Neshoba County, Mississippi

Last updated
Neshoba County
County
Neshoba County Mississippi Courthouse.jpg
Neshoba County courthouse and Confederate Monument in Philadelphia
Map of Mississippi highlighting Neshoba County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Mississippi
Mississippi in United States.svg
Mississippi's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 32°45′N89°07′W / 32.75°N 89.12°W / 32.75; -89.12
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
StateFlag of Mississippi.svg  Mississippi
Founded1833
Seat Philadelphia
Largest cityPhiladelphia
Area
  Total572 sq mi (1,480 km2)
  Land570 sq mi (1,500 km2)
  Water1.5 sq mi (4 km2)  0.3%
Population
 (2010)
  Total29,676
  Estimate 
(2018)
29,125
  Density52/sq mi (20/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 3rd
Website www.neshobacounty.net

Neshoba County is a county located in the central part of the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,676. [1] Its county seat is Philadelphia. [2] It was named after Nashoba, a Choctaw chief. His name means "wolf" in the Choctaw language. [3]

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, a county is an administrative or political subdivision of a state that consists of a geographic region with specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs, respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.

Mississippi State in the United States

Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd largest and 34th-most populous of the 50 United States. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by the Gulf of Mexico, to the southwest by Louisiana, and to the northwest by Arkansas. Mississippi's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson is both the state's capital and largest city. Greater Jackson, with an estimated population of 580,166 in 2018, is the most populous metropolitan area in Mississippi and the 95th-most populous in the United States.

Contents

The county is known for the Neshoba County Fair and harness horse races. It is home of the Williams Brothers Store, which has been in operation since the early 1900s.

Neshoba County Fair

The Neshoba County Fair, also known as Mississippi's Giant House Party, is an annual event of agricultural, political, and social entertainment held a few miles from Philadelphia, Mississippi. The fair was first established in 1889 and is the nation's largest campground fair. The event usually starts at the end of July, and lasts a week.

Harness racing form of horse racing

Harness racing is a form of horse racing in which the horses race at a specific gait. They usually pull a two-wheeled cart called a sulky, or spider, occupied by a driver. In Europe, and less frequently in Australia and New Zealand, races with jockeys riding directly on saddled trotters are also conducted.

The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (MBCI), a federally recognized tribe, is based here and has developed one of the largest casino complexes in the state on their reservation. The Silver Star and Golden Moon casinos are the first land-based casinos in Mississippi; these casinos are part of the MBCI's Pearl River Resort in the county.

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians is one of three federally recognized tribes of Choctaw Native Americans, and the only one in this state. On April 20, 1945, this band organized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Also in 1945 the Choctaw Indian Reservation was created in Mississippi by the federal government by acquisition of lands in Neshoba, Leake, Newton, Scott, Jones, Attala, Kemper, and Winston counties. Other federally recognized tribes are the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, the largest, and the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians, a small group located in Louisiana.

Casino facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities

A casino is a facility for certain types of gambling. Casinos are often built near or combined with hotels, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships, and other tourist attractions. Some casinos are also known for hosting live entertainment, such as stand-up comedy, concerts, and sports.

Pearl River Resort is a gaming resort located in Choctaw, Neshoba County, Mississippi. It is owned and operated by the federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. The resort includes two casinos, Silver Star Hotel & Casino and Golden Moon Hotel & Casino; a Dancing Rabbit Inn near the casinos; Dancing Rabbit Golf Club, an award-winning golf course designed by Jerry Pate; Geyser Falls Water Theme Park; and a spa.

History

At the time of European encounter, this was part of the territory of the historic Choctaw people, who occupied most of what later was defined as Mississippi. Under President Andrew Jackson, the United States conducted Indian removal in the 1830s in the Southeast, and most of the Choctaw were removed to west of the Mississippi River, to land in Indian Territory, now part of Oklahoma.

Andrew Jackson 7th president of the United States

Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union.

Indian removal Early 19th century United States domestic policy

Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River, specifically to a designated Indian Territory. The Indian Removal Act, the key law that forced the removal of the Indians, was signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830. Jackson took a hard line on Indian removal, but the law was put into effect primarily under the Martin van Buren administration.

Indian Territory U.S. 17th-, 18th- and early-20th-century territory set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the government was one of assimilation.

Neshoba was founded by European American settlers in 1833. They named it after a Choctaw chief, whose name in the Choctaw language meant "wolf". [4]

Choctaw language Muskogean language traditionally spoken by the Choctaw people

The Choctaw language, traditionally spoken by the Native American Choctaw people of the southeastern United States, is a member of the Muskogean family. Chickasaw, Choctaw and Houma form the Western branch of the Muskogean language family. Although Chickasaw is sometimes listed as a dialect of Choctaw, more extensive documentation of Chickasaw has shown that Choctaw and Chickasaw are best treated as separate but closely related languages.

Descendants of the Choctaw who remained in the state continued to identify as Choctaw. They lived in relatively distinct communities and reorganized in the 1930s, gaining federal recognition as the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. Even in the 1970s, eighty percent of their people continued to speak Choctaw.

