|United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|
|Location||James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building|
|Established||March 3, 1891|
|Circuit Justice||Elena Kagan|
|Chief Judge||Sidney R. Thomas|
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a court of appeal that has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported. Case citations are formatted differently in different jurisdictions, but generally contain the same key information.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system. A court of appeals decides appeals from the district courts within its federal judicial circuit, and in some instances from other designated federal courts and administrative agencies.
Appellate jurisdiction is the power of an appellate court to review, amend and overrule decisions of a trial court or other lower tribunal. Most appellate jurisdiction is legislatively created, and may consist of appeals by leave of the appellate court or by right. Depending on the type of case and the decision below, appellate review primarily consists of: an entirely new hearing ; a hearing where the appellate court gives deference to factual findings of the lower court; or review of particular legal rulings made by the lower court.
The United States District Court for the District of Alaska is a federal court in the Ninth Circuit.
The United States District Court for the District of Arizona is a federal court in the Ninth Circuit.
The United States District Court for the Central District of California serves over 19 million people in Southern and Central California, making it the most populous federal judicial district. The district was created on September 18, 1966.
It also has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts:
The United States territorial courts are tribunals established in territories of the United States by the United States Congress, pursuant to its power under Article Four of the United States Constitution, the Territorial Clause. Most United States territorial courts are defunct because the territories under their jurisdiction have become states or been retroceded.
The District Court of Guam is a United States territorial court with jurisdiction over the United States territory of Guam. It sits in the capital, Hagåtña. Appeals of the court's decisions are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. It is not an Article III court, and therefore its judges do not have life tenure.
The District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands is a federal territorial court whose jurisdiction comprises the United States-affiliated Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). It was established by Act of Congress in 1977, pursuant to an international agreement between the United States and the CNMI that brought the CNMI under United States sovereignty. The court began hearing cases in January 1978. The court regularly sits in Saipan but may sit elsewhere in the CNMI. The court has the same jurisdiction as United States District Courts, including diversity jurisdiction and bankruptcy jurisdiction. However, the District Court is not actually a true U.S. District Court, and because of that its judge is appointed for a 10-year term instead of for life. Appeals are taken to the Ninth Circuit.
Headquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals.
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 744,955 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U.S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area's population stands at 3.94 million, and ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U.S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States.
The William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse is a federal courthouse in Seattle, Washington primarily used by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Built in 1940 as the United States Courthouse to consolidate federal agencies within the city, it was renamed for Medal of Honor recipient William K. Nakamura in 2001. The Ninth Circuit started using the building in the 1970s and became the principal tenant in 2004 when most other users moved to the new 23-story United States Courthouse in the Denny Triangle.
The Pioneer Courthouse is a federal courthouse in Portland, Oregon, United States. Built beginning in 1869, the structure is the oldest federal building in the Pacific Northwest, and the second-oldest west of the Mississippi River. Along with Pioneer Courthouse Square, it serves as the center of downtown Portland. It is also known as the Pioneer Post Office because a popular downtown Portland post office was, until 2005, located inside. The courthouse is one of four primary locations where the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit hears oral arguments. It also houses the chambers of the Portland-based judges on the Ninth Circuit.
Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel.
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U.S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital is Carson City.
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U.S. state geographically located in Oceania, although it is governed as a part of North America, and the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean.
|Year||Jurisdiction||Total population||Pop. as % of nat'l pop.||Number of active judgeships|
|1891||California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington||2,087,000||3.3%||2|
|1900||Territory of Hawaii added||2,798,000||3.7%||3|
|1960||Alaska and Guam added||22,607,000||12.6%||9|
|1980||Northern Mariana Islands added||37,170,000||16.4%||23|
The large size of the current court is because both the population of the western states and the geographic jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit have increased dramatically since the U.S. Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1891.The court was originally granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.
The Ninth Circuit also had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943.
However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States.
In 1979, the Ninth Circuit became the first federal judicial circuit to set up a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel as authorized by the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978.
The cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "[f]or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit."Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.
Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, Alaska, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope....It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we often are, or not interpreting them regularly, as we never do."
Some argue the court's rulings are reversed by the Supreme Court at a higher rate than other courts. For example, in 2018 President Trump claimed that the Ninth Circuit "is overturned more than any Circuit in the Country, 79%."
From 1999 to 2008, of the 0.151% of Ninth Circuit Court rulings that were reviewed by the Supreme Court, 20% were affirmed, 19% were vacated, and 61% were reversed; the median reversal rate for all federal appellate courts was 68.29% for the same period.From 2010 to 2015, of the cases it accepted to review, the Supreme Court reversed around 79% of the cases from the Ninth Circuit, ranking its reversal rate third among the circuits; the median reversal rate for all federal circuits for the same time period was around 70 percent.
Some argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases.
However, a detailed study in 2018 reported by Brian T. Fitzpatrick, a law professor at Vanderbilt University, looked at how often a federal circuit court was reversed for every thousand cases it terminated on the merits between 1994 and 2015.The study found that the Ninth Circuit's decisions were reversed at a rate of 2.50 cases per thousand, which was by far the highest rate in the country, with the Sixth Circuit second as 1.73 cases per thousand. Fitzgerald also noted that the 9th Circuit was unanimously reversed more than three times as often as the least reversed circuits and over 20% more often than the next closest circuit.
Some argue that the Ninth Circuit faces several adverse consequences of its large size.
Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus (depending on the rules of the particular court) any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. By contrast, in the Ninth Circuit it is impractical for 29 or more judges to take part in a single oral argument and deliberate on a decision en masse. The court thus provides for a limited en banc review by the Chief Judge and a panel of 10 randomly selected judges. This means that en banc reviews may not actually reflect the views of the majority of the court and indeed may not include any of the three judges involved in the decision being reviewed in the first place. The result, according to detractors, is a high risk of intracircuit conflicts of law where different groupings of judges end up delivering contradictory opinions. That is said to cause uncertainty in the district courts and within the bar. However, en banc review is a relatively rare occurrence in all circuits and Ninth Circuit rules provide for full en banc review in limited circumstances.
All recently proposed splits would leave at least one circuit with 21 judges, only two fewer than the 23 that the Ninth Circuit had when the limited en banc procedure was first adopted. In other words, after a split at least one of the circuits would still be using limited en banc courts.
In March 2007, Associate Justices Anthony Kennedy and Clarence Thomas testified before a House Appropriations subcommittee that the consensus among the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States was that the Ninth Circuit was too large and unwieldy and should be split.
Congressional officials, legislative commissions, and interest groups have all submitted proposals to divide the Ninth Circuit such as:
As of July 26,2019 [update] :
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|74||Chief Judge||Sidney Runyan Thomas||Billings, MT||1953||1996–present||2014–present||—||Clinton|
|76||Circuit Judge||Susan P. Graber||Portland, OR||1949||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|77||Circuit Judge||M. Margaret McKeown||San Diego, CA||1951||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|78||Circuit Judge||Kim McLane Wardlaw||Pasadena, CA||1954||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|79||Circuit Judge||William A. Fletcher||San Francisco, CA||1945||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|81||Circuit Judge||Ronald M. Gould||Seattle, WA||1946||1999–present||—||—||Clinton|
|82||Circuit Judge||Richard Paez||Pasadena, CA||1947||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|83||Circuit Judge||Marsha S. Berzon||San Francisco, CA||1945||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|85||Circuit Judge||Johnnie B. Rawlinson||Las Vegas, NV||1952||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|87||Circuit Judge||Jay Bybee||Las Vegas, NV||1953||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|88||Circuit Judge||Consuelo Callahan||Sacramento, CA||1950||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|89||Circuit Judge||Carlos Bea||San Francisco, CA||1934||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|90||Circuit Judge||Milan Smith||El Segundo, CA||1942||2006–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|91||Circuit Judge||Sandra Segal Ikuta||Pasadena, CA||1954||2006–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|93||Circuit Judge||Mary H. Murguia||Phoenix, AZ||1960||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|94||Circuit Judge||Morgan Christen||Anchorage, AK||1961||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|95||Circuit Judge||Jacqueline Nguyen||Pasadena, CA||1965||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|96||Circuit Judge||Paul J. Watford||Pasadena, CA||1967||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|97||Circuit Judge||Andrew D. Hurwitz||Phoenix, AZ||1947||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|98||Circuit Judge||John B. Owens||San Diego, CA||1971||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|99||Circuit Judge||Michelle Friedland||San Jose, CA||1972||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|100||Circuit Judge||Mark J. Bennett||Honolulu, HI||1953||2018–present||—||—||Trump|
|101||Circuit Judge||Ryan D. Nelson||Idaho Falls, ID||1973||2018–present||—||—||Trump|
|102||Circuit Judge||Eric D. Miller||Seattle, WA||1975||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|103||Circuit Judge||Bridget Shelton Bade||Phoenix, AZ||1965||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|104||Circuit Judge||Daniel P. Collins||Pasadena, CA||1963||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|105||Circuit Judge||Kenneth K. Lee||San Diego, CA||1975||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|106||Circuit Judge||Daniel Aaron Bress||San Francisco, CA||1979||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|38||Senior Circuit Judge||Alfred Goodwin||Pasadena, CA||1923||1971–1991||1988–1991||1991–present||Nixon|
|39||Senior Circuit Judge||J. Clifford Wallace||San Diego, CA||1928||1972–1996||1991–1996||1996–present||Nixon|
|46||Senior Circuit Judge||Mary M. Schroeder||Phoenix, AZ||1940||1979–2011||2000–2007||2011–present||Carter|
|48||Senior Circuit Judge||Joseph Jerome Farris||Seattle, WA||1930||1979–1995||—||1995–present||Carter|
|53||Senior Circuit Judge||Dorothy Wright Nelson||Pasadena, CA||1928||1979–1995||—||1995–present||Carter|
|54||Senior Circuit Judge||William Canby||Phoenix, AZ||1931||1980–1996||—||1996–present||Carter|
|65||Senior Circuit Judge||Diarmuid O'Scannlain||Portland, OR||1937||1986–2016||—||2016–present||Reagan|
|66||Senior Circuit Judge||Edward Leavy||Portland, OR||1929||1987–1997||—||1997–present||Reagan|
|67||Senior Circuit Judge||Stephen S. Trott||Boise, ID||1939||1988–2004||—||2005–present||Reagan|
|68||Senior Circuit Judge||Ferdinand Fernandez||Pasadena, CA||1937||1989–2002||—||2002–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|71||Senior Circuit Judge||Andrew Jay Kleinfeld||Fairbanks, AK||1945||1991–2010||—||2010–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|72||Senior Circuit Judge||Michael Daly Hawkins||Phoenix, AZ||1945||1994–2010||—||2010–present||Clinton|
|73||Senior Circuit Judge||A. Wallace Tashima||Pasadena, CA||1934||1996–2004||—||2004–present||Clinton|
|75||Senior Circuit Judge||Barry G. Silverman||Phoenix, AZ||1951||1998–2016||—||2016–present||Clinton|
|80||Senior Circuit Judge||Raymond C. Fisher||Pasadena, CA||1939||1999–2013||—||2013–present||Clinton|
|84||Senior Circuit Judge||Richard C. Tallman||Coeur d'Alene, ID||1953||2000–2018||—||2018–present||Clinton|
|86||Senior Circuit Judge||Richard R. Clifton||Honolulu, HI||1950||2002–2016||—||2016–present||G.W. Bush|
|92||Senior Circuit Judge||N. Randy Smith||Pocatello, ID||1949||2007–2018||—||2018–present||G.W. Bush|
|Seat||Prior Judge's Duty Station||Seat last held by||Vacancy reason||Date of vacancy||Nominee||Date of nomination|
|10||Portland, OR||Diarmuid O'Scannlain||Senior status||December 31, 2016||–||–|
|6||Las Vegas, NV||Jay Bybee||December 31, 2019||–||–|
|25||San Francisco, CA||Carlos Bea||TBD||–||–|
|#||Judge||State||Born–died||Active service||Chief Judge||Senior status||Appointed by||Reason for|
|2||Joseph McKenna||CA||1843–1926||1892–1897||—||—||B. Harrison||resignation|
|3||William Ball Gilbert||OR||1847–1931||1892–1931||—||—||B. Harrison||death|
|4||Erskine Mayo Ross||CA||1845–1928||1895–1925||—||1925–1928||Cleveland||death|
|5||William W. Morrow||CA||1843–1929||1897–1923||—||—||McKinley||resignation|
|—||William Henry Hunt||MT||1857–1949||1911–1928||—||1928–1928||resignation|
|6||Frank H. Rudkin||WA||1864–1931||1923–1931||—||—||Harding||death|
|7||Wallace McCamant||OR||1867–1944||1925 –1926||—||—||Coolidge||not confirmed|
|8||Frank Sigel Dietrich||ID||1863–1930||1927–1930||—||—||Coolidge||death|
|9||Curtis D. Wilbur||CA||1867–1954||1929–1945||—||1945–1954||Hoover||death|
|10||William Henry Sawtelle||AZ||1868–1934||1931–1934||—||—||Hoover||death|
|11||Francis Arthur Garrecht||WA||1870–1948||1933–1948||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|12||William Denman||CA||1872–1959||1935–1957||1948–1957||1957–1959||F. Roosevelt||death|
|13||Clifton Mathews||AZ||1880–1962||1935–1953||—||1953–1962||F. Roosevelt||death|
|14||Bert E. Haney||OR||1879–1943||1935–1943||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|15||Albert Lee Stephens Sr.||CA||1874–1965||1937–1961||1957–1959||1961–1965||F. Roosevelt||death|
|16||William Healy||ID||1881–1962||1937–1958||—||1958–1962||F. Roosevelt||death|
|17||Homer Bone||WA||1883–1970||1944–1956||—||1956–1970||F. Roosevelt||death|
|18||William Edwin Orr||NV||1881–1965||1945–1956||—||1956–1965||Truman||death|
|19||Walter Lyndon Pope||MT||1889–1969||1949–1961||1959||1961–1969||Truman||death|
|20||Dal Millington Lemmon||CA||1887–1958||1954–1958||—||—||Eisenhower||death|
|21||Richard Harvey Chambers||AZ||1906–1994||1954–1976||1959–1976||1976–1994||Eisenhower||death|
|22||James Alger Fee||OR||1888–1959||1954–1959||—||—||Eisenhower||death|
|24||Frederick George Hamley||WA||1903–1975||1956–1971||—||1971–1975||Eisenhower||death|
|25||Oliver Deveta Hamlin Jr.||CA||1892–1973||1958–1963||—||1963–1973||Eisenhower||death|
|26||Gilbert H. Jertberg||CA||1897–1973||1958–1967||—||1967–1973||Eisenhower||death|
|27||Charles Merton Merrill||NV||1907–1996||1959–1974||—||1974–1996||Eisenhower||death|
|28||Montgomery Oliver Koelsch||ID||1912–1992||1959–1976||—||1976–1992||Eisenhower||death|
|29||James R. Browning||CA||1918–2012||1961–2000||1976–1988||2000–2012||Kennedy||death|
|30||Benjamin C. Duniway||CA||1907–1986||1961–1976||—||1976–1986||Kennedy||death|
|31||Walter Raleigh Ely Jr.||CA||1913–1984||1964–1979||—||1979–1984||L. Johnson||death|
|32||James Marshall Carter||CA||1904–1979||1967–1971||—||1971–1979||L. Johnson||death|
|33||Shirley Hufstedler||CA||1925–2016||1968–1979||—||—||L. Johnson||resignation|
|34||Eugene Allen Wright||WA||1913–2002||1969–1983||—||1983–2002||Nixon||death|
|36||Ozell Miller Trask||AZ||1909–1984||1971–1984||—||—||Nixon||death|
|40||Joseph Tyree Sneed III||CA||1920–2008||1973–1987||—||1987–2008||Nixon||death|
|41||Anthony Kennedy||CA||1936–present||1975–1988||—||—||Ford||elevation to Supreme Court|
|42||J. Blaine Anderson||ID||1922–1988||1976–1988||—||—||Ford||death|
|43||Procter Ralph Hug Jr.||NV||1931–present||1977–2002||1996–2000||2002–2017||Carter||retirement|
|45||Betty Binns Fletcher||WA||1923–2012||1979–1998||—||1998–2012||Carter||death|
|47||Otto Richard Skopil Jr.||OR||1919–2012||1979–1986||—||1986–2012||Carter||death|
|49||Arthur Lawrence Alarcon||CA||1925–2015||1979–1992||—||1992–2015||Carter||death|
|51||Warren J. Ferguson||CA||1920–2008||1979–1986||—||1986–2008||Carter||death|
|52||Cecil F. Poole||CA||1914–1997||1979–1996||—||1996–1997||Carter||death|
|56||William Albert Norris||CA||1927–2017||1980–1994||—||1994–1997||Carter||retirement|
|58||Robert R. Beezer||WA||1928–2012||1984–1996||—||1996–2012||Reagan||death|
|59||Cynthia Holcomb Hall||CA||1929–2011||1984–1997||—||1997–2011||Reagan||death|
|60||Charles E. Wiggins||CA||1927–2000||1984–1996||—||1996–2000||Reagan||death|
|61||Melvin T. Brunetti||NV||1933–2009||1985–1999||—||1999–2009||Reagan||death|
|63||John T. Noonan Jr.||CA||1926–2017||1985–1996||—||1996–2017||Reagan||death|
|64||David R. Thompson||CA||1930–2011||1985–1998||—||1998–2011||Reagan||death|
|69||Pamela Ann Rymer||CA||1941–2011||1989–2011||—||—||G.H.W. Bush||death|
|70||Thomas G. Nelson||ID||1936–2011||1990–2003||—||2003–2011||G.H.W. Bush||death|
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
The court has 29 seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were filled. Judges who retire into senior status remain on the bench but leave their seat vacant. That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president.
In law, an en banc session is a session in which a case is heard before all the judges of a court rather than by a panel of judges selected from them. The equivalent terms in banc, in banco or in bank are also sometimes seen. En banc review is often used for unusually complex cases or cases considered to be of greater importance.
Alex Kozinski is a former United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, where he served from 1985 until announcing his retirement on December 18, 2017, after a growing number of allegations of improper sexual conduct and abusive practices toward law clerks. Kozinski was chief judge of that court from November 2007 to December 1, 2014. In addition to being a former judge, Kozinski is an essayist and a judicial commentator.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit is a United States federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts:
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, 542 U.S. 1 (2004), was a case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. The lawsuit, originally filed as Newdow v. United States Congress, Elk Grove Unified School District, et al. in 2000, led to a 2002 ruling by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit that the words "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance are an endorsement of religion and therefore violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. After an initial decision striking the congressionally added "one nation under God" language, the superseding opinion on denial of rehearing en banc was more limited, holding that compelled recitation of the language by school teachers to students was invalid.
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. It has the smallest geographical jurisdiction of any of the U.S. federal appellate courts, and covers only one district court: the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. It meets at the E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse, near Judiciary Square, Washington, D.C.
Mary Murphy Schroeder is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D.C. The court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges. The Federal Circuit is particularly known for its decisions on patent law, as it is the only appellate-level court with the jurisdiction to hear patent case appeals.
Silveira v. Lockyer, 312 F.3d 1052, is a decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruling that the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution did not guarantee individuals the right to bear arms. The case involved a challenge to the constitutionality of the Roberti-Roos Assault Weapons Control Act of 1989 (AWCA). California legislation banned the manufacture, sale, transportation, or importation of specified semi-automatic firearms. The plaintiffs alleged that various provisions of the AWCA infringed upon their constitutionally guaranteed right to keep and bear arms as individuals.
Sidney Runyan Thomas is Chief United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. His chambers are located in Billings, Montana.
Milan Dale Smith Jr. is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Smith's brother, Gordon Smith, was a Republican United States Senator from Oregon from 1996 to 2009.
Sandra Segal Ikuta is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
Stephen Roy Reinhardt was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, with chambers in Los Angeles, California. He was the last federal appeals court judge in active service to have been appointed by President Jimmy Carter.
David Brookman Smith, known professionally as D. Brooks Smith, is the Chief United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He was previously Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania.
Melvin T. Brunetti was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
Wal-Mart v. Dukes, 564 U.S. 338 (2011), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that a group of roughly 1.5 million women could not be certified as a valid class of plaintiffs in a class-action lawsuit for employment discrimination against Walmart. Lead plaintiff Betty Dukes, a Walmart employee, and others alleged gender discrimination in pay and promotion policies and practices in Walmart stores.
Paul Jeffrey Watford is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. In February 2016, The New York Times identified Watford as a potential Supreme Court nominee to replace Justice Antonin Scalia.
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