|United States District Court for the Northern District of California|
|Location||Phillip Burton Federal Building|
|Appeals to||Ninth Circuit|
|Established||August 5, 1886|
|Chief Judge||Phyllis J. Hamilton|
|Officers of the court|
|U.S. Attorney||David L. Anderson|
The United States District Court for the Northern District of California (in case citations, N.D. Cal.) is the federal United States district court whose jurisdiction comprises following counties of California: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma. The court hears cases in its courtrooms in Eureka, Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose. It is headquartered in San Francisco.
Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported. Case citations are formatted differently in different jurisdictions, but generally contain the same key information.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States district court. Each federal judicial district has at least one courthouse, and many districts have more than one. The formal name of a district court is "the United States District Court for" the name of the district—for example, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
Cases from the Northern District of California are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit).
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a court of appeal that has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
A patent is a form of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, selling, and importing an invention for a limited period of years, in exchange for publishing an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; in others they are irrelevant.
The Tucker Act is a federal statute of the United States by which the United States government has waived its sovereign immunity with respect to certain lawsuits.
California was admitted as a state on September 9, 1850, and was initially divided into two districts, the Northern and the Southern, by Act of Congress approved September 28, 1850, 9 Stat. 521.The boundary line was at the 37th parallel of North Latitude. The creating act provided that:
The United States District Court for the Southern District of California is a federal court in the Ninth Circuit.
The Act of August 31, 1852 made the Judge of the Northern District be Judge of the Southern District as well until otherwise provided, by 10 Stat. 76, 84,effectively creating a single District in all but name until an Act of January 18, 1854 provided for the appointment of a Judge for the Southern District. The Southern District of California was abolished and the State made to constitute a single district – the United States District Court for the District of California – by Act of Congress approved July 27, 1866, 14 Stat. 300.
Twenty years later, on August 5, 1886, Congress re-created the Southern District of California by 24 Stat. 308.Erskine M. Ross was appointed Judge of the new district and served until his promotion to the Circuit Judgeship, when he was succeeded by Olin Wellborn. On March 18, 1966, the Eastern and Central Districts were created from portions of the Northern and Southern Districts by 80 Stat. 75.
Olin Wellborn was a United States Representative from Texas and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of California.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of California is a federal court in the Ninth Circuit.
The United States District Court for the Central District of California serves over 19 million people in Southern and Central California, making it the most populous federal judicial district. The district was created on September 18, 1966.
The court has become known as the presumptive destination for major cases (such as large class actions and multi-district litigation) involving defendants based in East Asia and the high tech sector.These cases usually involve patent law and intellectual property law (such as copyright law and DMCA issues as well as trademark law and trade secret law) - especially in the semiconductor, telecommunications and software industries and other high technology areas, antitrust law, securities law, and technology law in general (e.g., cybersecurity, Internet law, computer law and cases involving software).
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Its resistance decreases as its temperature increases, which is behaviour opposite to that of a metal. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping") into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the so-called "metalloid staircase" on the periodic table. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor and is used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave-frequency integrated circuits and others. Silicon is a critical element for fabricating most electronic circuits.
Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast to physical hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.