Late 20th century to present

The white-dominated state legislature passed a new constitution in 1890, that effectively disenfranchised most freedmen and other people of color, such as Native Americans. This exclusion was maintained well into the 20th century, but activists in the 1960s increasingly worked to restore constitutional rights of African Americans.

Neshoba County is known as the site of the lynching murder of three young activists in July 1964 during Freedom Summer in Mississippi, a period of education and a voter registration drive to prepare African Americans for voting. The three young men, two from the North, disappeared at a time of heightened violence, and they became the subjects of a state and FBI search. White supremacists were found to have brutally murdered three civil rights activists: James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner near Philadelphia, the county seat.

Deputy Sheriff Cecil Price was implicated and charged with being part of the group that lynched the three young men and buried them in an earthen dam 15 miles northeast of Philadelphia. Outrage over the crime contributed to congressional passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. The crime and decades-long legal aftermath of investigation and trials inspired the 1988 movie Mississippi Burning .

In 1980 Governor Ronald Reagan launched his presidential campaign at the Neshoba County Fair, delivering a speech about economic policy and referring to "states' rights". He was believed to be referring to southern conservative values, in an area associated with the 1964 murders and at a time when the Republican Party was attracting more white conservatives from the Democratic Party. [5] [6]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 572 square miles (1,480 km2), of which 570 square miles (1,500 km2) is land and 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2) (0.3%) is water. [7]

Major highways

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1840 2,437
1850 4,72894.0%
1860 8,34376.5%
1870 7,439−10.8%
1880 8,74117.5%
1890 11,14627.5%
1900 12,72614.2%
1910 17,98041.3%
1920 19,3037.4%
1930 26,69138.3%
1940 27,8824.5%
1950 25,730−7.7%
1960 20,927−18.7%
1970 20,802−0.6%
1980 23,78914.4%
1990 24,8004.2%
2000 28,68415.7%
2010 29,6763.5%
Est. 201829,125 [8] −1.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [9]
1790-1960 [10] 1900-1990 [11]
1990-2000 [12] 2010-2013 [1]

As of the census [13] of 2000, there were 28,684 people, 10,694 households, and 7,742 families residing in the county. The population density was 50 people per square mile (19/km²). There were 11,980 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile (8/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 65.50% White, 19.33% Black or African American, 13.80% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, and 0.81% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.6% identified as of American ancestry, 8.8% as Irish and 6.1% as English, according to Census 2000. Those who identify as having "American" ancestry are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestors who came to the US so long ago that they identify simply as American. [14] [15] 88.7% spoke English and 10.2% Choctaw as their first language.

There were 10,694 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.50% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.60% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, and 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $28,300, and the median income for a family was $33,439. Males had a median income of $28,112 versus $19,882 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,964. About 17.90% of families and 21.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.20% of those under age 18 and 22.00% of those age 65 or over.

Communities

Cities

Town

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Politics

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [16]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 72.8%7,67925.7% 2,7151.5% 159
2012 71.2%7,83728.0% 3,0890.8% 89
2008 72.0%8,20927.3% 3,1140.7% 79
2004 74.7%7,78025.0% 2,6000.4% 39
2000 70.7%6,40928.3% 2,5631.0% 94
1996 58.4%4,54534.0% 2,6467.7% 596
1992 61.1%6,13530.8% 3,0908.1% 817
1988 68.1%6,36331.5% 2,9420.5% 42
1984 71.7%6,71528.1% 2,6300.2% 19
1980 56.5%5,16542.3% 3,8721.2% 112
1976 49.4% 3,85949.8%3,8910.9% 69
1972 88.2%6,81510.5% 8121.3% 98
1968 6.8% 53111.1% 86782.1%6,417
1964 94.9%5,4315.1% 293
1960 14.0% 58044.5%1,84041.5% 1,716
1956 13.8% 50277.9%2,8278.3% 300
1952 23.3% 1,08176.7%3,567
1948 1.1% 338.3% 26090.6%2,837
19444.2% 13195.9%3,025
19402.6% 7797.1%2,8800.3% 10
19361.9% 6798.0%3,4950.1% 3
19322.4% 5697.2%2,2360.4% 8
192821.3% 51678.7%1,906
192412.5% 22887.6%1,603
192013.7% 18282.1%1,0884.2% 55
19164.4% 6992.9%1,4592.7% 43
19122.4% 2289.0%8068.6% 78

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. Byington, Cyrus (1909). Choctaw Language Dictionary. Global Bible Society.
  4. Baca, Keith A. (2007). Native American Place Names in Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi. p. 62. ISBN   978-1-60473-483-6.
  5. Jim Prince: "War over Reagan's Words." Madison County Journal (11/22/2007)
  6. Montaldo, Charles. "The Mississippi Burning Case".
  7. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  8. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  9. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  10. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  11. "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  12. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  13. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  14. Lieberson, Stanley & Waters, Mary C. (1986). "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 487 (79): 82–86. doi:10.1177/0002716286487001004.
  15. Fischer, David Hackett (1989). Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America . New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 633–639. ISBN   0-19-503794-4.
  16. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-03-04.

Further reading

Coordinates: 32°45′N89°07′W / 32.75°N 89.12°W / 32.75; -89.12

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