Last updated

The Red Lake sinkhole in Croatia RedLakeCroatia.JPG
The Red Lake sinkhole in Croatia

A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, [1] [2] swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably [3] ), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Most are caused by karst processes – the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks [4] or suffosion processes. [5] Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 m (3.3 to 2,000 ft) both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may form gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. [6]



Sinkholes near the Dead Sea, formed when underground salt is dissolved by freshwater intrusion, due to continuing sea-level drop. Dead Sea sinkhole by David Shankbone.jpg
Sinkholes near the Dead Sea, formed when underground salt is dissolved by freshwater intrusion, due to continuing sea-level drop.
Collapse sinkhole in Chinchon, Spain. Chinchon dolina c1991.jpg
Collapse sinkhole in Chinchón, Spain.

Natural processes

Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may also form in high and dry places in specific locations. Sinkholes that capture drainage can hold it in large limestone caves. These caves may drain into tributaries of larger rivers. [7] [8]

The formation of sinkholes involves natural processes of erosion [9] or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock (such as limestone) by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. [10] Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion. [11] For example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and then carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void.

Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below. In the case of exceptionally large sinkholes, such as the Minyé sinkhole in Papua New Guinea or Cedar Sink at Mammoth Cave National Park in Kentucky, an underground stream or river may be visible across its bottom flowing from one side to the other.

Sinkholes are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone or other carbonate rock, salt beds, or in other soluble rocks, such as gypsum, [12] that can be dissolved naturally by circulating ground water. Sinkholes also occur in sandstone and quartzite terrains.

As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns develop underground. These sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support. Then, a sudden collapse of the land surface can occur. [13]

On 2 July 2015, scientists reported that active pits, related to sinkhole collapses and possibly associated with outbursts, were found on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta space probe. [14] [15]

Artificial processes

Collapse formed by rainwater leaking through pavement and carrying soil into a ruptured sewer pipe. Sinkhole.jpg
Collapse formed by rainwater leaking through pavement and carrying soil into a ruptured sewer pipe.

Collapses, commonly incorrectly labeled as sinkholes also occur due to human activity, such as the collapse of abandoned mines and salt cavern storage in salt domes in places like Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. More commonly, collapses occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when old pipes give way. They can also occur from the overpumping and extraction of groundwater and subsurface fluids.

Sinkholes can also form when natural water-drainage patterns are changed and new water-diversion systems are developed. Some sinkholes form when the land surface is changed, such as when industrial and runoff-storage ponds are created; the substantial weight of the new material can trigger a collapse of the roof of an existing void or cavity in the subsurface, resulting in development of a sinkhole.


Solution sinkholes

Solution or dissolution sinkholes form where water dissolves limestone under a soil covering. Dissolution enlarges natural openings in the rock such as joints, fractures, and bedding planes. Soil settles down into the enlarged openings forming a small depression at the ground surface. [16]

USGS dissolution sinkhole. Dissolution sinkhole.png
USGS dissolution sinkhole.

Cover-subsidence sinkholes

Cover-subsidence sinkholes form where voids in the underlying limestone allow more settling of the soil to create larger surface depressions. [16]

USGS cover-subsidence sinkhole. Cover-subsidence sinkhole.png
USGS cover-subsidence sinkhole.

Cover-collapse sinkholes

Cover-collapse sinkholes or "dropouts" form where so much soil settles down into voids in the limestone that the ground surface collapses. The surface collapses may occur abruptly and cause catastrophic damages. New sinkhole collapses can also form when man changes the natural water-drainage patterns in karst areas. [16]

USGS cover-subsidence sinkhole. Cover-collapse sinkhole.png
USGS cover-subsidence sinkhole.

Pseudokarst sinkholes

Pseudokarst sinkholes resemble karst sinkholes but formed by processes other than the natural dissolution of rock. [17] :4

Human accelerated sinkholes

Man-made activities and land alterations that cause water-level fluctuations accelerate cover-collapse sinkholes Subsurface erosion of soil into karst conduit by water level fluctuation.jpg
Man-made activities and land alterations that cause water-level fluctuations accelerate cover-collapse sinkholes

The U.S. Geological Survey says It is a frightening thought to imagine the ground below your feet or house suddenly collapsing and forming a big hole in the ground. [16] Karst experts say man's activities can accelerate collapses of karst sinkholes within a few years compared to karst collapses under natural conditions that evolve over thousands of years. [18] :2 [19] [17] :1 and 92 A geotechnical engineer says the most serious sinkhole collapse hazards to life and property results from collapses of cavities in soil that develop where soil falls down into underlying rock cavities (cover-collapse sinkholes). Fluctuation of the water level accelerates this collapse process. When water rises up through fissures in the rock it weakens the soil so that soil fragments fall down. Later as the water level moves downward the softened soil fragments seep deeper into rock cavities. Flowing water in karst conduits carries the soil away allowing the process to continue. [20] :52–53 Induced sinkholes occur where human activity alters how surface water recharges groundwater. Many man-induced sinkholes occur where surface water gets concentrated instead of the natural diffused recharge. Activities that can accelerate sinkhole collapses include timber removal, ditching, laying pipelines, sewers, water lines, storm drains, drilling, etc. These activities can increase the downward movement of water to exceed the natural rate of groundwater recharge. [18] :26–29 The increased runoff from the impervious surfaces of roads, roofs, and parking lots also accelerate man-induced sinkhole collapses. [17] :8

An American Society of Civil Engineers publication says the potential for sinkhole collapse must be a part of land-use planning in karst areas. Since water level changes accelerate sinkhole collapse, measures must be taken to minimize water level changes. Where sinkhole collapse of structures could cause loss of life the public should be made aware of the risks. The areas most susceptible to sinkhole collapse can be identified and avoided. [20] :88 A 1987 U.S. Geological Survey publication says Many induced sinkholes develop with little or no advance warning while others are preceded by warning features such as cracks, sagging, jammed doors, cracking noises,etc. [18] :32–34 Another U.S. Geological Survey publication says Sinkhole density is an important factor for determining the area most prone to sinkhole development. Where a closed depression has collapsed into a sinkhole we know that the underlying subsurface contains unstable voids, and possibly a cave system. In areas where active sinkholes have developed there is a greater possibility that a new sinkhole will form (Brezinski, 2004; Zhou, 2003). [21] Where large cavities exist in the limestone large surface collapses can occur like the Winter Park, Florida sinkhole collapse. [17] :91–92 Recommendations for land uses in karst areas should avoid or minimize alterations of the land surface and natural drainage. [18] :36 Geotechnical engineers say the current understanding of karst development allows proper site characterization to avoid karst disasters. Most sinkhole disasters are recognizable, predictable, and preventable rather than “acts of God”. [22] :xii [17] :17 and 104 In karst areas the traditional foundation evaluations (bearing capacity and settlement) of the ability of soil to support a structure only comes after acceptable results from the geotechnical site investigation for cavities and defects in the underlying rock. [20] :113 Since the soil/rock surface in karst areas are very irregular the number of subsurface samples (borings and core samples) required per unit area is usually much greater than in non-karst areas. [20] :98–99

More than three acres of forest suddenly disappeared into this "December Giant" sinkhole. December Giant sinkhole collapse USGS 1972.jpg
More than three acres of forest suddenly disappeared into this "December Giant" sinkhole.

In 2015 the U.S. Geological Survey reported Repair of damage to buildings, highways, and other infrastructure represents a significant national cost. Sparse and incomplete data show that the average cost of karst-related damages in the United States over the last 15 years is estimated to be at least $300,000,000 per year and the actual total is probably much higher. [23] The U.S. Geological Survey reports the greatest amount of karst sinkhole damage occurs in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. [24] Possibly the largest recent sinkhole in the USA formed in 1972 as a result of man-made lowering of the water level in a nearby rock quarry. This "December Giant" or "Golly Hole" sinkhole measures 425 feet long, 350 feet wide and 150 feet deep. [18] :1–2 [20] :61–63 [25]


The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida goes into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater AlapahaRiver2002.jpg
The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida goes into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater
Gouffre de Padirac in France known since the 3rd c. and explored in 1889 Gouffre-v-hdr.jpg
Gouffre de Padirac in France known since the 3rd c. and explored in 1889
A Floridian sinkhole in 2015 240 Faithway Drive sinkhole, 2015.png
A Floridian sinkhole in 2015

Sinkholes tend to occur in karst landscapes. [13] Karst landscapes can have up to thousands of sinkholes within a small area, giving the landscape a pock-marked appearance. These sinkholes drain all the water, so there are only subterranean rivers in these areas. Examples of karst landscapes with a plethora of massive sinkholes include Khammouan Mountains (Laos) and Mamo Plateau (Papua New Guinea). [26] [27] The largest known sinkholes formed in sandstone are Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel in Venezuela. [27]

Some sinkholes form in thick layers of homogenous limestone. Their formation is facilitated by high groundwater flow, often caused by high rainfall; such rainfall causes formation of the giant sinkholes in the Nakanaï Mountains, on the New Britain island in Papua New Guinea. [28] On the contact of limestone and insoluble rock below it, powerful underground rivers may form, creating large underground voids.

In such conditions, the largest known sinkholes of the world have formed, like the 662-metre (2,172 ft) deep Xiaozhai Tiankeng (Chongqing, China), giant sótanos in Querétaro and San Luis Potosí states in Mexico and others. [27] [29]

Unusual processes have formed the enormous sinkholes of Sistema Zacatón in Tamaulipas (Mexico), where more than 20 sinkholes and other karst formations have been shaped by volcanically heated, acidic groundwater. [30] [31] This has produced not only the formation of the deepest water-filled sinkhole in the world—Zacatón—but also unique processes of travertine sedimentation in upper parts of sinkholes, leading to sealing of these sinkholes with travertine lids. [31]

The U.S. state of Florida in North America is known for having frequent sinkhole collapses, especially in the central part of the state. Underlying limestone there is from 15 to 25 million years old. On the fringes of the state, sinkholes are rare or non-existent; limestone there is around 120,000 years old. [32]

The Murge area in southern Italy also has numerous sinkholes. Sinkholes can be formed in retention ponds from large amounts of rain.[ citation needed ] An analysis of a case of sinkhole formation under a retention pond due to a large amount of rain can be seen in a sinkhole collapse study. [33]

Human uses

Sinkholes have been used for centuries as disposal sites for various forms of waste. A consequence of this is the pollution of groundwater resources, with serious health implications in such areas. The Maya civilization sometimes used sinkholes in the Yucatán Peninsula (known as cenotes) as places to deposit precious items and human sacrifices. [34]

When sinkholes are very deep or connected to caves, they may offer challenges for experienced cavers or, when water-filled, divers. Some of the most spectacular are the Zacatón cenote in Mexico (the world's deepest water-filled sinkhole), the Boesmansgat sinkhole in South Africa, Sarisariñama tepuy in Venezuela, the Sótano del Barro in Mexico, and in the town of Mount Gambier, South Australia. Sinkholes that form in coral reefs and islands that collapse to enormous depths are known as blue holes and often become popular diving spots. [35]

Local names

The Great Blue Hole near Ambergris Caye, Belize Great Blue Hole.jpg
The Great Blue Hole near Ambergris Caye, Belize

Large and visually unusual sinkholes have been well known to local people since ancient times. Nowadays sinkholes are grouped and named in site-specific or generic names. Some examples of such names are listed below. [36]

Piping pseudokarst

The 2010 Guatemala City sinkhole formed suddenly in May of that year; torrential rains from Tropical Storm Agatha and a bad drainage system were blamed for its creation. It swallowed a three-story building and a house; it measured approximately 20 m (66 ft) wide and 30 m (98 ft) deep. [39] A similar hole had formed nearby in February 2007. [40] [41] [42]

This large vertical hole is not a true sinkhole, as it did not form via the dissolution of limestone, dolomite, marble, or any other water-soluble rock. [43] [44] Instead, they are examples of "piping pseudokarst", created by the collapse of large cavities that had developed in the weak, crumbly Quaternary volcanic deposits underlying the city. Although weak and crumbly, these volcanic deposits have enough cohesion to allow them to stand in vertical faces and to develop large subterranean voids within them. A process called "soil piping" first created large underground voids, as water from leaking water mains flowed through these volcanic deposits and mechanically washed fine volcanic materials out of them, then progressively eroded and removed coarser materials. Eventually, these underground voids became large enough that their roofs collapsed to create large holes. [43]

Crown hole

A crown hole is subsidence due to subterranean human activity, such as mining and military trenches. [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] Examples have included, instances above World War I trenches in Ypres, near mines in Nitra, Slovakia, [54] limestone mine in Dudley, England, [54] [55] above an old gypsum mine in Magheracloone, Ireland. [46]

Notable examples

Bimmah or Falling Star Sinkhole in Oman Oman2-056 (8479895991).jpg
Bimmah or Falling Star Sinkhole in Oman

Some of the largest sinkholes in the world are: [27]

In Africa

In Asia

In the Caribbean

In Central America

In Europe

In North America


United States

  • Bayou Corne sinkhole – Assumption Parish, Louisiana. About 25 acres in area [70] and 750 ft (230 m) deep.
  • The Blue Hole – Santa Rosa, New Mexico. The surface entrance is only 80 feet (24 m) in diameter, it expands to a diameter of 130 feet (40 m) at the bottom.
  • Daisetta Sinkholes – Daisetta, Texas. Several sinkholes have formed, the most recent in 2008 with a maximum diameter of 620 ft (190 m) and maximum depth of 150 ft (46 m). [71] [72]
  • Devil's MillhopperGainesville, Florida. 120 ft (37 m) deep, 500 ft (150 m) wide. Twelve springs, some more visible than others, feed a pond at the bottom. [73]
  • Golly Hole or December Giant, Calera, Alabama, appeared 2 December 1972. Approximately 300 ft (91 m) by 325 ft (99 m) and 120 ft (37 m) deep. [74]
  • Grassy Cove – Tennessee. 13.6 km2 (5.3 sq mi) in area and 42.7 m (140 ft) deep, [75] a National Natural Landmark.
  • Gypsum Sinkhole – Utah, in Capitol Reef National Park. Nearly 15 m (49 ft) in diameter and approximately 60 m (200 ft) deep. [76]
  • Kingsley Lake – Florida. 8.1 km2 (2,000 acres) in area, 27 m (89 ft) deep and almost perfectly round.
  • Lake Peigneur – New Iberia, Louisiana. Original depth 11 ft (3.4 m), currently 1,300 ft (400 m) at Diamond Crystal Salt Mine collapse. [77] [78]
  • Winter Park Sinkhole, in central Florida, appeared 8 May 1981. It was approximately 350 feet (107 m) wide and 75 feet (23 m) deep. It was notable as one of the largest recent sinkholes to form in the United States. It is now known as Lake Rose. [79]

In Oceania

In South America

See also

Related Research Articles

Cave Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter

A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground, specifically a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves often form by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground. The word cave can also refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos, though strictly speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, and a rock shelter is endogene.

Karst Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks

Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. It has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes. However, in regions where the dissolved bedrock is covered or confined by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock strata, distinctive karst features may occur only at subsurface levels and can be totally missing above ground.

Subsidence the motion of a surface (usually, the Earths surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea-level

Subsidence is the sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of the ground's surface with little or no horizontal motion. The definition of subsidence is not restricted by the rate, magnitude, or area involved in the downward movement. It may be caused by natural processes or by human activities. The former include various karst phenomena, thawing of permafrost, consolidation, oxidation of organic soils, slow crustal warping, normal faulting, caldera subsidence, or withdrawal of fluid lava from beneath a solid crust. The human activities include sub-surface mining or extraction of underground fluids, e. g. petroleum, natural gas, or groundwater. Ground subsidence is of global concern to geologists, geotechnical engineers, surveyors, engineers, urban planners, landowners, and the public in general.

National Corvette Museum

The National Corvette Museum showcases the Chevrolet Corvette, an American sports car that has been in production since 1953. It is located in Bowling Green, Kentucky, off Interstate 65's Exit 28. It was constructed in 1994, and opened to the public in September of that year.

Cenote A natural pit, or sinkhole, that exposes groundwater underneath

A cenote is a natural pit, or sinkhole, resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock that exposes groundwater underneath. Especially associated with the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, cenotes were sometimes used by the ancient Maya for sacrificial offerings.

Great Blue Hole submarine sinkhole off the coast of Belize

The Great Blue Hole is a giant marine sinkhole off the coast of Belize. It lies near the center of Lighthouse Reef, a small atoll 70 km (43 mi) from the mainland and Belize City. The hole is circular in shape, 318 m (1,043 ft) across and 124 m (407 ft) deep. It was formed during several episodes of quaternary glaciation when sea levels were much lower. Analysis of stalactites found in the Great Blue Hole shows that formation took place 153,000; 66,000; 60,000; and 15,000 years ago. As the ocean began to rise again, the cave was flooded. The Great Blue Hole is a part of the larger Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System, a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Blue hole Marine cavern or sinkhole, open to the surface, in carbonate bedrock

A blue hole is a large marine cavern or sinkhole, which is open to the surface and has developed in a bank or island composed of a carbonate bedrock. Blue holes typically contain tidally influenced water of fresh, marine, or mixed chemistry. They extend below sea level for most of their depth and may provide access to submerged cave passages. Well-known examples can be found in South China Sea, Belize, the Bahamas, Guam, Australia, and Egypt.

Sistema Dos Ojos Flooded cave system at the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

Dos Ojos is part of a flooded cave system located north of Tulum, on the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The exploration of Dos Ojos began in 1987 and still continues. The surveyed extent of the cave system is 82 kilometers (51 mi) and there are 28 known sinkhole entrances, which are locally called cenotes. In January 2018, a connection was found between Sistema Dos Ojos and Sistema Sac Actun. The smaller Dos Ojos became a part of Sac Actun, making the Sistema Sac Actun the longest known underwater cave system in the world.

Aldama Municipality, Tamaulipas in Tamaulipas State, Mexico

Aldama is a municipality of the northeastern Mexican state of Tamaulipas. According to the census of 2010, the municipality had an area of 3,672 square kilometres (1,418 sq mi) and a population of 29,470, including the town of Aldama with a population of 13,661.

Pit cave

A pit cave, shaft cave or vertical cave—or often simply called a pit or pot ; jama in South Slavic languages scientific and colloquial vocabulary —is a type of cave which contains one or more significant vertical shafts rather than being predominantly a conventional horizontal cave passage. Pit caves typically form in limestone as a result of long-term erosion by water. They can be open to the surface or found deep within horizontal caves. Among cavers, a pit is a vertical drop of any depth that cannot be negotiated safely without the use of ropes or ladders.

DEPTHX Autonomous underwater vehicle for exploring sinkholes in Mexico

The Deep Phreatic Thermal Explorer (DEPTHX) is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed and built by Stone Aerospace, an aerospace engineering firm based in Austin, Texas. It was designed to autonomously explore and map underwater sinkholes in northern Mexico, as well as collect water and wall core samples. The DEPTHX vehicle was the first of three vehicles to be built by Stone Aerospace which were funded by NASA with the goal of developing technology that can explore the oceans of Jupiter's moon Europa to look for extraterrestrial life.

Zacatón is a thermal water-filled sinkhole belonging to the Zacatón system - a group of unusual karst features located in Aldama Municipality near the Sierra de Tamaulipas in the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. It is the deepest known water-filled sinkhole in the world with a total depth of 339 metres (1,112 ft). The 392 metres (1,286 ft) deep Pozzo del Merro is deeper, but its nature as a near-vertical cave or a sinkhole still being debated.

Cave of Swallows cave in Mexico

The Cave of Swallows, also called the Cave of the Swallows, is an open air pit cave in the Municipality of Aquismón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The elliptical mouth, on a slope of karst, is 49 by 62 m wide and is undercut around all of its perimeter, widening to a room approximately 303 by 135 meters wide. The floor of the cave is a 333-meter (1092 ft) freefall drop from the lowest side of the opening, with a 370-meter (1,214 ft) drop from the highest side, making it the largest known cave shaft in the world, the second deepest pit in Mexico and perhaps the 11th deepest in the world.

The Caves of the Tullybrack and Belmore hills can be found in south-west County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The region is also described as the West Fermanagh Scarplands by environmental agencies and shares many similar karst features with the nearby Marble Arch Caves Global Geopark.


Suffosion is one of the two geological processes by which subsidence sinkholes or dolines are formed, the other being due to collapse of an underlying cave or void, with most sinkholes formed by the suffosion process. Suffosion sinkholes are normally associated with karst topography although they may form in other types of rock including chalk, gypsum and basalt. In the karst of the UK's Yorkshire Dales, numerous surface depressions known locally as "shakeholes" are the result of glacial till washing into fissures in the underlying limestone.

Er Wang Dong is a large cave in the Wulong Karst region, in Wulong County of Chongqing Municipality of China.

Little Blue Lake Flooded sinkhole dive site in South Australia

Little Blue Lake is a water-filled doline in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state's south-east in the locality of Mount Schank about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the municipal seat of Mount Gambier. It is notable locally as a swimming hole and nationally as a cave diving site. It is managed by the District Council of Grant and has been developed as a recreational and tourism venue.

Pozzo del Merro A flooded sinkhole in the countryside northeast of Rome, Italy

Pozzo del Merro is a flooded sinkhole in the countryside northeast of Rome, Italy. Situated at the bottom of an 80 m conical pit, at 392 m (1,286 ft) it is the second deepest underwater vertical cave in the world. In 2000 two ROVs were sent to explore its depths; the first, the "Mercurio (Mercury)" reached its maximum operative depth of 210 m (690 ft) without reaching the bottom. The second ROV, "Hyball 300", reached 310 m (1,020 ft) without touching down either. A third dive in 2002 with the more advanced "Prometeo" robot reached the bottom at 392 m (1,286 ft), but discovered a narrow passage continuing horizontally.

Cedar Sink Sinkhole in Mammoth Cave National Park

Cedar Sink is a vertical-walled large depression, or sinkhole, in the ground, that is located in Edmonson County, Kentucky and contained within and managed by Mammoth Cave National Park. The sinkhole measures 300 feet (91.4 m) from the top sandstone plateau to the bottom of the sink and was caused by collapse of the surface soil. The landscape is karst topography, which means the region is influenced by the dissolution of soluble rocks. Sinkholes, caves, and dolines typically characterize these underground drainage systems. Cedar Sink has a bottom area of about 7 acres (2.8 ha) and has more fertile soil compared to the ridgetops.


PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from websites or documents ofthe United States Geological Survey .


  1. Whittow, John (1984). Dictionary of Physical Geography. London: Penguin. p. 488. ISBN   978-0-14-051094-2.
  2. Thomas, David; Goudie, Andrew, eds. (2009). The Dictionary of Physical Geography (3rd ed.). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p. 440. ISBN   978-1444313161.
  3. Kohl, Martin (2001). "Subsidence and sinkholes in East Tennessee. A field guide to holes in the ground" (PDF). State of Tennessee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  4. Lard, L., Paull, C., & Hobson, B. (1995). "Genesis of a submarine sinkhole without subaerial exposure". Geology. 23 (10): 949–951. Bibcode:1995Geo....23..949L. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0949:GOASSW>2.3.CO;2.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. "Caves and karst – dolines and sinkholes". British Geological Survey.
  6. Kohl, Martin (2001). "Subsidence and sinkholes in East Tennessee. A field guide to holes in the ground" (PDF). State of Tennessee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  7. Breining, Greg (5 October 2007). "Getting Down and Dirty in an Underground River in Puerto Rico". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  8. Palmer, Arthur N. (1 January 1991). "Origin and morphology of limestone caves". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 103 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<0001:oamolc>;2. ISSN   0016-7606.
  9. Friend, Sandra (2002). Sinkholes . Pineapple Press Inc. p.  11. ISBN   978-1-56164-258-8 . Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  10. Tills 2013, p. 181.
  11. "Quarrying and the environment". bgs. bgs. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  12. "Sinkholes in Washington County". Utah gov Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 23 March 2011.
  13. 1 2 Tills 2013, p. 182.
  14. Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; et al. (2 July 2015). "Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from sinkhole collapse". Nature. 523 (7558): 63–66. Bibcode:2015Natur.523...63V. doi:10.1038/nature14564. PMID   26135448.
  15. Ritter, Malcolm (1 July 2015). "It's the pits: Comet appears to have sinkholes, study says". AP News . Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  16. 1 2 3 4 "Sinkholes". Water Science School. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Benson, Richard C.; Yuhr, Lynn B. (2015). Site Characterization in Karst and Pseudokarst Terraines: Practical Strategies and Technology for Practicing Engineers, Hydrologists and Geologists. Dordrecht: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9924-9. ISBN   978-94-017-9923-2.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Newton, John G. (1987). "Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the eastern United States" (PDF). Circular. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 968. U.S. Government Print Office. doi:10.3133/cir968.
  19. Kambesis, P.; Brucker, R.; Waltham, T.; Bell, F.; Culshaw, M. (2005). "Collapse sinkhole at Dishman Lane, Kentucky". Sinkholes and Subsidence: Karst and Cavernous Rocks in Engineering and Construction . Berlin: Springer. p.  281. doi:10.1007/b138363. ISBN   3-540-20725-2.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 Sowers, George F. (1996). Building on sinkholes. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers. doi:10.1061/9780784401767. ISBN   0-7844-0176-4.
  21. Doctor, Katarina. "GIS and Spatial Statistical Methods for Determining Sinkhole Potential in Frederick Valley, Maryland, page 100 in Kuniansky, E.L., 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27–29, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, 142 p." (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  22. 1 2 Waltham, Tony; Bell, Fred; Culshaw, Martin (2005). Sinkholes and subsidence: karst and cavernous rocks in engineering and construction (1st ed.). Berlin [u.a.]: Springer [u.a.] ISBN   978-3540207252.
  23. Weary, David J. (2015). "The cost of karst subsidence and sinkhole collapse in the United States compared with other natural hazards". USGS Publications Warehouse. University of South Florida. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  24. Kuniansky, E.L.; Weary, D.J.; Kaufmann, J.E. (2016). "The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States" (PDF). Hydrogeology Journal. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 24 (3): 614. Bibcode:2016HydJ...24..613K. doi:10.1007/s10040-015-1333-3 . Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  25. "Possibly the nation's largest recent sinkhole – the "December Giant" measuring 425 feet long, 350 feet wide and 150 feet deep – formed in central Alabama". USGS Denver Library Photographic Collection. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  26. "What is a sinkhole?". CNC3. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  27. 1 2 3 4 "Largest and most impressive sinkholes of the world". Wondermondo. 19 August 2010.
  28. "Naré sinkhole". Wondermondo. 5 August 2010.
  29. Zhu, Xuewen; Chen, Weihai (2006). "Tiankengs in the karst of China" (PDF). Speleogenesis and Evolution of Karst Aquifers. 4: 1–18. ISSN   1814-294X.
  30. "Sistema Zacatón". by Marcus Gary.
  31. 1 2 "Sistema Zacatón". Wondermondo. 3 July 2010.
  32. Vazquez, Tyler (29 September 2017). "The Hole Truth". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1A, 2A. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  33. William L. Wilson; K. Michael Garman. "IDENTIFICATION AND DELINEATION OF SINKHOLE COLLAPSE HAZARDS IN FLORIDA USING GROUND PENETRATING RADAR AND ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY IMAGING" (PDF). Subsurface Evaluations, Inc. Case 3 – Mariner Boulevard.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  34. ""Haunted" Maya Underwater Cave Holds Human Bones" . Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  35. Rock, Tim (2007). Diving & Snorkeling Belize (4th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. p. 65. ISBN   9781740595315.
  36. "Sinkholes". Wondermondo.
  37. "Black Hole of Andros". Wondermondo.
  38. "Subsidence". Waikato Regional Council. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  39. Tills 2013, p. 184.
  40. Fletcher, Dan (1 June 2010). "Massive Sinkhole Opens in Guatemala". Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  41. Vidal, Luis; Jorge Nunez (2 June 2010). "¿Que diablos provoco este escalofriante hoyo?". Las Ultimas Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  42. Than, Ker (1 June 2010). "Sinkhole in Guatemala: Giant Could Get Even Bigger". National Geographic. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  43. 1 2 Waltham, T. (2008). "Sinkhole hazard case histories in karst terrains". Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology. 41 (3): 291–300. doi:10.1144/1470-9236/07-211.
  44. Halliday, W.R. (2007). "Pseudokarst in the 21st Century" (PDF). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies. 69 (1): 103–113. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  45. "Subsidence Incident | Gyproc".
  46. 1 2 Hussey, Sinéad (17 April 2020). "Crown hole appears in Magheracloone, Co Monaghan". RTÉ News.
  47. "New hole opens on lands near mining network in Co Monaghan".
  48. Peter, Doyle; P, Barton; Mike, Rosenbaum; J, Vandewalle; K, Jacobs (December 2002). "Geo-environmental implications of military mining in Flanders, Belgium, 1914-1918". Journal of Environmental Geology . 43 (December 2002): 57–71. doi:10.1007/s00254-002-0642-8.
  49. Szabó, József; Dávid, Lóránt; Loczy, Denes, eds. (2010). Anthropogenic Geomorphology: A Guide to Man-Made Landforms . Springer. p.  138. ISBN   978-9048130580.
  50. Bell, Fred G.; Donnelly, Laurance J. (20 April 2006). Mining and its Impact on the Environment. CRC Press. ISBN   1482288230.
  51. "A20-A33". Development on unstable land (pdf) (Report). Government of Wales. September 2018.
  52. Edmonds, C.N. (2018). "Review of collapse events on Chalk since 2000 and the opportunities for improved engineering practice". Engineering in Chalk. pp. 53–73. doi:10.1680/eiccf.64072.053. ISBN   978-0-7277-6407-2.
  53. "Causes and Prevention for Sinkhole in Limestone Mine". 2015.
  54. 1 2 "The cricket club that went down the hole". 16 October 2017.
  55. Lóczy, Dénes, ed. (2015). "The Crater Lakes of Nagyhegyes". Landscapes and Landforms of Hungary - World Geomorphological Landscapes. Springer: 247. ISBN   978-3319089973.
  56. Halls, Monty; Krestovnikoff, Miranda (2006). Scuba diving (1st American ed.). New York: DK Pub. p.  267. ISBN   9780756619497.
  57. Beaumont, P.B.; Vogel, J.C. (May–June 2006). "On a timescale for the past million years of human history in central South Africa". South African Journal of Science. 102: 217–228. hdl:10204/1944. ISSN   0038-2353.
  58. Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi (2014). "ASTER mapping of limestone formations and study of caves, springs and depressions in parts of Sultanate of Oman". Environmental Earth Sciences. 71 (1): 133–146, figure 9d (page 142), page 144. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2419-7.
  59. "Bimmah sinkhole". Wondermondo.
  60. Zhu, Xuewen; et al. (2003). 广西乐业大石围天坑群发现探测定义与研究[Dashiwei Tiankeng Group, Leye, Guangxi: discoveries, exploration, definition and research]. Nanning, Guangxi, China: Guangxi Scientific and Technical Publishers. ISBN   978-7-80666-393-6.
  61. "China Exclusive: South China Sea "blue hole" declared world's deepest". New China. Xinhua. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016.
  62. "Researchers just discovered the world's deepest underwater sinkhole in the South China Sea". The Washington Post.
  63. "陕西发现天坑群地质遗迹并发现少见植物和飞猫" [Tiankeng group of geological relics with rare plants and flying cats found in Shaanxi]. Inc. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016.
  64. "时事新闻--解密汉中天坑群——改写地质历史的世界级"自然博物馆"" [Deciphering the Hanzhong tiankeng group – world-class "Nature Museum"]. Hanzhong People's Municipal Government. 25 November 2016. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016.
  65. "Dhofar caves: A tourist's paradise". Muscat Daily. 11 January 2015. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016.
  66. Zhu, Xuewen; Waltham, Tony (2006). "Tiankeng: definition and description" (PDF). Speleogenesis and Evolution of Karst Aquifers. 4 (1): 1–8, Fig. 4. Structural interpretation of Xiaozhai Tiankeng, page 4.
  67. Schonauer, Scott (21 July 2007). "Missing American divers will be laid to rest after 30 years". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  68. "Google Maps".
  69. " Mapviewer". Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  70. Wines, Michael (25 September 2013). "Ground Gives Way, and a Louisiana Town Struggles to Find Its Footing". New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  71. Horswell, Cindy (5 January 2009). "Daisetta sinkhole still a mystery 8 months after it formed". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  72. Blumenthal, Ralph (9 May 2008). "Sinkhole and Town: Now You See It". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  73. "Devils Millhopper Geological State Park". Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  74. "Nation's largest sinkhole may be near Montevallo" (29 March 1973) The Tuscaloosa News
  75. Dunigan, Tom. "Grassy Cove". Tennessee Landforms. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  76. "Cathedral Valley – Capitol Reef National Park". National Park Service, US Dept of Interior. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  77. "Lake Peigneur: The Swirling Vortex of Doom".
  78. chondram (14 August 2012). "Mysterious Louisiana Sinkhole Drains Entire Lake" via YouTube.
  79. Huber, Red (13 November 2012). "Looking back at Winter Park's famous sinkhole". Orlando Sentinel.