As of September 14,2018 [update] :
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|57||Chief Judge||Phyllis Jean Hamilton||Oakland||1952||2000–present||2014–present||—||Clinton|
|56||District Judge||William Haskell Alsup||San Francisco||1945||1999–present||—||—||Clinton|
|58||District Judge||Jeffrey White||Oakland||1945||2002–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|59||District Judge||Richard G. Seeborg||San Francisco||1956||2010–present||—||—||Obama|
|60||District Judge||Lucy Koh||San Jose||1968||2010–present||—||—||Obama|
|61||District Judge||Edward Davila||San Jose||1952||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|62||District Judge||Edward M. Chen||San Francisco||1953||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|63||District Judge||Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers||Oakland||1965||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|64||District Judge||Jon S. Tigar||San Francisco||1962||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|65||District Judge||William Orrick III||San Francisco||1953||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|66||District Judge||James Donato||San Francisco||1960||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|67||District Judge||Beth Labson Freeman||San Jose||1953||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|68||District Judge||Vince Chhabria||San Francisco||1969||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|69||District Judge||Haywood Gilliam||Oakland||1969||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|38||Senior Judge||Thelton Henderson||inactive||1933||1980–1998||1990–1997||1998–present||Carter|
|47||Senior Judge||Saundra Brown Armstrong||Oakland||1947||1991–2012||—||2012–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|49||Senior Judge||Ronald Whyte||inactive||1942||1992–2009||—||2009–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|50||Senior Judge||Claudia Ann Wilken||Oakland||1949||1993–2014||2012–2014||2014–present||Clinton|
|51||Senior Judge||Maxine M. Chesney||San Francisco||1942||1995–2009||—||2009–present||Clinton|
|52||Senior Judge||Susan Illston||San Francisco||1948||1995–2013||—||2013–present||Clinton|
|53||Senior Judge||Charles R. Breyer||San Francisco||1941||1997–2011||—||2011–present||Clinton|
|#||Judge||State||Born–died||Active service||Chief Judge||Senior status||Appointed by||Reason for|
|1||Ogden Hoffman, Jr.||CA||1822–1891||1851–1866 |
|—||—|| Fillmore |
Operation of law
|reassignment to D. Cal. |
|2||William W. Morrow||CA||1843–1929||1891–1897||—||—||B. Harrison||elevation to 9th Cir.|
|3||John J. De Haven||CA||1849–1913||1897–1913||—||—||McKinley||death|
|4||William Cary Van Fleet||CA||1852–1923||1907–1923||—||—||T. Roosevelt||death|
|5||Maurice Timothy Dooling||CA||1860–1924||1913–1924||—||—||Wilson||death|
|6||John Slater Partridge||CA||1870–1926||1923–1926||—||—||Harding||death|
|7||Frank Henry Kerrigan||CA||1868–1935||1924–1935||—||—||Coolidge||death|
|8||Adolphus Frederic St. Sure||CA||1869–1949||1925–1947||—||1947–1949||Coolidge||death|
|10||Michael Joseph Roche||CA||1878–1964||1935–1958||1948–1958||1958–1964||F. Roosevelt||death|
|11||Martin Ignatius Welsh||CA||1882–1953||1939–1947||—||1947–1953||F. Roosevelt||death|
|12||Louis Earl Goodman||CA||1892–1961||1942–1961||1958–1961||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|13||George Bernard Harris||CA||1901–1983||1946–1970||1961–1970||1970–1983||Truman||death|
|14||Dal Millington Lemmon||CA||1887–1958||1947–1954||—||—||Truman||elevation to 9th Cir.|
|15||Herbert Wilson Erskine||CA||1888–1951||1949–1951||—||—||Truman||death|
|16||Oliver Jesse Carter||CA||1911–1976||1950–1976||1970–1976||1976–1976||Truman||death|
|17||Edward Preston Murphy||CA||1904–1958||1950–1958||—||—||Truman||death|
|18||Monroe Mark Friedman||CA||1895–1978||1952–1953||—||—||Truman||not confirmed|
|19||Oliver Deveta Hamlin, Jr.||CA||1892–1973||1953–1958||—||—||Eisenhower||elevation to 9th Cir.|
|20||Sherrill Halbert||CA||1901–1991||1954–1966||—||—||Eisenhower||reassignment to E.D. Cal.|
|21||Albert Charles Wollenberg||CA||1900–1981||1958–1975||—||1975–1981||Eisenhower||death|
|22||Lloyd Hudson Burke||CA||1916–1988||1958–1979||—||1979–1988||Eisenhower||death|
|23||William Thomas Sweigert||CA||1900–1983||1959–1973||—||1973–1983||Eisenhower||death|
|24||Thomas Jamison MacBride||CA||1914–2000||1961–1966||—||—||Kennedy||reassignment to E.D. Cal.|
|26||Stanley Alexander Weigel||CA||1905–1999||1962–1982||—||1982–1997||Kennedy||retirement|
|27||Robert Francis Peckham||CA||1920–1993||1966–1988||1976–1988||1988–1993||L. Johnson||death|
|28||Gerald Sanford Levin||CA||1906–1971||1969–1971||—||—||Nixon||death|
|29||Robert Howard Schnacke||CA||1913–1994||1970–1983||—||1983–1994||Nixon||death|
|31||Spencer Mortimer Williams||CA||1922–2008||1971–1987||—||1987–2008||Nixon||death|
|32||Charles Byron Renfrew||CA||1928–2017||1971–1980||—||—||Nixon||resignation|
|33||William Horsley Orrick, Jr.||CA||1915–2003||1974–1985||—||1985–2003||Nixon||death|
|34||William Austin Ingram||CA||1924–2002||1976–1990||1988–1990||1990–2002||Ford||death|
|35||Cecil F. Poole||CA||1914–1997||1976–1980||—||—||Ford||elevation to 9th Cir.|
|37||Robert Peter Aguilar||CA||1931–present||1980–1996||—||1996–1996||Carter||retirement|
|39||Marilyn Hall Patel||CA||1938–present||1980–2009||1997–2004||2009–2012||Carter||retirement|
|40||Eugene F. Lynch||CA||1931–present||1982–1997||—||1997–1997||Reagan||retirement|
|41||John P. Vukasin Jr.||CA||1928–1993||1983–1993||—||—||Reagan||death|
|42||Charles A. Legge||CA||1930–present||1984–2001||—||—||Reagan||retirement|
|43||D. Lowell Jensen||CA||1928–present||1986–1997||—||1997–2014||Reagan||retirement|
|44||Fern M. Smith||CA||1933–present||1988–2003||—||2003–2005||Reagan||retirement|
|45||Vaughn Walker||CA||1944–present||1989–2011||2004–2010||—||G.H.W. Bush||retirement|
|46||James Ware||CA||1946–present||1990–2012||2010–2012||—||G.H.W. Bush||retirement|
|48||Barbara A. Caulfield||CA||1947–2010||1991–1994||—||—||G.H.W. Bush||resignation|
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
The United States Attorney for the Northern District of California represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is David L. Anderson.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following federal judicial districts:
The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, known informally as The Mother Court, is a federal district court. Appeals from the Southern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida is the federal United States district court with territorial jurisdiction over the southern part of the state of Florida.
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois is the federal trial-level court with jurisdiction over the northern counties of Illinois.
The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Rhode Island. The District Court was created in 1790 when Rhode Island ratified the Constitution. The Federal Courthouse was built in 1908.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois is a Federal district court covering approximately the southern third of the state of Illinois.
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia is a United States District Court which serves the residents of forty-six counties. These are divided up into four divisions.
The U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Georgia is a United States District Court which serves the residents of sixty-nine counties from seven divisions from its headquarters in Macon, Georgia.
The U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio is the federal trial court for the northern half of Ohio. The court has courthouses in Cleveland, Toledo, Akron, and Youngstown.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio is one of two United States district courts in Ohio and includes forty-eight of the state's eighty-eight counties. Appeals from the court are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit at Cincinnati.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan is the Federal district court with jurisdiction over of the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of the State of Michigan. The Court is based in Detroit, with courthouses also located in Ann Arbor, Bay City, Flint, and Port Huron. The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit has appellate jurisdiction over the court.
The United States District Court for the Western District of Michigan is the federal district court with jurisdiction over of the western portion of the state of Michigan, including the entire Upper Peninsula.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana is a federal trial court based in New Orleans. Like all U.S. district courts, the court has original jurisdiction over civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States; certain civil actions between citizens of different states; civil actions within the admiralty or maritime jurisdiction of the United States; criminal prosecutions brought by the United States; and many other types of cases and controversies. It also has appellate jurisdiction over a very limited class of judgments, orders, and decrees.
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas is a United States district court. Its first judge, Andrew Phelps McCormick, was appointed to the court on April 10, 1879. The court convenes in Dallas, Texas with divisions in Fort Worth, Amarillo, Abilene, Lubbock, San Angelo and Wichita Falls. It has jurisdiction over 100 counties in the northern and central parts of the U.S. state of Texas.
The United States District Court for the District of Idaho is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the state of Idaho. Court is held in Boise, Coeur d'Alene, and Pocatello. Cases from the District of Idaho are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee is the federal court in the Sixth Circuit whose jurisdiction covers all of East Tennessee and a portion of Middle Tennessee. The court has jurisdiction over 41 counties with 4 divisions. Based in Knoxville, Tennessee, it maintains branch facilities in Chattanooga, Tennessee; Greeneville, Tennessee; and Winchester, Tennessee.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa has jurisdiction over forty-seven of Iowa's ninety-nine counties. It is subject to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals.