋ́ɡ͡bʊplʊ (5 + 1)||ŋ́ɡ͡bisɔ́ (5 + 2)||ɡ͡bʊ̀wata (5 + 3)||ŋ́ɡ͡bimʊwana (5 + 4)||kʊ́ɡ͡ba|
|Eastern, Bete||Godié||ɓlōō||sɔ́ɔ́||tāā||ŋ̀mɔ̀ɔ̀nā||ŋ̀ɡ͡bɨ́||ŋ̀ɡ͡bóplóo (5 + 1)||ŋ̀ɡ͡bɔ̀ɔ́sɔ́ (5 + 2)||ŋ̀ɡ͡bàátā (5 + 3)||ŋ̀vɔ̀ɔ̀nā||kʊ́ɡ͡bá|
|Eastern, Bete, Eastern||Gagnoa Bété||ɓɵ̯̀ɺō||sɔ̋||tɑ̄||mɔ̀ɔ̀nɔ̄||ŋ͡m̩̄.ɡ͡bú||ɡ͡bé.pó̯ɺó (5 + 1)||ɡ͡bɔ́ɔ́.sɔ̋ (5 + 2)||ɡ͡bɔ̋ɔ́.tā (5 + 3)||fɛ̀ɛ̀.nɔ̄||kō.ɡ͡bɔ́|
|Eastern, Bete, Eastern||Guébie Bété||ɡ͡bɔlɔ².³||so⁴||ta³¹||mɔna¹.³¹||mŋɡ͡be²||mŋɡ͡beɡ͡bɔlɔ².².³ (5 + 1)||mŋɡ͡boso³.⁴ (5 + 2)||mŋɡ͡bata³.³¹ (5 + 3)||mŋɡ͡bɔfɛna³.¹.³¹ (5 + 4)||kɔɡ͡ba².³|
|Eastern, Bete, Eastern||Kouya||ɓlò||sɔ́||tā||mnʊ̀à||ɡ͡bu||ɡ͡beliɓlò (5 + 1)||ɡ͡besɔ́ (5 + 2)||ɡ͡betā (5 + 3)||ɡ͡bomnʊ̀à (5 + 4)||kuɡ͡bua|
|Eastern, Dida||Yocoboué Dida||bóló||mwɔsɔ́||mwɔtá||mwɔná||ɛŋɡ͡bɪ́||ɛŋɡ͡bʊ́frɔ (5 + 1)||ɛmɓɔ́sɔ́ (5 + 2)||ɛmɓáta (5 + 3)||ɛmvwaná||kóɡ͡ba|
|Eastern, Dida||Neyo||ɓɔ̄ló||sɔ́||tāā||mɔ̀nā||ɡ͡bɪ́||ɡ͡bɪ́flɔ́ (5 + 1)||ɡ͡básɔ́ (5 + 2)||ɡ͡bátā (5 + 3)||fɛ̄nā (5 + 4)||kʊ́ɡ͡bá|
|Eastern, Kwadia||Kodia||ɡ͡bɤlɤ³² / ɓɤlɤ³²||sɔː²||taː²||mɔna⁴³||ⁿɡ͡bɤ³||ⁿɡ͡bɤwlɤ³³³ (5 + 1)||ⁿɡ͡bɔː⁴³sɔ³ (5 + 2)||ⁿɡ͡baː⁴³ta³ (5 + 3)||ⁿɡ͡bɤmɔna³⁴³ (5 + 4)||kʊɡ͡ba³³|
|Western, Bassa||Bassa||ɖò, dyúáɖò||sɔ̃́||tã||hĩinyɛ||hm̀m̌||mɛ̀nɛ̌ìn-ɖò (5 + 1)||mɛ̀nɛ̌ìn-sɔ̃́ (5 + 2)||mɛ̀nɛ̌ìn-tã (5 + 3)||mɛ̀nɛ̌ìn-hĩinyɛ (5 + 4)||ɓaɖa-bùè|
|Western, Bassa||Dewoin (Dewoi||ɡ͡bǒ||sɔ̃́||ta||hĩinyɛ||hm̀m̌||meɖe-ɡ͡bǒ (5 + 1)||meɖe-sɔ̃́ (5 + 2)||meɖe-ta (5 + 3)||meɖe-hĩinyɛ (5 + 4)||vù|
|Western, Bassa||Gbasei (Gbii) (1)||dɔ̀ː / ɗɔ̀káⁱ||sɔ̃́||tã||ɲ̀yɛ̃||m̀ḿ||m̀mɽědɔ̀ (5 + 1)||m̀mɽěsɔ̃́ (5 + 2)||m̀mɽětã́ (5 + 3)||m̀mɽěɲ̀yɛ̃ (5 + 4)||báɽápʰùwe|
|Western, Bassa||Gbii (Gbi-Dowlu) (2)||dòò, dyúáɖò||sɔ̃́||tã||hĩ̀nyɛ||hm̀m̀||mɛ̀nɛ̀ɛ̄n-ɖò (5 + 1)||mɛ̀nɛ̀ɛ̄n-sɔ̃́ (5 + 2)||mɛ̀nɛ̀ɛ̄n-tə̃ (5 + 3)||mɛ̀nɛ̀ɛ̄n-hĩ̀nyɛ (5 + 4)||ɓaɖabùè|
|Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi||Glio-Oubi||dō||hwə̃||tã́||hə̃||ɡ͡bə̀||hṹdò (5 + 1)||hũ̀sɔ́ (5 + 2)||mɛra (5 + 3)||mɛ́ɲɛ̀ (5 + 4)||pue|
|Western, Grebo, Ivorian||Pye (Piè) Krumen||dò||hʋɛ̃́||tā||hɛ̃̀||hũ̌||hũ̀jārō [hũ̀jāɾō] ('five plus one')||hũ̀jāhʋɛ̃́ ('five plus two')||hũ̀jātā ('five plus three')||hũ̀jāhɛ̃̀ ('five plus four')||pù|
|Western, Grebo, Ivorian||Tepo Krumen (1)||dò||hɔ̃́||tā||hɛ̃̀||hũ̌||huõ̀nɔ̀ (5 + 1)||nɪ́pātā (litː 'not/be/three')||nɪ́pāhɔ̃́, yèhɛ̃̀yèhɛ̃̀ (2 x 4)||sēlédò (litː 'remains /there/one')||pù|
|Western, Grebo, Ivorian||Tepo Krumen (2)||dô||ɔ̄ɛ́n||tā||hɛ̀n||ùm||ùmnɔ̄dô (5 + 1)||ùmnɔ̄ɔ̄ɛ́n (5 + 2)||blɛ̄nbìɛ̀n||ùmīyándō||pù|
|Western, Grebo, Liberian||Central Grebo (Barrobo)||dòo||ɔ̌n||taan||hɛ̃ɛn||wùun||wùnɔ̀dǒ (5 + 1)||jetan (4 + 3) ?||jiinhɛ̀n (4 + 4) ?||sǒndò (litː 'remain one' before 10)||fù|
|Western, Grebo, Liberian||Northern Grebo||do||sɔ̃̌||tã||hɛ̃̀||m̀m||mmɔ̀do (5 + 1)||nyiɛtã (4 + 3)||nnyɛɛ (4 + 4)||siědo (litː 'remain one' before 10)||pù|
|Western, Klao||Klao||dô||sɔ́n||tan||nyìɛ̀||mù||mùnéɛ́do (5 + 1)||mùnéɛ́sɔ́n (5 + 2)||mùnéɛtan (5 + 3)||sopádo (10 - 1)||puè|
|Western, Klao||Tajuasohn||doe||sunn nn = ?||tan||hin||hoom||ḿhon doe (5 + 1)||ḿhon sunn (5 + 2)||hinin (4 + 4)||siɛrdoe (litː 'remains one')||punn|
|Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn||Western Krahn||tòò||sɔɔ̌n||ta̓a̓n||nyìɛ̓||m̀m̌||mɛ̀o̓ (5 + 1)||mɛ̀sɔɔ̌n (5 + 2)||mɛta̓a̓ǹ (5 + 3)||mɛ̀nyìɛ̓ (5 + 4)||pùèè|
|Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn||Sapo||duě / tòò||sɔn||tan||nyìɛ||m̀m̌||mɛ̀lǒ (5 + 1)||mɛ̀sɔn (5 + 2)||mɛ̌tan (5 + 3)||mɛ̌nyiɛ (5 + 4)||pùè|
|Western, Wee, Nyabwa||Nyabwa (Nyaboa)||do4||sɔ̃2||tã3||ɲiɛ33||mu4u1||mɛ4ɛ1lo4 (5 + 1)||mɛ4ɛ1sɔ̃2 (5 + 2)||mɛ4ɛ1tã3 (5 + 4)||mɛ4ɛ1ɲiɛ33 (5 + 5)||bue44|
|Western, Wee, Wobe||Northern Wè (Wobe)||too3 / due1||sɔɔn2 / sɔn2||taan3||nyiɛ43||mm41||mɛ41o3 (5 + 1)||mɛ41sɔn2 (5 + 2)||mɛ41na3 (5 + 3)||mɛ41nyiɛ3 (5 + 4)||puue3|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Liberia, including population density, ethnic groups, education level, population health, economic status, religious affiliations and other demographic information.
The Niger–Congo languages are the world's third largest language family in terms of number of speakers and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages. It is generally considered to be the world's largest language family in terms of distinct languages, ahead of Austronesian, although this is complicated by the ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language; the number of named Niger–Congo languages listed by Ethnologue is 1,540.
The Atlantic languages of West Africa are a major subgroup of the Niger–Congo languages. The exact scope of the Atlantic subgroup is the object of current research.
The Kwa languages, often specified as New Kwa, are a proposed but as-yet-undemonstrated family of languages spoken in the south-eastern part of Ivory Coast, across southern Ghana, and in central Togo. The name was introduced 1895 by Gottlob Krause and derives from the word for 'people' (Kwa) in many of these languages, as illustrated by Akan names.
The Krahn are an ethnic group of Liberia and Ivory Coast. This group belongs to the Kru language family and its people are sometimes referred to as the Wee, Guéré, Sapo, or Wobe. It is likely that Western contact with the Kru language is the primary reason for the development of these different names.
Liberian English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Liberia. There are five such varieties:
The Kru or Kroo are a West African ethnic group who are indigenous to eastern Liberia and migrated and settled along various points of the West African coast, notably Freetown, Sierra Leone, but also the Ivorian and Nigerian coasts. The Kru were famous for their skills in navigating and sailing the Atlantic. Their maritime expertise evolved along the west coast of Africa as they made livings as fishermen and traders. Knowing the in-shore waters of the western coast of Africa, and having nautical experience, they were employed as sailors, navigators and interpreters aboard slave ships, as well as American and British warships used against the slave trade.
The Bassa people are a West African ethnic group primarily native to Liberia. They form a majority or a significant minority in Liberia's Grand Bassa, Rivercess, Margibi and Montserrado counties. In Liberia's capital of Monrovia, they are the largest ethnic group. With an overall population of about 0.57 million, they are the second largest ethnic group in Liberia (13.4%), after the Kpelle people (20.3%). Small Bassa communities are also found in Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast.
Liberian Kreyol is an English-based pidgin spoken in Liberia. Also known as Kolokwa, was spoken by 1,500,000 people as a second language which is about 70% of the population in that time. Today the knowledge of some form of English is even more widespread. It is historically and linguistically related to Merico, a creole spoken in Liberia, but is grammatically distinct from it. There are regional dialects such as the Kru Pidgin English used by the Kru fishermen.
The Krumen is an ethnic group living mostly along the coast of Liberia and Côte d’Ivoire. Their numbers were estimated to be 48,300 in 1993, of which 28,300 were in Côte d’Ivoire. They are a subgroup of the Grebo and speak the Krumen language.
The Jabo language is a Kru language spoken by the Jabo people of Liberia. They have also been known in the past as the Gweabo.
Jabo is the self-designation of an ethnic group located in the southeastern part of the Republic of Liberia in West Africa. They have also sometimes referred to themselves as Gweabo or Nimiah tribe.
Grebo people is a term used to refer to an ethnic group or subgroup within the larger Kru group of Africa, a language and cultural ethnicity, and to certain of its constituent elements. Within Liberia members of this group are found primarily in Maryland County and Grand Kru County in the southeastern portion of the country, but also in River Gee County and Sinoe County. The Grebo population in Côte d'Ivoire are known as the Krumen and are found in the southwestern corner of that country.
Grebo is a dialect cluster of the Kru languages, spoken by the Grebo people of present-day Liberia and the Krumen of Ivory Coast in West Africa.
Ivory Coast is a multilingual country with an estimated 78 languages currently spoken.
Liberian Americans are Americans of full or partial Liberian ancestry. This includes Liberians who are of African American descent. It also includes the descendants of Americo-Liberian people in America. The first wave of Liberians to the United States, after the slavery period, was after of the First Liberian Civil War in the 1980s and, then, after the Second Liberian Civil War in the early 2000s. An estimated 100,000 Liberians live in the U.S. as of this time. The diplomatic relationship between Liberia and the USA goes back over 150 years since Liberia's foundation by returning African slaves freed by abolitionist societies which set aside land for the freedmen and paved the way to its independence.
The Gbi and Dorue language, also known as Gbee or Gbi and Dorue, is similar to the Krahn dialect/ language of the Niger–Congo language family. It is spoken in northern Liberia which is a district within Nimba County. Its dialects include Gbi and Dorue. It has a lexical similarity of 0.78 with the Bassa language, and so might be considered a Bassa dialect.
Krumen is a dialect continuum spoken by the Krumen people of Liberia and Ivory Coast. It is a branch of the Grebo languages, a subfamily of the Kru languages and ultimately of the Niger–Congo languages. It had 48,300 speakers in 1993. The main varieties are:
Grebo may refer to:
Dapo may be: