|Category 5 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||September 2, 2004|
|Dissipated||September 25, 2004|
|( Remnant low after September 24)|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained:165 mph (270 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||910 mbar (hPa); 26.87 inHg|
|Fatalities||92 direct, 32 indirect|
|Damage||$26.1 billion (2004 USD)|
|Areas affected||Windward Islands (especially Grenada), Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Barbados, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Grand Cayman, Cuba, Yucatan Peninsula, Eastern United States, Louisiana, Texas, most of the United States Gulf Coast, and Atlantic Canada|
|Part of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season|
Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Ivan formed in early September, and reached Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Ivan caused catastrophic damage to Grenada as a strong Category 3 storm, heavy damage to Jamaica as a strong Category 4 storm and then Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands and the western tip of Cuba as a Category 5 storm. After peaking in strength, the hurricane moved north-northwest across the Gulf of Mexico to strike Pensacola/Milton, Florida and Alabama as a strong Category 3 storm, causing significant damage. Ivan dropped heavy rains on the Southeastern United States as it progressed northeast and east through the eastern United States, becoming an extratropical cyclone. The remnant low from the storm moved into the western subtropical Atlantic and regenerated into a tropical cyclone, which then moved across Florida and the Gulf of Mexico into Louisiana and Texas, causing minimal damage. Ivan caused an estimated $26.1 billion (2004 USD) along its path, of which $20.5 billion occurred in the United States.
A Cape Verde hurricane, or Cabo Verde hurricane is an Atlantic hurricane that originates at low-latitude in the deep tropics from a tropical wave that has passed over or near the Cape Verde islands after exiting the coast of West Africa. The average hurricane season has about two Cape Verde hurricanes, which are often the largest and most intense storms of the season due to having plenty of warm open ocean over which to develop before encountering land or other factors prompting weakening. A good portion of Cape Verde storms are large, and some, such as Hurricane Ivan and Hurricane Irma, have set various records. Most of the longest-lived tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin are Cape Verde hurricanes. While many move harmlessly out to sea, some move across the Caribbean sea and into the Gulf of Mexico, becoming damaging storms for Caribbean nations, Central America, Mexico, Bermuda, the United States, and occasionally even Canada. Research projects since the 1970s have been launched to understand the formation of these storms.
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale. Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie within smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and Neptune. Cyclogenesis is the process of cyclone formation and intensification. Extratropical cyclones begin as waves in large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These zones contract and form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later in their life cycle, extratropical cyclones occlude as cold air masses undercut the warmer air and become cold core systems. A cyclone's track is guided over the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the subtropical jet stream.
On September 2, 2004, Tropical Depression Nine formed from a large tropical wave southwest of Cape Verde. As the system moved to the west, it strengthened gradually, becoming Tropical Storm Ivan on September 3 and reaching hurricane strength on September 5, 1,150 miles (1,850 km) to the east of Tobago. Later that day, the storm intensified rapidly, and by 5 pm EDT (2100 UTC), Ivan became a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 125 miles per hour (200 km/h). The National Hurricane Center said that the rapid strengthening of Ivan on September 5 was unprecedented at such a low latitude in the Atlantic basin.
Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.
Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. It is located 35 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of the mainland of Trinidad and southeast of Grenada, about 160 kilometres (99 mi) off the coast of northeast Venezuela. According to the earliest English-language source cited in the Oxford English Dictionary, Tobago bore a name that has become the English word tobacco. The official bird of Tobago is the cocrico.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.
As it moved east, Ivan weakened slightly because of wind shear in the area. 5 hurricane, just north of the Windward Netherlands Antilles (Curaçao and Bonaire) and Aruba on September 9, with winds reaching 160 mph (260 km/h). Ivan weakened slightly as it moved west-northwest towards Jamaica. As Ivan approached the island late on September 10, it began a westward jog that kept the eye and the strongest winds to the south and west. However, because of its proximity to the Jamaican coast, the island was battered with hurricane-force winds for hours.The storm passed over Grenada on September 7, battering several of the Windward Islands. As it entered the Caribbean Sea, Ivan reintensified rapidly and became a Category
Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.
Grenada is a country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island. It is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres (134.6 sq mi), and it had an estimated population of 107,317 in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters. The national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove.
The Windward Islands, also known as the Islands of Barlovento, are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies. They lie south of the Leeward Islands, approximately between latitudes 10° and 16° N and longitudes 60° and 62° W. As a group they start from Dominica and reach southward to the north of Trinidad and Tobago and west of Barbados.
After passing Cuba, Ivan resumed a more northerly track and regained Category 5 strength. Ivan's strength continued to fluctuate as it moved west on September 11, and the storm attained its highest winds of 163 mph (262 km/h) as it passed within 30 miles (50 km) of Grand Cayman. Ivan reached its peak strength with a minimum central pressure of 910 millibars (27 inHg) on September 12. Ivan passed through the Yucatán Channel late on September 13, while its eyewall affected the westernmost tip of Cuba. Once over the Gulf of Mexico, Ivan weakened slightly to Category 4 strength, which it maintained while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United States.
Grand Cayman is the largest of the three Cayman Islands and the location of the territory's capital, George Town. In relation to the other two Cayman Islands, it is approximately 75 miles (121 km) southwest of Little Cayman and 90 miles (145 km) southwest of Cayman Brac.
The Yucatán Channel or Straits of Yucatán is a strait between Mexico and Cuba. It connects the Yucatán Basin of the Caribbean Sea with the Gulf of Mexico. It is just over 200 kilometres (120 mi) wide and nearly 2,800 metres (9,200 ft) deep at its deepest point near the coast of Cuba.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.
Just before it made landfall in the United States, Ivan's eyewall weakened considerably, and its southwestern portion almost disappeared.[ citation needed ] Around 2 a.m. CDT September 16 (0700 UTC), Ivan made landfall on the U.S. mainland in Gulf Shores, Alabama, as a Category 3 hurricane with 120 mph (190 km/h) winds; some hurricane information sources put the winds from Hurricane Ivan near 130 mph (210 km/h) upon landfall in Alabama and northwestern Florida. Ivan then continued inland, maintaining hurricane strength until it was over central Alabama. Ivan weakened rapidly that evening and became a tropical depression on the same day, still over Alabama. Ivan lost tropical characteristics on September 18 while crossing Virginia. Later that day, the remnant low of Ivan drifted off the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast into the Atlantic Ocean, and the low-pressure disturbance continued to dump rain on the United States.
Gulf Shores is a resort city in Baldwin County, Alabama, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 9,741.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.
On September 20, Ivan's remnant surface low completed an anticyclonic loop and moved across the Florida peninsula. As it continued west across the northern Gulf of Mexico, the system reorganized and again took on tropical characteristics.On September 22, the National Weather Service, "after considerable and sometimes animated in-house discussion [regarding] the demise of Ivan," determined that the low was in fact a result of the remnants of Ivan and thus named it accordingly. On the evening of September 23, the revived Ivan made landfall near Cameron, Louisiana as a tropical depression. Ivan weakened into a remnant low on September 24, as it moved overland into Texas. The remnant circulation of Ivan persisted for another day, before dissipating on September 25.
An anticyclone is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere". Effects of surface-based anticyclones include clearing skies as well as cooler, drier air. Fog can also form overnight within a region of higher pressure. Mid-tropospheric systems, such as the subtropical ridge, deflect tropical cyclones around their periphery and cause a temperature inversion inhibiting free convection near their center, building up surface-based haze under their base. Anticyclones aloft can form within warm core lows such as tropical cyclones, due to descending cool air from the backside of upper troughs such as polar highs, or from large scale sinking such as the subtropical ridge. The evolution of an anticyclone depends on a few variables such as its size, intensity, moist-convection, Coriolis force etc.
Cameron is a census-designated place (CDP) in and the parish seat of Cameron Parish, Louisiana, United States. It is part of the Lake Charles Metropolitan Statistical Area. After sustaining extreme damage from Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008, the 2010 Census showed Cameron having a population of just 406, a 79% drop in population between the years 2000 and 2010.
Ivan set 18 new records for intensity at low latitudes. When Ivan first became a Category 3 hurricane on September 3 (1800 UTC), it was centered near 10.2 degrees north from the equator. This is the most southerly location on record for a major hurricane in the Atlantic basin. Just six hours later, Ivan also became the most southerly Category 4 hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin when it reached that intensity while located at 10.6 degrees north. Finally, at midnight (UTC) on September 9 while centered at 13.7 degrees north, Ivan became the most southerly Category 5 hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin. The latter record would not be surpassed until Hurricane Matthew in 2016, which reached Category 5 intensity at 13.4 degrees north.
Ivan had held the world record of 33 (with 32 consecutive) six-hour periods of intensity at or above Category 4 strength. This record was broken two years later by Pacific Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke, which had 36 (33 consecutive) six-hour periods at Category 4 strength. This contributed to Ivan's total Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) of 70.38. The tornado outbreak associated with Ivan spawned 127 tornadoes, more than any other tropical cyclone worldwide.[ citation needed ]
Scientists from the Naval Research Laboratory at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi have used a computer model to predict that, at the height of the storm, the maximum wave height within Ivan's eyewall reached 131 feet (40 m).
By September 5, a hurricane watch was posted for Barbados. Early on the following day, a tropical storm watch was issued for Grenada. Later that day, hurricane watches were also put into effect for Saint Lucia, and Martinique. A tropical storm warning was issued for Saint Vincent and Grenadines and Tobago and Grenada. By 1500 UTC on September 6, the hurricane watches and tropical storm watches and warnings were upgraded to a hurricane warning and expanded to: Barbados, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Tobago, Grenada. Simultaneously, a tropical storm warning was issued for Trinidad. On September 7, the hurricane warning in effect for several countries was downgraded to a tropical storm warning. By September, all tropical storm and hurricane watches and warnings were discontinued in the eastern portions of the Windward Islands.
As Ivan continued westward, a hurricane watch was issued for the ABC islands on September 8. people evacuated their homes on Curaçao.Many schools and businesses were closed in the Netherlands Antilles, and about 300
In the Caribbean, 500,000 Jamaicans were told to evacuate from coastal areas, but only 5,000 were reported to have moved to shelters. 12,000 residents and tourists were evacuated from Isla Mujeres off the Yucatán Peninsula.
In Louisiana, mandatory evacuations of vulnerable areas in Jefferson, Lafourche, Plaquemines, St. Charles, St. James, St. John the Baptist, and Tangipahoa parishes took place, with voluntary evacuations ordered in six other parishes. More than one-third of the population of Greater New Orleans evacuated voluntarily, including more than half of the residents of New Orleans itself. At the height of the evacuation, intense traffic congestion on local highways caused delays of up to 12 hours. About a thousand special-needs patients were housed at the Louisiana Superdome during the storm. Ivan was considered a particular threat to the New Orleans area because dangers of catastrophic flooding. However, Plaquemines and St. Bernard Parishes suffered a moderate amount of wind damage. Hurricane preparedness for New Orleans was judged poor. At one point, the media sparked fears of an "Atlantean" catastrophe if the hurricane were to make a direct strike on the city. These fears were not realized, as the storm's path turned further east.
In Mississippi, evacuation of mobile homes and vulnerable areas took place in Hancock, Jackson, and Harrison counties. am EDT September 10 but was lifted at 5:00 am EDT September 13 as Ivan tracked further west than originally predicted. Voluntary evacuations were declared in ten counties along the Florida Panhandle, with strong emphasis in the immediate western counties of Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Okaloosa. Ivan prompted the evacuation of 270 animals at the Alabama Gulf Coast Zoo in Gulf Shores, Alabama. The evacuation had to be completed within a couple of hours, with only 28 volunteers available to move the animals.In Alabama, evacuation in the areas of Mobile and Baldwin counties south of Interstate 10 was ordered, including a third of the incorporated territory of the City of Mobile, as well as several of its suburbs. In Florida, a full evacuation of the Florida Keys began at 7:00
|Cayman Islands||2||0||$2.86 billion|
|Saint Lucia||0||0||$2.6 million|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||0||0||$40 million|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1||1||$4.9 million|
|United States||54||25||$20.5 billion|
Ivan killed 64 people in the Caribbean—mainly in Grenada and Jamaica—three in Venezuela, and 25 in the United States, including fourteen in Florida. Thirty-two more deaths in the United States were indirectly attributed to Ivan. While traversing the eastern United States, Ivan spawned 120 tornadoes, striking communities along concentric arcs on the leading edge of the storm. In Florida, Blountstown, Marianna, and Panama City Beach suffered three of the most devastating tornadoes. A Panama City Beach news station was nearly hit by an F2 tornado during the storm. Ivan also caused over US$20.5 billion (2004 USD) in damages in the United States and US$3 billion in the Caribbean (2004 USD).
Ivan passed directly over Grenada on September 7, 2004, killing 39 people. The capital, St. George's, was severely damaged and several notable buildings were destroyed, including the residence of the prime minister. Ivan also caused extensive damage to a local prison, allowing most of the inmates to escape. The island, in the words of a Caribbean disaster official, suffered "total devastation." According to a member of the Grenadian parliament, at least 85% of the small island was devastated. Extensive looting was reported. In all, damage on the island totalled US$815 million (2004 USD, $1.08 billion in 2018 USD).
Elsewhere in the Caribbean, a pregnant woman was killed in Tobago when a tree fell on top of her home, homes in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines were either damaged or destroyed.and a 75-year-old Canadian woman drowned in Barbados. Three deaths were reported in Venezuela. Over five hundred homes on Barbados and around 60
On September 11–12, the center of Ivan passed near Jamaica, causing significant wind and flood damage. Overall, 17 people were killed in Jamaica and 18,000 people were left homeless as a result of the flood waters and high winds. Most of the major resorts and hotels fared well, though, and were reopened only a few days after Ivan had passed. Damage on Jamaica totaled US$360 million (2004 USD, $478 million in 2018 USD).
In the Cayman Islands, Governor Bruce Dinwiddy described damage as "very, very severe and widespread." Despite strict building codes which made the islands' buildings well able to withstand even major hurricanes, Ivan's winds and storm surge were so strong that a quarter or more of the buildings on the islands were reported to be uninhabitable, with 85% damaged to some extent. Much of Grand Cayman still remained without power, water, or sewer services for several months later. After five months, barely half the pre-Ivan hotel rooms were usable. Two people were killed on Grand Cayman, one from drowning and the other from flying debris. billion or 183 percent of its gross domestic product. The Letter from the Cayman Islands Government Office in the United Kingdom, 8 October 2004 by McKeeva Bush, Leader of Government Business details the intensity, extent of damage, and recovery process during the months that followed.Damage across the territory was catastrophic, with losses amounting to US$2.86
There were four deaths in the Dominican Republic. The region's Caribbean Development Bank estimates Ivan caused over US$3 billion (2004 USD, $4 billion in 2018 USD) damage on island nations, mostly in the Cayman Islands, Grenada, and Jamaica. Minor damage, including some beach erosion, was reported in the ABC islands.
Even though Ivan did not make landfall on Cuban soil, its storm surge caused localized flooding on Santiago de Cuba and Granma, on the southern part of the island. At Cienfuegos, the storm produced waves of 15 feet (4.6 m), and Pinar del Río recorded 13.3 inches (340 mm) of rainfall. While there were no casualties on the island, the Cuban government estimates that about US$1.2 billion (2004 USD, $1.6 billion in 2018 USD) of property damage were directly due to Ivan.
Along with the 14 deaths in Florida, Ivan is blamed for eight deaths in North Carolina, two in Georgia, and one in Mississippi. An additional 32 deaths were reported as indirectly caused by the storm.
As it passed over the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, Ivan caused the destruction of Taylor Energy's Mississippi Canyon 20-A production platform, 550 ft (170 m) above 28 producing oil and gas wells drilled in water 479 ft (146 m) deep. Waves estimated to be 71 feet (22 m) caused tremendous pressures below the surface, causing a landslide that obliterated the platform. Hundreds of gallons of oil per day were still leaking onto the surface of the Gulf fourteen years later. The United States Coast Guard reported that the spill had been contained in 2019.
Ivan caused an estimated US$20.5 billion (2004 USD) in damage in the United States alone, making it the second-costliest hurricane on record at the time, behind only Hurricane Andrew of 1992.
|Source: National Hurricane Center|
As Ivan made landfall on the U.S. coastline in Florida, there was heavy damage as observed in Pensacola, Gulf Breeze, Navarre Beach, and Pensacola Beach, dwellings situated far inland, as much as 20 miles (32 km) from the Gulf coast, along the shorelines of Escambia Bay, East Bay, Blackwater Bay, and Ward Basin in Escambia County and Santa Rosa County, and Fort Walton Beach, Florida on the eastern side of the storm. The area just west of Pensacola, including the community of Warrington (which includes Pensacola NAS), Perdido Key, and Innerarity Point, took the brunt of the storm. Some of the subdivisions in this part of the county were completely destroyed, with a few key roads in the Perdido area only opened in late 2005, over a year after the storm hit. Shattered windows from gusts and flying projectiles experienced throughout the night of the storm were common. As of December 2007, roads remained closed on Pensacola Beach because of damage from Ivan's storm surge.
In Pensacola, the Interstate 10 Escambia Bay Bridge was heavily damaged, with as much as a quarter-mile (400 m) of the bridge collapsing into the bay. The causeway that carries U.S. Highway 90 across the northern part of the same bay was also heavily damaged. The U.S. 90 causeway reopened first; the I-10 bridge reopened, with temporary repairs, in November. Virtually all of Perdido Key, an area on the outskirts of Pensacola that bore the brunt of Ivan's winds and rain, was essentially leveled. High surf and wind brought extensive damage to Innerarity Point.
On September 26, 2006, over two years after Ivan struck the region, funding for the last 501 FEMA-provided trailers ran out for those living in Santa Rosa and Escambia counties.
The city of Demopolis, over 100 miles (160 km) inland in west-central Alabama, endured wind gusts estimated at 90 mph (140 km/h), while Montgomery saw wind gusts in the 60 to 70 mph (97 to 113 km/h) range at the height of the storm.
The heaviest damage as Ivan made landfall on the U.S. coastline was observed in Baldwin County in Alabama, where the storm's eye (and eyewall) made landfall. High surf and wind brought extensive damage to Orange Beach near the border with Florida. There, two five-story condominium buildings were undermined to the point of collapse by Ivan's storm surge of 14 feet (4.3 m). Both were made of steel-reinforced concrete. Debris gathered in piles along the storm tide, exacerbating the damage when the floodwaters crashed into homes sitting on pilings. Brewton, a community about 50 miles (80 km) inland, also suffered severe damage.
In addition to the damage to the southern portions of the state, there was extensive damage to the state's electrical grid. At the height of the outages, Alabama Power reported 489,000 subscribers had lost electrical power—roughly half of its subscriber base.
Further inland, Ivan caused major flooding, bringing the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta and many other rivers and streams to levels at or near 100-year records. The Delaware River and its tributaries crested just below their all-time records set by Hurricane Diane in 1955. Locations in southern New Hampshire and Massachusetts received over 7 inches of rainfall from the remnants of Ivan, causing flooding and mudslides. In Connecticut, high winds moved in quickly and unexpectedly, and a boater was killed when his trimaran capsized in 50-knot winds on Long Island Sound.
In western North Carolina, many streams and rivers reached well above flood stage in an area that was heavily flood damaged just a week and a half prior from the remnants of Hurricane Frances, causing many roads to be closed. High winds contributed to widespread power outages throughout the mountainous region. The Blue Ridge Parkway as well as Interstate 40 through the Pigeon River gorge in Haywood County, North Carolina sustained major damage, and landslides were common across the mountains. There was major flooding along the French Broad River and Swannanoa River in Asheville, North Carolina and along the Pigeon River near Canton, North Carolina. As a result of the rain, a major debris flow of mud, rocks, trees, and water surged down Peek's Creek, near Franklin, North Carolina, sweeping away 15 houses and killing five people.
The system also spawned deadly tornadoes as far north as Maryland tornadoes spawned in Virginia on September 17 setting a daily record for the commonwealth. Ivan then moved into the Wheeling, West Virginia and Pittsburgh area, causing major flooding and gusty winds. Pittsburgh International Airport recorded the highest 24-hour rainfall for Pittsburgh, recording 5.95 inches (151 mm) of rain. Ivan's rain caused widespread flooding. The Juniata River basin was flooded, and the Frankstown Branch crested at its highest level ever. After Ivan regenerated in the Gulf of Mexico, it caused further heavy rainfall up to 8 inches (200 mm) in areas of Louisiana and Texas.and destroyed seven oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico while at sea. While crossing over the Mid-Atlantic states, Ivan's remnants spawned 117 tornadoes across the eastern United States, with the 40
On the morning of September 21, the remnant mid-level circulation of Ivan combined with a frontal system. This produced a plume of moisture over the Canadian Maritimes for four days, producing heavy rainfall totaling 6.2 inches (160 mm) in Gander, Newfoundland. High winds of up to 89 mph (143 km/h) downed trees and caused power outages in Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and eastern Nova Scotia. The system produced intense waves of up to 50 feet (15 m) near Cape Bonavista. The system killed two when it grounded a fishing vessel and was indirectly responsible for four traffic fatalities in Newfoundland.
Grenada suffered serious economic repercussions following the destruction caused by Ivan. Before Ivan, the economy of Grenada was projected to grow by 4.7%, but the island's economy instead contracted by nearly 3% in 2004. The economy was also projected to grow by at least 5% through 2007, but, as of 2005 [update] , that estimate had been lowered to less than 1%. The government of Grenada also admitted that government debt, 130% of the island's GDP, was "unsustainable" in October 2004 and appointed a group of professional debt advisors in January 2005 to help seek a cooperative restructuring agreement with creditors.
More than US$150 million was sent to Grenada in 2004 to aid reconstruction following Ivan, but the economic situation remains fragile. The International Monetary Fund reports that as "difficult enough as the present fiscal situation is, it is unfortunately quite easy to envisage circumstances that would make it even more so." Furthermore, "shortfalls in donor financing and tax revenues, or events such as a further rise in global oil prices, pose a grave risk."
By two days after Ivan's passage, USAID's hurricane recovery program distributed emergency relief supplies for families who were displaced by the storm. During phase one of the recovery program, communities restored three tourist sites, cleared agricultural lands, and completed disaster mitigation. In addition, the U.S. Peace Corps completed thirty small projects in rural communities and low income neighborhoods. 66 health clinics, 25 schools, and 62 water and sanitation systems were repaired during the first phase of recovery. About 1,379 farmers, herders and micro businesses became eligible for grants. By 2005, 55 schools and colleges were repaired, while restoration of 1,560 houses had occurred.
On September 27, 2004, President of the United States George W. Bush submitted a budget to the United States Congress which requested over $7 billion (2004 USD) in aid to victims of Hurricane Ivan and Jeanne in the following states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Over half of the $7 billion (2004 USD) was to cover uninsured damage to property and public infrastructure. $889 million was spent to repair Department of Defense facilities. About $600 million was earmarked for emergency repairs to highways and road damaged by Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne. The Small Business Administration (SBA) used $472 million to provide loans for small businesses and homeowners affected by the storm. Approximately $400 million was given by the United States Department of Agriculture to provide financial assistance agricultural producers suffering crop and other losses. Around $132 million (2004 USD) was used to repair Federal facilities by several government agencies, including: United States Coast Guard, Federal Bureau of Prisons, the United States Forest Service, and the Federal Aviation Administration. The United States Army Corps of Engineers used $81 million (2004 USD) for restoration of coastal areas affected by Ivan. In addition, $50 million (2004 USD) of which was for disaster and famine assistance funds Grenada, Jamaica, and Haiti.
Following the storm in Alabama, more than 167,700 people applied for assistance in 65 counties in the state. over 51 counties in the state became eligible for public assistance. As a result, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (AEMA) received $735 million (2004 USD), which was spent in disaster assistance, and included: low-interest loans for homeowners and businesses, disaster food stamps, Disaster Unemployment Assistance to those left unemployed as a result of Ivan, "Project Rebound", and to fill the 5,856 National Flood Insurance Program claims. In addition, there were repairs to public infrastructure such as roads, bridges, buildings, utilities, facilities, and parks. 20 Disaster Recovery Centers were opened in 13 counties, which also included the Poarch Creek Indian Reservation. Overall, FEMA paid 90% of the $735 million (2004 USD), while the AEMA paid for the other 10%.
Ivan is suspected of bringing spores of soybean rust from Venezuela into the United States, the first ever occurrences of soybean rust found in North America. Since the Florida soybean crop had already been mostly harvested, economic damage was limited. Some of the most severe outbreaks in South America have been known to reduce soybean crop yields by half or more.Following the storm, more than 138,500 residents in 15 counties of the Florida Panhandle applied for federal and state aid. In those counties, a total of $162.6 million was approved by FEMA's Individuals and Households Program. In addition, residents of 24 other counties in Florida were eligible for grants and loans. By September 2005, more than $1.4 billion (2004 USD) in federal and state assistance was approved for residents and communities in the Florida Panhandle. In addition, the National Flood Insurance Program paid nearly $869 million (2004 USD) for more than 9,800 insurance claims after Ivan.
More than $4 million (2004 USD) in disaster assistance was approved for Mississippi by FEMA and the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency (MEMA). In addition, the SBA issued nearly 3,000 applications for low-interest loans to homeowners, renters, landlords, businesses, and non-profit organizations. The loans covered up to $200,000 in real estate repairs/replacements and up to $40,000 in repairs/replacements of personal property.
Residents and business owners in eight parishes of Louisiana became eligible for disaster assistance. By one week before the deadline to apply on November 15, 2004, about 9,527 residents applied for disaster assistance. Overall, FEMA and the Government of Louisiana provided more than $3.8 million (2004 USD) to those that requested assistance. In addition, the SBA also allowed applications for loans to repair personal property until that day.
This storm marked the third occasion the name "Ivan" had been used to name a tropical cyclone in the Atlantic, as well as the fifth of six occurrences worldwide. Because of the severe damage and number of deaths in the Caribbean and United States, the name Ivan was retired in the spring of 2005 by the World Meteorological Organization and will never again be used in the Atlantic basin.It was replaced by Igor for the 2010 season.
Ivan broke several hydrological records; it is credited with possibly causing the largest ocean wave ever recorded, a 91-foot (28-meter) wave that may have been as high as 131 ft (40 m), and the fastest seafloor current, at 2.25 m/s (5 mph).
Hurricane Lili was the second costliest, deadliest, and strongest hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, being surpassed by Hurricane Isidore, which affected the same areas around a week before Lili. Lili was the twelfth named storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm developed from a tropical disturbance in the open Atlantic on September 21. It continued westward, affecting the Lesser Antilles as a tropical storm, then entered the Caribbean. As it moved west, the storm dissipated while being affected by wind shear south of Cuba, and regenerated when the vertical wind shear weakened. It turned to the northwest and strengthened up to category 2 strength on October 1. Lili made two landfalls in western Cuba later that day, and then entered the Gulf of Mexico. The hurricane rapidly strengthened on October 2, reaching Category 4 strength that afternoon. It weakened rapidly thereafter, and hit Louisiana as a Category 1 hurricane on October 3. It moved inland and dissipated on October 6.
Hurricane Mitch was the second-deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record, causing over 11,000 fatalities in Central America, with over 7,000 occurring in Honduras alone due to the catastrophic flooding it wrought, due to the slow motion of the storm. It was the deadliest hurricane in Central America, surpassing Hurricane Fifi–Orlene, which killed slightly fewer people there in 1974. The thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, Mitch formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, and after drifting through extremely favorable conditions, it rapidly strengthened to peak at Category 5 status, the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. Mitch drifted through Central America, regenerated in the Bay of Campeche, and ultimately struck Florida as a strong tropical storm. It then became extratropical and accelerated northeastward across the North Atlantic, before dissipating on November 9. At the time, Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane observed in the month of October, though it has since been surpassed by Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 season. In addition, Mitch is the eighth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record.
Hurricane Gilbert was an extremely powerful tropical cyclone that formed during the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season and peaked as a Category 5 strength hurricane that brought widespread destruction to the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Gilbert was also one of the largest tropical cyclones ever observed in the Atlantic basin. At one point, its tropical storm-force winds measured 575 mi (925 km) in diameter. In addition, Gilbert was the most intense tropical cyclone in recorded history to strike Mexico.
The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was a very deadly, destructive, and hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season, with over 3,200 deaths and more than $61 billion in damage. More than half of the 16 tropical cyclones brushed or struck the United States. Due to the development of a Modoki El Niño – a rare type of El Niño in which unfavorable conditions are produced over the eastern Pacific instead of the Atlantic basin due to warmer sea surface temperatures farther west along the equatorial Pacific – activity was above average. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the season's last storm, Otto, dissipated on December 3, extending the season beyond its traditional boundaries. The first storm, Alex, developed offshore of the Southeastern United States on July 31, one of the latest dates on record to see the formation of the first system in an Atlantic hurricane season. It brushed the Carolinas and the Mid-Atlantic, causing one death and $7.5 million (2004 USD) in damage. Several storms caused only minor damage, including tropical storms Bonnie, Earl, Hermine, and Matthew. In addition, hurricanes Danielle, Karl, and Lisa, Tropical Depression Ten, Subtropical Storm Nicole and Tropical Storm Otto had no effect on land while tropical cyclones.
The 1979 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season to include both male and female names, as well as the common six-year rotating lists of tropical cyclone names. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was slightly below average, with nine systems reaching tropical storm intensity. The first system, an unnumbered tropical depression, developed north of Puerto Rico on June 9. Two days later, Tropical Depression One formed and produced severe flooding in Jamaica, with 40 deaths and about $27 million (1979 USD) in damage. Tropical Storm Ana caused minimal impact in the Lesser Antilles. Hurricane Bob spawned tornadoes and produced minor wind damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States, primarily in Louisiana, while the remnants caused flooding, especially in Indiana. Tropical Storm Claudette caused extensive flooding, due to torrential rainfall. There were two deaths and damaged totaled $750 million.
Hurricane Isidore was the ninth named storm and the second hurricane in the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. Isidore was the fifth of eight named storms to occur in September. The tropical cyclone peaked as a Category 3 hurricane, causing damage as well as four fatalities in Jamaica, Cuba, Mexico, and the United States. Isidore is noted for threatening to strike the northern Gulf Coast as a Category 4 hurricane, but instead striking as a moderate tropical storm due to a track change that brought the storm over the Yucatán Peninsula for over a day, which significantly weakened the cyclone. Its primary impact was the heavy rainfall which fell across southeast Mexico and from the central United States Gulf coast into the Ohio Valley.
The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated total of 3,960 deaths and approximately $180.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season.
The 1953 Atlantic hurricane season was the first time an organized list of female names was used to name Atlantic storms. It officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15, although activity occurred both before and after the season's limits. The season was active with fourteen total storms, six of which developed into hurricanes; four of the hurricanes attained major hurricane status, or a Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson scale.
Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major hurricane in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico during the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Dennis was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season. Forming in July, the hurricane became the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever to form before August at the time, a title it held for only six days before being surpassed by Hurricane Emily.
Hurricane Emily was the earliest forming Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record in a season and the most intense to form before August. A powerful, early season and Cape Verde tropical cyclone that caused significant damage across the Caribbean Sea to Mexico, the storm formed on July 10, 2005, in the central Atlantic Ocean before passing through the Windward Islands on July 14. Tracking generally towards the west-northwest, the storm gradually intensified as it traversed the Caribbean, peaking as a Category 5 hurricane on July 16, marking the earliest date for a storm to do so during the course of a given year. The system subsequently made landfall in the Yucatán Peninsula as a Category 4. Quickly crossing the peninsula, Emily emerged into the Gulf of Mexico and reorganized. On July 20, the storm struck Tamaulipas as a major hurricane and rapidly dissipated within 24 hours. The storm caused significant damage along its path, with up to $1.01 billion in damages recorded, as well as causing 17 fatalities. Emily is the latest Category 5 storm to not have its name retired.
Tropical Storm Arlene was an unusually large and early-forming tropical storm, being the first of twenty-eight different storms during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which would become the most active season on record. Tropical Storm Arlene formed near Honduras on June 8 and moved northwards. It crossed western Cuba on June 10 and strengthened to just under hurricane strength before making its final landfall on the Florida Panhandle the next day. The storm weakened as it continued to move north over the United States, becoming extratropical on June 13. Arlene was responsible for only one death and minor damages.
Tropical Depression Fourteen was the last tropical depression of the 1987 Atlantic hurricane season and was the third most destructive storm of the year. The depression formed on October 31, 1987 in the Caribbean Sea, heading along a northward path into the southern Gulf of Mexico and into Florida until the system was absorbed on November 4. The path and damage from the depression followed a similar path to Hurricane Floyd earlier in October. The depression peaked in intensity with wind speeds of 35 mph (55 km/h) on November 1 with a minimal barometric pressure reading of 1004 millibars. However, certain barometric readings have considered that the depression may have become a tropical storm.
The 1915 Galveston hurricane was a deadly hurricane that struck Leeward Islands, Hispaniola, Cuba and Texas, in mid August of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. Striking Galveston, Texas, 15 years after the 1900 Galveston Hurricane, its 21-ft (6.4-m) waves were slowed by the new Galveston Seawall but changed the beach structure: on August 17, the entire 300-ft (91.5–m) beach was eroded to become an offshore sandbar, later returning partially, but never the same. The 1915 storm caused a great deal of destruction in its path, leaving 275-400 people dead and $50 million in damage.
Hurricane Ernesto was the costliest tropical cyclone of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. The sixth tropical storm and first hurricane of the season, Ernesto developed from a tropical wave on August 24 in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Ernesto first affected the northern Caribbean, reaching minimal hurricane status near Haiti before weakening and moving across eastern Cuba as a tropical storm. Despite initial predictions for it to track through the eastern Gulf of Mexico as a major hurricane, Ernesto moved across eastern Florida as a weak tropical storm. After turning to the northeast, it re-intensified and made landfall on August 31 on the North Carolina coast just below hurricane status. Late the next day, Ernesto became extratropical after entering southern Virginia. The remnants spread moisture across the northeastern United States before dissipating over eastern Canada on September 4.
Hurricane Flossy originated from a tropical disturbance in the eastern Pacific Ocean and moved across Central America into the Gulf of Mexico as a tropical depression on September 21, 1956, which became a tropical storm on September 22 and a hurricane on September 23. The hurricane peaked with maximum sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) before it struck the central Gulf coast of the United States as a Category 1 hurricane on September 24, and evolved into an extratropical cyclone on September 25. It was the first hurricane to affect oil refining in the Gulf of Mexico. The tropical cyclone led to flooding in New Orleans, and broke a drought across the eastern United States. The death toll was 15, and total damages reached $24.8 million (1956 USD).
The effects of Hurricane Ivan in the Lesser Antilles and South America in September 2004 included 44 deaths and over $1 billion in damage (2004 USD), primarily in Grenada where it was considered the worst hurricane in nearly 50 years. Hurricane Ivan developed from a tropical wave on September 2 and rapidly intensified to become a major hurricane, passing through the southern Lesser Antilles on September 7 with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). At the time, its typical storm force winds extended outward up to 160 miles (260 km) with hurricane-force winds outward to 70 miles (110 km), and the northern portion of the eye passed over Grenada.
Hurricane Florence was a strong Atlantic hurricane that struck the Florida Panhandle in September of the 1953 season. The eighth storm and fifth hurricane of the season, Florence developed in the western Caribbean from a tropical wave near Jamaica on September 23. It produced heavy rainfall on the nearby island, and later caused damage in western Cuba. The storm quickly intensified into a hurricane over the Yucatán Channel, and as it moved north through the Gulf of Mexico, Florence's maximum sustained winds reached 125 mph (205 km/h). On September 26, the hurricane hit in a sparsely populated region of western Florida, and shortly after landfall became an extratropical cyclone.
From September 8 to 14, 2004, Hurricane Ivan moved through the Caribbean Sea, affecting all of the Greater Antilles. Reaching peak winds of 165 mph (270 km/h), Ivan attained Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, the strongest possible category, on three times in the Caribbean. It first lashed the southern coasts of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola with high waves, killing five people in the Dominican Republic and Haiti; in the latter country, two others drowned due to storm flooding. The effects in Jamaica were among the worst from a tropical cyclone in the island's recorded history. The storm caused severe damage which left 18,000 people homeless. An estimated 17 people on the island were killed by Ivan.
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