|United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|
|Location||James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building|
|Established||March 3, 1891|
|Circuit Justice||Elena Kagan|
|Chief Judge||Mary H. Murguia|
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a federal court of appeals that has appellate jurisdiction over the U.S. district courts in the following federal judicial districts:
It also has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts:
Additionally, it sometimes handles appeals that originate from American Samoa, which has no district court and partially relies on the District of Hawaii for its federal cases.
Headquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, covering a total of 9 states and 2 territories and with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals.
Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California and Arizona are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Hawaii, and the Pacific territories are heard in San Francisco. Additionally, the court holds yearly sittings in Anchorage and Honolulu. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel. Ninth Circuit judges are also appointed by the United States Secretary of the Interior to serve as temporary acting Associate Justices for non-federal appellate sessions at the High Court of American Samoa in Fagatogo.
|Year||Jurisdiction||Total population||Pop. as % of nat'l pop.||Number of active judgeships|
|1891||California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington||2,087,000||3.3%||2|
|1900||Territory of Hawaii added||2,798,000||3.7%||3|
|1960||Alaska and Guam added||22,607,000||12.6%||9|
|1980||Northern Mariana Islands added||37,170,000||16.4%||23|
The Ninth Circuit's large size is due to the dramatic increases in both the population of the western states and the court's geographic jurisdiction that have occurred since the U.S. Congress created the Ninth Circuit in 1891.The court was originally granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.
The Ninth Circuit also had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943.
However, the Philippines was never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States.
In 1979, the Ninth Circuit became the first federal judicial circuit to set up a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel as authorized by the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978.
The cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "[f]or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit."Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.
Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, Alaska, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope....It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we often are, or not interpreting them regularly, as we never do."
From 1999 to 2008, of the Ninth Circuit Court rulings that were reviewed by the Supreme Court, 20% were affirmed, 19% were vacated, and 61% were reversed; the median reversal rate for all federal appellate courts was 68.29% for the same period.From 2010 to 2015, of the cases it accepted to review, the Supreme Court reversed around 79% of the cases from the Ninth Circuit, ranking its reversal rate third among the circuits; the median reversal rate for all federal circuits for the same time period was around 70 percent.
Some argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases.
However, a detailed study in 2018 reported by Brian T. Fitzpatrick, a law professor at Vanderbilt University, looked at how often a federal circuit court was reversed for every thousand cases it terminated on the merits between 1994 and 2015.The study found that the Ninth Circuit's decisions were reversed at a rate of 2.50 cases per thousand, which was by far the highest rate in the country, with the Sixth Circuit second as 1.73 cases per thousand. Fitzgerald also noted that the 9th Circuit was unanimously reversed more than three times as often as the least reversed circuits and over 20% more often than the next closest circuit.
Many commentators have argued that the Ninth Circuit faces several adverse consequences of its large size,such as "unwieldly size, procedural inefficiencies, jurisprudential unpredictability, and unusual en banc process."
Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus (depending on the rules of the particular court) any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. By contrast, in the Ninth Circuit it is impractical for 29 or more judges to take part in a single oral argument and deliberate on a decision en masse. The court thus provides for a limited en banc review by the Chief Judge and a panel of 10 randomly selected judges.This means that en banc reviews may not actually reflect the views of the majority of the court and indeed may not include any of the three judges involved in the decision being reviewed in the first place. The result, according to detractors, is a high risk of intracircuit conflicts of law where different groupings of judges end up delivering contradictory opinions. That is said to cause uncertainty in the district courts and within the bar. However, en banc review is a relatively rare occurrence in all circuits and Ninth Circuit rules provide for full en banc review in limited circumstances.
All recently proposed splits would leave at least one circuit with 21 judges, only two fewer than the 23 that the Ninth Circuit had when the limited en banc procedure was first adopted. In other words, after a split at least one of the circuits would still be using limited en banc courts.
In March 2007, Associate Justices Anthony Kennedy and Clarence Thomas testified before a House Appropriations subcommittee that the consensus among the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States was that the Ninth Circuit was too large and unwieldy and should be split.
Congressional officials, legislative commissions, and interest groups have all submitted proposals to divide the Ninth Circuit such as:
The more recent proposals have aimed to redefine the Ninth Circuit to cover California, Hawaii, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and to create a new Twelfth Circuit to cover Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
As of September 15,2022 [update] :
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|94||Chief Judge||Mary H. Murguia||Phoenix, AZ||1960||2011–present||2021–present||—||Obama|
|75||Circuit Judge||Sidney R. Thomas||Billings, MT||1953||1996–present||2014–2021||—||Clinton|
|79||Circuit Judge||Kim McLane Wardlaw||Pasadena, CA||1954||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|82||Circuit Judge||Ronald M. Gould||Seattle, WA||1946||1999–present||—||—||Clinton|
|86||Circuit Judge||Johnnie B. Rawlinson||Las Vegas, NV||1952||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|89||Circuit Judge||Consuelo Callahan||Sacramento, CA||1950||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|91||Circuit Judge||Milan Smith||El Segundo, CA||1942||2006–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|92||Circuit Judge||Sandra Segal Ikuta||Pasadena, CA||1954||2006–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|95||Circuit Judge||Morgan Christen||Anchorage, AK||1961||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|96||Circuit Judge||Jacqueline Nguyen||Pasadena, CA||1965||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|97||Circuit Judge||Paul J. Watford||Pasadena, CA||1967||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|99||Circuit Judge||John B. Owens||San Diego, CA||1971||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|100||Circuit Judge||Michelle Friedland||San Jose, CA||1972||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|101||Circuit Judge||Mark J. Bennett||Honolulu, HI||1953||2018–present||—||—||Trump|
|102||Circuit Judge||Ryan D. Nelson||Idaho Falls, ID||1973||2018–present||—||—||Trump|
|103||Circuit Judge||Eric D. Miller||Seattle, WA||1975||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|104||Circuit Judge||Bridget S. Bade||Phoenix, AZ||1965||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|105||Circuit Judge||Daniel P. Collins||Pasadena, CA||1963||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|106||Circuit Judge||Kenneth K. Lee||San Diego, CA||1975||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|107||Circuit Judge||Daniel Bress||San Francisco, CA||1979||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|108||Circuit Judge||Danielle J. Forrest||Portland, OR||1977||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|109||Circuit Judge||Patrick J. Bumatay||San Diego, CA||1978||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|110||Circuit Judge||Lawrence VanDyke||Reno, NV||1972||2020–present||—||—||Trump|
|111||Circuit Judge||Lucy Koh||San Francisco, CA||1968||2021–present||—||—||Biden|
|112||Circuit Judge||Jennifer Sung||Portland, OR||1972||2021–present||—||—||Biden|
|113||Circuit Judge||Gabriel P. Sanchez||San Francisco, CA||1976||2022–present||—||—||Biden|
|114||Circuit Judge||Holly A. Thomas||Pasadena, CA||1979||2022–present||—||—||Biden|
|115||Circuit Judge||Salvador Mendoza Jr.||Richland, WA||1971||2022–present||—||—||Biden|
|116||Circuit Judge||Roopali Desai||Phoenix, AZ||1978||beg. 2022||—||—||Biden|
|39||Senior Circuit Judge||Alfred Goodwin||Pasadena, CA||1923||1971–1991||1988–1991||1991–present||Nixon|
|40||Senior Circuit Judge||John Clifford Wallace||San Diego, CA||1928||1972–1996||1991–1996||1996–present||Nixon|
|47||Senior Circuit Judge||Mary M. Schroeder||Phoenix, AZ||1940||1979–2011||2000–2007||2011–present||Carter|
|54||Senior Circuit Judge||Dorothy Wright Nelson||Pasadena, CA||1928||1979–1995||—||1995–present||Carter|
|55||Senior Circuit Judge||William Canby||Phoenix, AZ||1931||1980–1996||—||1996–present||Carter|
|66||Senior Circuit Judge||Diarmuid O'Scannlain||Portland, OR||1937||1986–2016||—||2016–present||Reagan|
|67||Senior Circuit Judge||Edward Leavy||Portland, OR||1929||1987–1997||—||1997–present||Reagan|
|68||Senior Circuit Judge||Stephen S. Trott||Boise, ID||1939||1988–2004||—||2004–present||Reagan|
|69||Senior Circuit Judge||Ferdinand Fernandez||Pasadena, CA||1937||1989–2002||—||2002–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|72||Senior Circuit Judge||Andrew Kleinfeld||Fairbanks, AK||1945||1991–2010||—||2010–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|73||Senior Circuit Judge||Michael Daly Hawkins||Phoenix, AZ||1945||1994–2010||—||2010–present||Clinton|
|74||Senior Circuit Judge||A. Wallace Tashima||Pasadena, CA||1934||1996–2004||—||2004–present||Clinton|
|76||Senior Circuit Judge||Barry G. Silverman||Phoenix, AZ||1951||1998–2016||—||2016–present||Clinton|
|77||Senior Circuit Judge||Susan P. Graber||Portland, OR||1949||1998–2021||—||2021–present||Clinton|
|78||Senior Circuit Judge||M. Margaret McKeown||San Diego, CA||1951||1998–2022||—||2022–present||Clinton|
|80||Senior Circuit Judge||William A. Fletcher||San Francisco, CA||1945||1998–2022||—||2022–present||Clinton|
|83||Senior Circuit Judge||Richard Paez||Pasadena, CA||1947||2000–2021||—||2021–present||Clinton|
|84||Senior Circuit Judge||Marsha Berzon||San Francisco, CA||1945||2000–2022||—||2022–present||Clinton|
|85||Senior Circuit Judge||Richard C. Tallman||Coeur d'Alene, ID||1953||2000–2018||—||2018–present||Clinton|
|87||Senior Circuit Judge||Richard Clifton||Honolulu, HI||1950||2002–2016||—||2016–present||G.W. Bush|
|88||Senior Circuit Judge||Jay Bybee||Las Vegas, NV||1953||2003–2019||—||2019–present||G.W. Bush|
|90||Senior Circuit Judge||Carlos Bea||San Francisco, CA||1934||2003–2019||—||2019–present||G.W. Bush|
|93||Senior Circuit Judge||N. Randy Smith||Pocatello, ID||1949||2007–2018||—||2018–present||G.W. Bush|
|98||Senior Circuit Judge||Andrew D. Hurwitz||Phoenix, AZ||1947||2012–2022||—||2022–present||Obama|
|Seat||Prior judge's duty station||Seat last held by||Vacancy reason||Date of vacancy||Nominee||Date of nomination|
|22||Billings, MT||Sidney R. Thomas||Senior status||TBD||Anthony Johnstone||September 6, 2022|
|#||Judge||State||Born–died||Active service||Chief Judge||Senior status||Appointed by||Reason for|
|1||Lorenzo Sawyer||CA||1820–1891||1891–1891||—||—||Grant / Operation of law||death|
|2||Joseph McKenna||CA||1843–1926||1892–1897||—||—||B. Harrison||resignation|
|3||William Ball Gilbert||OR||1847–1931||1892–1931||—||—||B. Harrison||death|
|4||Erskine Mayo Ross||CA||1845–1928||1895–1925||—||1925–1928||Cleveland||death|
|5||William W. Morrow||CA||1843–1929||1897–1923||—||1923–1929||McKinley||resignation|
|6||William Henry Hunt||MT||1857–1949||1911–1928||—||1928||resignation|
|7||Frank H. Rudkin||WA||1864–1931||1923–1931||—||—||Harding||death|
|8||Wallace McCamant||OR||1867–1944||1925 –1926||—||—||Coolidge||not confirmed|
|9||Frank Sigel Dietrich||ID||1863–1930||1927–1930||—||—||Coolidge||death|
|10||Curtis D. Wilbur||CA||1867–1954||1929–1945||—||1945–1954||Hoover||death|
|11||William Henry Sawtelle||AZ||1868–1934||1931–1934||—||—||Hoover||death|
|12||Francis Arthur Garrecht||WA||1870–1948||1933–1948||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|13||William Denman||CA||1872–1959||1935–1957||1948–1957||1957–1959||F. Roosevelt||death|
|14||Clifton Mathews||AZ||1880–1962||1935–1953||—||1953–1962||F. Roosevelt||death|
|15||Bert E. Haney||OR||1879–1943||1935–1943||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|16||Albert Lee Stephens Sr.||CA||1874–1965||1937–1961||1957–1959||1961–1965||F. Roosevelt||death|
|17||William Healy||ID||1881–1962||1937–1958||—||1958–1962||F. Roosevelt||death|
|18||Homer Bone||WA||1883–1970||1944–1956||—||1956–1970||F. Roosevelt||death|
|19||William Edwin Orr||NV||1881–1965||1945–1956||—||1956–1965||Truman||death|
|20||Walter Lyndon Pope||MT||1889–1969||1949–1961||1959||1961–1969||Truman||death|
|21||Dal Millington Lemmon||CA||1887–1958||1954–1958||—||—||Eisenhower||death|
|22||Richard Harvey Chambers||AZ||1906–1994||1954–1976||1959–1976||1976–1994||Eisenhower||death|
|23||James Alger Fee||OR||1888–1959||1954–1959||—||—||Eisenhower||death|
|25||Frederick George Hamley||WA||1903–1975||1956–1971||—||1971–1975||Eisenhower||death|
|26||Oliver Deveta Hamlin Jr.||CA||1892–1973||1958–1963||—||1963–1973||Eisenhower||death|
|27||Gilbert H. Jertberg||CA||1897–1973||1958–1967||—||1967–1973||Eisenhower||death|
|28||Charles Merton Merrill||NV||1907–1996||1959–1974||—||1974–1996||Eisenhower||death|
|29||Montgomery Oliver Koelsch||ID||1912–1992||1959–1976||—||1976–1992||Eisenhower||death|
|30||James R. Browning||CA||1918–2012||1961–2000||1976–1988||2000–2012||Kennedy||death|
|31||Benjamin C. Duniway||CA||1907–1986||1961–1976||—||1976–1986||Kennedy||death|
|32||Walter Raleigh Ely Jr.||CA||1913–1984||1964–1979||—||1979–1984||L. Johnson||death|
|33||James Marshall Carter||CA||1904–1979||1967–1971||—||1971–1979||L. Johnson||death|
|34||Shirley Hufstedler||CA||1925–2016||1968–1979||—||—||L. Johnson||resignation|
|35||Eugene Allen Wright||WA||1913–2002||1969–1983||—||1983–2002||Nixon||death|
|37||Ozell Miller Trask||AZ||1909–1984||1969–1979||—||1979–1984||Nixon||death|
|41||Joseph Tyree Sneed III||CA||1920–2008||1973–1987||—||1987–2008||Nixon||death|
|42||Anthony Kennedy||CA||1936–present||1975–1988||—||—||Ford||elevation to Supreme Court|
|43||J. Blaine Anderson||ID||1922–1988||1976–1988||—||—||Ford||death|
|44||Procter Ralph Hug Jr.||NV||1931–2019||1977–2002||1996–2000||2002–2017||Carter||retirement|
|46||Betty Binns Fletcher||WA||1923–2012||1979–1998||—||1998–2012||Carter||death|
|48||Otto Richard Skopil Jr.||OR||1919–2012||1979–1986||—||1986–2012||Carter||death|
|49||Joseph Jerome Farris||WA||1930–2020||1979–1995||—||1995–2020||Carter||death|
|50||Arthur Lawrence Alarcón||CA||1925–2015||1979–1992||—||1992–2015||Carter||death|
|52||Warren J. Ferguson||CA||1920–2008||1979–1986||—||1986–2008||Carter||death|
|53||Cecil F. Poole||CA||1914–1997||1979–1996||—||1996–1997||Carter||death|
|57||William Albert Norris||CA||1927–2017||1980–1994||—||1994–1997||Carter||retirement|
|59||Robert R. Beezer||WA||1928–2012||1984–1996||—||1996–2012||Reagan||death|
|60||Cynthia Holcomb Hall||CA||1929–2011||1984–1997||—||1997–2011||Reagan||death|
|61||Charles E. Wiggins||CA||1927–2000||1984–1996||—||1996–2000||Reagan||death|
|62||Melvin T. Brunetti||NV||1933–2009||1985–1999||—||1999–2009||Reagan||death|
|64||John T. Noonan Jr.||CA||1926–2017||1985–1996||—||1996–2017||Reagan||death|
|65||David R. Thompson||CA||1930–2011||1985–1998||—||1998–2011||Reagan||death|
|70||Pamela Ann Rymer||CA||1941–2011||1989–2011||—||—||G.H.W. Bush||death|
|71||Thomas G. Nelson||ID||1936–2011||1990–2003||—||2003–2011||G.H.W. Bush||death|
|81||Raymond C. Fisher||CA||1939–2020||1999–2013||—||2013–2020||Clinton||death|
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
The court has 29 seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were initially filled. Judges who assume senior status enter a kind of retirement in which they remain on the bench, while vacating their seats, thus allowing the U.S. President to appoint new judges to fill their seats.
The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal judiciary. The courts of appeals are divided into 11 numbered circuits that cover geographic areas of the United States and hear appeals from the U.S. district courts within their borders, the District of Columbia Circuit, which covers only Washington, D.C., and the Federal Circuit, which hears appeals from federal courts across the United States in cases involving certain specialized areas of law. The courts of appeals also hear appeals from some administrative agency decisions and rulemaking, with by far the largest share of these cases heard by the D.C. Circuit. Appeals from decisions of the courts of appeals can be taken to the U.S. Supreme Court.
In law, an en banc session is a session in which a case is heard before all the judges of a court rather than by one judge or a smaller panel of judges.
Alex Kozinski is a Romanian-American jurist and lawyer who was a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit from 1985 to 2017. He was a prominent and influential judge, and many of his law clerks went on to clerk for U.S. Supreme Court justices.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit is a United States federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit is the U.S. federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following U.S. district courts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. It has the smallest geographical jurisdiction of any of the U.S. federal appellate courts, and covers only one district court: the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. It meets at the E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse, near Judiciary Square, Washington, D.C.
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The United States District Court for the District of Montana is the United States District Court whose jurisdiction is the state of Montana. The court is located in Billings, Butte, Great Falls, Helena and Missoula.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals that has special appellate jurisdiction over certain types of specialized cases in the U.S. federal court system. It has exclusive appellate jurisdiction over all U.S. federal cases involving patents, trademarks, government contracts, veterans' benefits, public safety officers' benefits, federal employees' benefits, and various other categories. Unlike other federal courts, the Federal Circuit has no jurisdiction over cases involving criminal, bankruptcy, immigration, or U.S. state law.
The District of Columbia Court of Appeals is the highest court of the District of Columbia, in the United States. Established in 1970, it is equivalent to a state supreme court, except that its authority is derived from the United States Congress rather than from the inherent sovereignty of the states. The court is located in the former District of Columbia City Hall building at Judiciary Square. The D.C. Court of Appeals should not be confused with the District's federal appellate court, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The D.C. Court of Appeals and the Superior Court of the District of Columbia comprise the District's local court system.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan is the federal district court with jurisdiction over of the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of the State of Michigan. The Court is based in Detroit, with courthouses also located in Ann Arbor, Bay City, Flint, and Port Huron. The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit has appellate jurisdiction over the court.
The United States District Court for the Western District of Michigan is the federal district court with jurisdiction over of the western portion of the state of Michigan, including the entire Upper Peninsula and the Lower Peninsula from Lansing westward.
The appointment of federal judges for United States federal courts is done via nomination by the President of the United States and confirmation by the United States Senate. The tables below provide the composition of all Article III courts which include the Supreme Court and the Courts of Appeals at the end of each four year presidential term, as well as the current compositions of the District Courts and the Court of International Trade, categorizing the judges by the presidential term during which they were first appointed to their seats.
Sandra Segal Ikuta is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
Stephen Roy Reinhardt was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, with chambers in Los Angeles, California. He was the last federal appeals court judge in active service to have been appointed by President Jimmy Carter.
The Government of Guam (GovGuam) is a presidential representative democratic system, whereby the President is the head of state and the Governor is head of government, and of a multi-party system. Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States with policy relations between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs.
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