Monroe de Louisiane
|City of Monroe|
Twin Cities of Northeast Louisiana
"One City, One Future"
Location of Monroe in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana.
|Named for||the steamboat James Monroe|
|• Mayor||Goby Guffrie (D)|
|• City Council|
|• City||32.55 sq mi (84.30 km2)|
|• Land||29.30 sq mi (75.87 km2)|
|• Water||3.25 sq mi (8.42 km2)|
|Elevation||72 ft (22 m)|
|• Density||1,682.78/sq mi (649.72/km2)|
|Urban area includes Monroe-West Monroe|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CST)|
71201, 71202, 71203, 71207, 71208, 71209, 71210, 71211, 71212, 71213
|Website||City of Monroe|
Monroe (historically French : Poste-du-Ouachita ) is the eighth-largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is the parish seat of Ouachita Parish. In the official 2010 census, Monroe had a population of 48,815. The municipal population declined by 8.1 percent over the past decade; it was 53,107 in the 2000 census. After a recheck in 2018, the Census Bureau changed the 2010 population from 48,815 to 47,877. Mayor Jamie Mayo, however, maintains that the Monroe population is more than 50,000 and indicated that he will pursue a continued challenge to the count.
Monroe is the principal city of the Monroe Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes the parishes of Ouachita and Union. The two-parish area had a total population of 170,053 in 2000 and an estimated population of 172,275 as of July 1, 2007.The larger Monroe-Bastrop Combined Statistical Area is composed of both the Monroe Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Bastrop Micropolitan Statistical Area. The CSA had a population of 201,074 in 2000. Monroe and the neighboring city of West Monroe (pop. 13,250), located just across the Ouachita River, are often referred to as the Twin Cities of northeast Louisiana. The settlement formerly known as Fort Miro adopted the name Monroe, during the first half of the 19th century, in recognition of the steam-powered paddle-wheeler James Monroe. The arrival of the ship had a profound effect on the settlers; it was the single event, in the minds of local residents, that transformed the outpost into a town. The ship is depicted in a mural at the main branch of the Monroe Library on North 18th Street. Therefore, credit is indirectly given to James Monroe of Virginia, the fifth President of the United States, for whom the ship was named.
During the American Civil War, Monroe and Opelousas, the seat of St. Landry Parish in south Louisiana, had Confederate training camps. They were established after the fall of New Orleans to the Union in 1862. Conscripts were soon sent to both camps.In 1862, Monroe and Delhi in Richland Parish became overcrowded with unwelcome refugees from rural areas to the east. They had fled the forces of Union General U.S. Grant, who moved into northeastern Louisiana and spent the winter of 1862–1863 at Winter Quarters south of Newellton in Tensas Parish. He was preparing for the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, not completed until July 4, 1863. Historian John D. Winters reported "strong Union sympathy" in both Delhi and Monroe. As the refugees moved farther west toward Minden in Webster Parish, many of the residents, themselves very poor, refused to sell them food or shelter and treated them with contempt.
Union boats came up the Ouachita River to Monroe to trade coffee, liquor, dry goods, and money for cotton. "Confederate officers were accused by a citizen of encouraging the trade and of fraternizing with the enemy, eating their oysters, and drinking their liquor."As the war continued, deserters and stragglers about Monroe became "so plentiful that the Union Army sent a special detachment" from Alexandria to apprehend them. In 1913, Joseph A. Biedenharn, the first bottler of Coca-Cola, moved to Monroe from Vicksburg, Mississippi. Until Biedenharn's breakthrough, Coca-Cola had been available only when individually mixed at the soda fountain. Biedenharn and his son Malcolm were among the founders of Delta Air Lines, originally Delta Dusters. That company was founded in Tallulah, Louisiana in Madison Parish. It was based on products and processes developed by the Agriculture Experimental Station to dust crops from airplanes in order to combat the boll weevil, which was destroying cotton crops.
Biedenharn's home and gardens at 2006 Riverside Drive in Monroe have been preserved and are now operated as the Biedenharn Museum and Gardens and are open to the public.Collett E. Woolman, the Ouachita Parish agent, was originally from Indiana. He pioneered crop dusting to eradicate the boll weevil, which destroyed cotton throughout the Mississippi River delta country in the early 20th century. Woolman originated the first crop-dusting service in the world. The collapse of cotton production meant a widespread loss of farm jobs. This contributed to the Great Migration of the early 20th century, when a total of 1.5 million African Americans left the rural South for jobs in northern and midwestern cities. They were also escaping the oppressive racial conditions and violence under Jim Crow and the disenfranchisement that excluded most blacks from the political system.
Howard D. Griffin (1911-1986) purchased a boat dealership in 1936 while he was a student at what became the University of Louisiana at Monroe. By the 1960s, Griffin's company had become the largest outboard motor dealership in the world. He also sold motorcycles. From 1965 to 1985, Griffin and his wife, Birdie M. Griffin (1915-1985), operated their seasonal Land O' Toys store on South Grand Street in Monroe. The motto was "Land O' Toys; Loads of fun for girls and boys; Bring the kids and look around; The biggest toy deal in the town."Once Christmas was over, the toy store was quickly phased out, and the outboard motors returned to the showroom. From her childhood memories, Sherry Lynn Mason recalls the Land O' Toys:
"I loved that store. Every time [my father] took me there, we were waiting for his outboard motor to be fixed across the street. It was a magical place to me!" Amy Berry Baker recalls, "It wasn't Christmas until we went to Howard Griffin ... magical for kids," according to an article in The Monroe News-Star.
Mrs. Griffin died December 15, 1985, and the store closed permanently a few days after Christmas of that year. In March 2011, the remaining abandoned building burned. All that remains are the memories of the former customers, now all adults. Cheri Chadduck recalled, "Memories are completely magical, and I am so grateful for my childhood recollections of time there."
Monroe has an elevation of 72 feet (21.9 m).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.6 square miles (83.9 km²), of which, 28.7 square miles (74.3 km²) of it is land and 3.7 square miles (9.6 km²) of it is water. The total area is 11.46% water.
Regional cities and their distance from Monroe include:
|Baton Rouge, Louisiana||187|
|El Dorado, Arkansas||66|
|Lake Charles, Louisiana||194|
|Little Rock, Arkansas||176|
|New Orleans, Louisiana||282|
Monroe has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). Rainfall is abundant, with the normal annual precipitation averaging over 51 inches (1.3 m), with monthly averages ranging from less than 3 inches (76 mm) in August to more than 5 inches (130 mm) in June. Severe thunderstorms with heavy rain, hail, damaging winds and tornadoes occur in the area during the spring and summer months. The winter months are normally mild, with an average of 35 days of freezing or below-freezing temperatures per year, with ice and sleet storms possible. Summer months are hot and humid, with maximum temperatures exceeding 90 degrees an average of 91 days per year, with high to very high relative average humidity, sometimes exceeding the 90 percent level.
|Climate data for Monroe, Louisiana (Monroe Regional Airport), 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||82|
|Average high °F (°C)||57.3|
|Average low °F (°C)||35.6|
|Record low °F (°C)||−1|
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||5.01|
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||0.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.9||9.4||9.2||7.7||9.4||9.1||8.4||7.4||7.1||8.2||8.5||9.8||104.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.3||0.4||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.2||1.0|
|Source #1: NOAA|
|Source #2: The Weather Channel (extreme temps)|
Southern Monroe (south of U.S. Highway 80) This area contains the Pecanland Mall and the Louisiana Purchase Gardens and Zoo.
North and East Monroe Metro Area (north of U.S. Highway 80) The University of Louisiana at Monroe and the headquarters for CenturyLink can be found in this area. This list includes communities located outside Monroe City limits.
|Source: US Census data|
As of the censusof 2000, there were 53,107 people, 19,421 households, and 12,157 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,851.8 people per square mile (714.9/km²). There were 21,278 housing units at an average density of 741.9 per square mile (286.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city in 2000 was 61.13% Black (63.9 percent black in 2010), 36.78% White (33.4 percent in 2010), 0.13% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, and 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.01% of the population.
There were 19,421 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54, and the average family size was 3.26.
In the city, the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 15.0% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $25,864, and the median income for a family was $33,263. Males had a median income of $31,840 versus $22,352 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,933. About 26.3% of families and 32.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.3% of those under the age of 18 and 21.6% of those 65 and older.
According to the City's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the area are:
|1||Ouachita Parish School Board||3,086|
|3||Monroe City School District||1,774|
|4||St. Francis Specialty Hospital||1,584|
|5||IASIS Healthcare (Glenwood Regional Medical Center)||1,156|
|7||Walmart Stores, Inc.||912|
|8||City of Monroe||894|
|9||University of Louisiana at Monroe||852|
|10||Graphic Packaging International, Inc.||840|
Monroe was the headquarters of Delta Air Lines during the second half of the 1920s. As it expanded, it moved to Atlanta. Monroe Regional Airport serves the city and the region. The airport has three main runways and is served by American Airlines, United Airlines and Delta Air Lines. Greyhound Bus Lines provides transportation from Monroe to many cities across the nation. The city of Monroe has the oldest municipally owned transit system in the nation. Created in 1906 as a four-line street railroad, the Monroe Transit System now provides 13 fixed bus routes covering most areas of the city, and three demand-response buses serving the disabled.Monroe can be accessed from I-20, U.S. Highway 165, Louisiana Highway 15, U.S. Highway 80, and I-420 (proposed). the main railroads: Kansas City Southern (kcs), Union Pacific BNSF and Norfolk Southern (NS), serve freight traffic.
The Monroe Civic Center has multiple facilities. The main complex is the Civic Center Arena. This arena provides 44,000 square feet (4,100 m2) of exhibit space along with 5,600 seats. The arena may have larger capacities up to 7,200 seats. The arena houses events such as banquets, circuses, and rodeos.
The civic center also has the B. D. Robinson conference hall, Monroe Convention Center, equestrian pavilion, and the 2,200-seat W. L. Jack Howard Theatre, named for W. L. "Jack" Howard, the Union Parish native who served as the mayor of Monroe from 1956 to 1972 and again from 1976 to 1978.
The Harvey H. Benoit Recreation Center is used for basketball games and has outdoor tennis courts.
During the last week of June, Monroe hosts the annual Miss Louisiana pageant. In the fiftieth competition, a winner was crowned on June 29, 2013, at the W. L. Jack Howard Theatre.
Monroe is the home of the Louisiana Purchase Gardens and Zoo, which collectively maintains over 500 animals. The zoo also offers boat rides and a catwalk, in addition to other seasonal activities.
The Monroe area is home to several museums, including the Northeast Louisiana Children's Museum, The Biedenharn Museum and Gardens, Chennault Aviation & Military Museum, the Masur Museum of Arts, and the Northeast Louisiana Delta African-American Heritage Museum. This is one of the twenty-six sites identified in the early 21st century as part of the state's African American Heritage Trail.
Monroe is home to the 528th Engineer Battalion of the Louisiana Army National Guard. This unit is part of the 225th Engineer Brigade which is headquartered in Pineville, Louisiana at Camp Beauregard.
The City of Monroe has its own department of education, which operates separately from the larger Ouachita Parish School System. It is known as the Monroe City School System. The department consists of three high schools, three junior high schools, and 18 elementary schools.
Monroe is served by a Gannett newspaper, the Monroe News Star , formerly an afternoon daily owned and operated by the father-son team of publishers, Robert Wilson Ewing, I, and John D. Ewing. When the Ewing's Monroe Morning World ceased publication, the sister publication, the News Star, became the city's morning-only newspaper.
Monroe is also served by two African-American owned weekly newspapers: the Monroe Free Press and the Monroe Dispatch.The Free Press was founded in 1969 by Roosevelt Wright, Jr., and The Dispatch was founded in 1975 by Irma and Frank Detiege.
The Ouachita Citizen is a locally owned and operated weekly newspaper that was founded in 1924. It has all-local coverage of events in Ouachita Parish, including Monroe, West Monroe, Sterlington and Richwood.
Monroe is served by local radio station KJLO.,and KMVX, that also broad KMLB AM 540.
Union Parish is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,721. The parish seat is Farmerville. The parish was created on March 13, 1839, from a section of Ouachita Parish. Its boundaries have changed four times since then.
Richland Parish is a parish located in the North Louisiana Delta Country in the U.S. state of Louisiana, known for its fertile, flat farmland, cane brakes, and open spaces. The name Richland was chosen due to the rich production from farming. The parish seat and largest community is Rayville.
Ouachita Parish is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 153,720. The parish seat is Monroe. The parish was formed in 1807.
Caldwell Parish is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,132, making it the fifth-least populous parish in Louisiana. The parish seat is Columbia. Most residents live in the country even beyond the three rural communities in the parish.
Plaquemine is a city in and the parish seat of Iberville Parish, Louisiana, United States. The population was 7,119 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Baton Rouge Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Bastrop is the largest city and the parish seat of Morehouse Parish, Louisiana, United States. The population was 11,365 at the 2010 census, a decrease of 1,623 from the 12,988 tabulation of 2000. The population of Bastrop is 73 percent African American. It is the principal city of and is included in the Bastrop, Louisiana Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Monroe-Bastrop, Louisiana Combined Statistical Area.
Sterlington is a town in northern Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, United States, near the boundary with Union Parish. At the 2010 census, the population was 1,594. In the 2018 census estimates, the population rose to 2,724. The current figure tabulation shows Sterlington the fastest-growing community in Northeast Louisiana.
West Monroe is a city in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, United States. It is situated on the Ouachita River, across from the neighboring city of Monroe. The two cities are often referred to as the Twin Cities of northeast Louisiana. Its population was 13,065 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Monroe Metropolitan Statistical Area. The mayor is Staci Albritton Mitchell.
Delhi, originally called Deerfield, is a town in Richland Parish, Louisiana, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 2,919.
Farmerville is a town in, and the parish seat of, Union Parish, Louisiana, United States. The population was 3,860 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Monroe Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town is spread about Lake D'Arbonne, a popular fishing and boating waterway.
The University of Louisiana at Monroe (ULM) is a public university in Monroe, Louisiana. It is part of the University of Louisiana System.
KMLB is a commercial AM radio station broadcasting a talk radio format. Licensed to Monroe, Louisiana, the station is owned by Holladay Broadcasting.
The Biedenharn Museum and Gardens is a home museum and botanical garden located beside the Ouachita River at 2006 Riverside Drive in Monroe in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, United States. It is open Monday-Saturday and Sunday afternoons.
KNOE-TV, virtual and VHF digital channel 8, is a dual CBS/ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Monroe, Louisiana, United States. Owned by Gray Television, it is sister to low-powered CW+ affiliate KCWL-LD, formerly K40MB-D, which KNOE-TV simulcasts on its third digital subchannel. KNOE-TV's studios are located on Oliver Road north of Louisville Avenue in Monroe, and its transmitter is located north of Columbia, Louisiana.
Bayou Bartholomew is the longest bayou in the world meandering approximately 364 miles (586 km) between the U.S. states of Arkansas and Louisiana. It contains over 100 aquatic species making it the second most diverse stream in North America. Known for its excellent bream, catfish, and crappie fishing, portions of the bayou are considered some of the best kept secrets of Arkansas anglers. It starts northwest of the city of Pine Bluff, Arkansas, in the Hardin community, winds through parts of Jefferson, Lincoln, Desha, Drew, Chicot, and Ashley counties in Arkansas, and Morehouse Parish, Louisiana, and eventually dumps into the Ouachita River after passing by the northernmost tip of Ouachita Parish, near Sterlington, Louisiana. The bayou serves as the primary border separating the Arkansas Delta from the Arkansas Timberlands.
Ouachita Parish School Board is a school district headquartered in Monroe, Louisiana, United States.
KMVX is a radio station licensed to Monroe, Louisiana, United States. The station, established in 1967, is currently owned by The Radio People and the broadcast license is held by Holladay Broadcasting of Louisiana, LLC.
Joseph Augustus Biedenharn was an American businessman and confectioner credited in the summer of 1894 with having first bottled the soda fountain drink, Coca-Cola, at his wholesale candy company building in Vicksburg, Mississippi. As he expanded this business, he created a model of bottling-distributor franchises and built his company through this state, as well as Louisiana and Texas.
Robert Ellis Powell, Sr., known as Robert E. "Bob" Powell, was a Democrat who served for more than seventeen years as the mayor of Monroe in Ouachita Parish in northeastern Louisiana.