Hurricane Iota

Last updated

Hurricane Iota
Category 5 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Iota 2020-11-16 1500Z.png
Hurricane Iota at peak intensity approaching Nicaragua on November 16
FormedNovember 13, 2020
DissipatedNovember 18, 2020
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:160 mph (260 km/h)
Lowest pressure917 mbar (hPa); 27.08 inHg
Fatalities61 total; 41 missing
Damage≥ $564 million (2020 USD)
Areas affected
Part of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Iota was the latest known Atlantic hurricane ever to attain Category 5 intensity, and only the second Category 5 Atlantic hurricane to exist within the month of November on record—the other being the 1932 Cuba hurricane. Iota caused severe damage to areas of Central America already devastated by Hurricane Eta just less than two weeks prior. The thirty-first tropical cyclone, thirtieth named storm, thirteenth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Iota originated as a tropical wave that moved into the Eastern Caribbean on November 10. Over the next few days, the wave began to become better organized and by November 13, it developed into a tropical depression north of Colombia. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Iota six hours later. The storm was initially impacted by some wind shear, but a center relocation and relaxed shear allowed Iota to quickly strengthen into a hurricane on November 15, after which it underwent explosive intensification, becoming a Category 5 hurricane the following day. This made 2020 the fifth consecutive Atlantic hurricane season since 2016 to feature at least one Category 5 hurricane. After weakening slightly, Iota made landfall in northeastern Nicaragua as a high-end Category 4 hurricane, becoming the strongest recorded hurricane to make landfall in Nicaragua in November. Iota then rapidly weakened as it moved inland, before dissipating on November 18.

Contents

The precursor wave to Iota generated flash flooding in most of the Caribbean islands. Tropical cyclone watches and warnings were first issued on November 14 in parts of Colombia, Nicaragua, and Honduras, with the latter two countries still recovering from Eta just two weeks prior. Heavy rains associated with a tropical wave and Iota brought heavy rainfall to parts of Colombia, leading to flash flooding and mudslides. Extremely heavy rain fell on much of Nicaragua widening flash flooding caused by the hurricane's high storm surge. Mudslides caused extensive damage and multiple deaths. At least 61 people were killed due to Iota including at least 28 in Nicaragua and 16 in Honduras, among other countries. [1] [2] [3] [4] As many as 41 people are currently missing. Damage totals for the storm are still being calculated, but a preliminary estimate in Nicaragua places the damage totals at $564 million (2020 USD) in that country. [5]

Planning for relief efforts soon followed, which include placing tents, opening temporary hospitals, and delivering food and water to those in need. Numerous power outages were restored in the days following Iota's destruction. Downed trees and blocked paths have slowed down some rescue teams. Donations worth hundreds of millions of USD have been given to affected countries. An estimated total of 5.2 million people were affected by the storm, [6] while hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Iota 2020 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

At 18:00 UTC on November 8, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began to monitor the Central Caribbean for a tropical wave forecasted to enter the area and potentially become a low-pressure area within a few days. [7] The wave subsequently entered the Eastern Caribbean by 06:00 UTC on November 10 and moved westward into a more conducive environment for development. [8] [9] Late on November 11, the wave started to become better organized, and by 15:00 UTC on November 13, it had developed into Tropical Depression Thirty-One in the southern Caribbean, tying 2005 for the most tropical depressions recorded in one season. [9] [10] [11] Six hours later, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm Iota. [12] After struggling somewhat due to wind shear and dry air, Iota began to rapidly intensify over warm waters late on November 14, as convection started to wrap around the storm's center. [13] At 06:00 UTC on November 15, Iota reached hurricane status, before strengthening to Category 2 status at 00:00 UTC on November 16. [14] [15]

Hurricane Iota making landfall on northeastern Nicaragua on November 17 Hurricane Iota at landfall over northeastern Nicaragua.gif
Hurricane Iota making landfall on northeastern Nicaragua on November 17

By 06:00 UTC on November 16, hurricane hunters discovered that Iota had become a high-end Category 3 major hurricane, marking the first time that there were two major hurricanes recorded in November. [16] They also found intense lightning in Iota's southwest eyewall along with hail, which is extremely rare for a hurricane, given the warm temperatures that are present in those storms. [17] [18] [19] Just 40 minutes later, at 06:40 UTC, Iota reached Category 4 intensity. [20] At 15:00 UTC, Iota intensified further into the season's first Category 5 hurricane and simultaneously reached its peak intensity with winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 917 mb (27.08 inHg). [21] This marked the latest recorded date of a storm becoming a Category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic basin. [22] Iota is also the second November Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record. After peaking in intensity, Iota's pressure fluctuated somewhat before it weakened slightly to a high-end Category 4 hurricane, at 03:00 UTC on November 17, as the storm began to interact with land. [23] At 03:40 UTC, Iota made landfall along the northeastern coast of Nicaragua, near the town of Haulover, with sustained winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) and a central pressure of 920 mb (27.17 inHg). Iota's landfall location was approximately 15 miles (25 km) south of where Hurricane Eta made landfall on November 3. [24] This also made Iota the strongest hurricane in recorded history to make landfall in Nicaragua within November. [25]

Iota then rapidly weakened as it moved over the mountainous terrain of Central America, falling below major hurricane status at 09:00 UTC on November 17, and below hurricane status at 18:00 UTC. [26] [27] The inner core of the weakening system was disrupted as it moved through Honduras, and Iota weakened to a tropical depression on November 18 at 09:00 UTC, as it entered El Salvador. [28] [29] Six hours after this downgrade, Iota's low-level circulation center dissipated and the NHC issued their final advisory on Iota. [30]

Preparations

Hurricane Iota rapidly strengthening prior to peak intensity. Satellite Loop of Hurricane Iota 11-16-2020.gif
Hurricane Iota rapidly strengthening prior to peak intensity.

Tropical storm warnings were first issued for the Colombian islands of San Andrés and Providencia around midday on November 14. [31] Three hours later, a hurricane watch was issued for Providencia, as well as along the coast of Northern Nicaragua and Eastern Honduras, with a tropical storm watch also issued for Central Honduras. [13] All of the watches were eventually upgraded to warnings, with an additional hurricane watch for San Andrés as well as a tropical storm warning for south central Nicaragua. [32] [33] The rest of the coastline of Honduras, as well as the Bay Islands, were later put under tropical storm warnings on November 16. [21]

Oxfam had to temporarily suspend operations across Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador related to Hurricane Eta to protect relief works. [34]

Nicaragua

With Nicaragua still reeling from Hurricane Eta two weeks prior, many areas remained flooded. Towns around Puerto Cabezas in particular were devastated by Eta and debris remained strewn across the area. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies emphasized the risk of widespread flooding and landslides as soils were completely saturated. [35] The Government of Nicaragua opened 600 shelters and 63,000 people evacuated nationwide. [36] Some residents feared starvation while residing in shelters as Eta largely destroyed the region's crops. [35] The government of Taiwan donated 800 tons of rice to the areas expected to be impacted by the storm. [37] [38]

Honduras

Approximately 80,000 people were evacuated from flood-prone areas. [35] An estimated 100,000 people remained isolated across Honduras in the aftermath of Hurricane Eta as Iota made landfall. [39]

El Salvador

The Government of El Salvador opened 1,000 shelters with a capacity for 30,000 people. By November 17, 700 people had relocated from their homes. [35]

Impact

Deaths and damage by territory
Country/TerritoryFatalitiesMissingDamage
(2020 USD)
Refs
Colombia 710 [40] [41] [42] [43]
El Salvador 10 [1]
Honduras 161 [2]
Guatemala 60 [3] [44]
Nicaragua 2829$564 million [45] [46] [5]
Panama 31 [3]
Venezuela 00
Totals:6141$564 million

Venezuela

The precursor tropical wave to Iota produced heavy rain across Venezuela's Falcón state, primarily in the Paraguaná Peninsula. In the Silva municipality, flooding affected 288 homes. Damage to homes was reported in El Cayude and El Tranquero. The community of Santa Ana lost electrical service. Civil Protection officials advised residents of possible flooding along the Matícora reservoir in Mauroa, the Barrancas river, and the Quebrada de Uca river. [47] Some flooding occurred in the state of Miranda. [48]

Colombia

Mainland

Rain from Iota in Bogota, the capital city of Colombia Lluvias en Bogota por Iota.jpg
Rain from Iota in Bogotá, the capital city of Colombia

Heavy rains associated with a tropical wave and Iota caused extensive damage in Colombia. [49] The worst damage took place in the Mohán sector of Dabeiba where landslides killed three people, injured 20, and left eight others missing. [50] [49] [43] Eight people were rescued from the rubble. [49] The landslides destroyed 67 homes and damaged 104 others as well as three schools. A total of 497 people were affected in the community. [43] Approximately 100 vehicles were trapped by rockfalls along a road between Dabeiba and Urabá. Flooding affected 10 municipalities within the Chocó Department; the town of Lloró was isolated after the only bridge to the community collapsed. A landslide in Carmen de Atrato killed one person when his home was buried. [50] Across Chocó, an estimated 28,000 people were affected. [43] A van with two occupants disappeared when a landslide dragged the vehicle into the Atrato River. Emergencies were declared for 29 municipalities in the Santander Department where multiple rivers topped their banks. Several families were evacuated from Cimitarra due to rising water along the Carare River. A bridge collapse along the Chicamocha River isolated approximately 1,000 people in Carcasí and Enciso. More than 1,000 homes were damaged in the Atlántico Department: 693 in Malambo, 200 in Candelaria, and 150 in Carreto. [50]

An estimated 70 percent of Cartagena saw flooding due to the direct effects of Iota, [51] affecting an estimated 155,000 people. [52] Numerous homes were damaged or destroyed by floods and landslides. [43] Two people died in the San Pedro neighborhood when the motorcycle they were riding was swept into a canal. [42] City officials converted the Coliseo de Combate into a shelter capable of accommodating 200 people. [53]

Providencia and San Andrés

On November 15–16, Iota passed close to the outlying Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina as a Category 5 hurricane. [40] [54] The center of the hurricane's eye missed Providencia by 11 miles (18 km), but the storm still made a direct hit (rather than a landfall) on the island, causing damage described as "unprecedented" by President Iván Duque Márquez. [55] [41] This marked the first time a Category 5 hurricane struck the country directly. [40] Communication was lost with the island on November 16, lasting for over 20 hours. [54] [56] An estimated 98–99 percent of structures on the island were damaged or destroyed, [57] [41] [58] [59] including buildings constructed in the 15th century. [60] Every home on the island suffered damage, with 80 percent being destroyed. [40] One person was killed and six were injured on the island. [61] Two shelters were known to have lost their roof before communication was lost. [54] The situation on the island was difficult to ascertain as of November 17, though the island's hospital was assumed destroyed or rendered inoperable. [41] Although debris covered runways at El Embrujo Airport, initially preventing aircraft from arriving or leaving, [41] by November 17 it was operational enough to allow President Duque to visit and assess the damage of the island. [62]

On San Andrés, torrential rains and large swells caused extensive flooding. Seawater rose up to 9.8 ft (3 m). Powerful winds uprooted numerous trees, some of which fell on homes, and several homes lost their roof. [54] [63] Communications with San Andrés were temporarily lost during the storm and approximately 60 percent of the island lost power. Flooding reached a depth of 6 in (15 cm) at the Gustavo Rojas Pinilla International Airport, preventing usage of the runways. [63] One person was killed on the island. [60]

Central America

Nicaragua

Nearly 44,000 homes suffered total or partial damage in Nicaragua, said Nicaraguan Finance Minister Ivan Acosta, estimating the storms have cost the country $743 million in losses, according to government media site El 19 [64]

Category 4 Iota just prior to landfall south of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua Iota 2020-11-17 0010Z.jpg
Category 4 Iota just prior to landfall south of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua

Iota made landfall in Nicaragua as a high-end Category 4 hurricane near the town of Haulover, just south of Puerto Cabezas, on November 16, only 15 miles (25 km) south of where Hurricane Eta made landfall 13 days prior. [24] As Iota was moving ashore, Puerto Cabezas airport reported sustained winds of 72 knots (85 mph; 135 km/h) with gusts to 98 knots (115 mph; 180 km/h) at 02:53 UTC on November 17. Damage reports, however, were extremely limited due to damage the area sustained previously from Hurricane Eta. These reports were also limited due to most communications to Puerto Cabezas being knocked out during the storm. [65] An amateur radio from Club de Radio-Experimentadores de Nicaragua (CREN) reported winds of 124 mph (200 km/h) winds and damaged roofs, although it was unclear whether these were sustained winds or wind gusts. [26] The roof was torn off of a makeshift hospital that was serving as a replacement to an older hospital, requiring an evacuation of the patients there. [66]

A total of 160,233 homes lost power in Nicaragua and 47,638 families lost water service. The Instituto Nicaragüense de Telecomunicaciones y Correos|es reported loss of telephone service to 35 communities. [67]

Torrential rains on already saturated soils led to extensive flooding and landslides. At least 28 people died in relation to the hurricane while 29 others are missing. [4] Two children were swept away by a river in Santa Teresa, Carazo, while three other members of their family went missing; a sixth family member was rescued. A landslide killed two people in Wiwilí de Jinotega and another person died in Quilalí. In Wiwilí, fears arose over the safety of residents who evacuated into the mountains to escape flooding as numerous landslides occurred in the region. [36] On November 17, at least 30 people were buried in a landslide in Macizo de Penas Blancas, and a boy was found buried. The next day, four more bodies were recovered, including one of a baby. [68] On November 23 a passenger truck plunged off a road in a mountainous area that had been devastated by Iota, the accident cause the deaths of 17 people and 25 injuries. [69] A preliminary damage estimate places the damages at 12.3 billion córdobas ($352.5 million USD). [5]

Honduras

Together Eta and Iota have killed around 100 Hondurans and local analysts estimate the damage will cost the country more than 10 billion dollars (L244.1 billion). [70]

Iota produced heavy rainfall over portions of Honduras, causing a river to overflow in Tocoa. Mudslides and downed trees were also reported in portions of the country. [71] La Ceiba, Honduras reported a wind gust of 58 mph (93 km/h). [72] At least 16 people have died and one other is missing as a result of impacts from Iota in Honduras. [2] Landslides were the primary cause of fatalities; one in San Manuel Colohete killed eight people and another in Los Trapiches killed five people. [2] Teonela Paisano Wood, the mayor of Brus Laguna, stated concerns that continued rainfall pose a large threat to the town. Various concrete and wooden houses were reduced to rubble. [73] As of the morning of November 18, COPECO reported 366,123 people were directly affected by the hurricane. [2] 80% of Copán Ruinas' roads were rendered impassible due to mudslides and flash flooding. The Ramón Villeda Morales International Airport is expected to be remained closed until mid-December. The passenger terminal experienced severe damages, and estimated repair times are more than a month. [74]

Panama

Officials in Panama said one person was killed in Nole Duima in the Ngäbe-Buglé Comarca. Another person was missing in Soloy, also in the region. [66]

Mexico

The states of Chiapas, Tabasco, and Veracruz all experienced effects from Iota's rainfall. Cumulative total across the three states were nearly 297,000 affected people, as well as almost 59,000 homes being damaged. Blocked roads cut off access to 135 communities. [6]

Aftermath

Spreading of disease, ranging from colds and skin rashes to gastrointestinal problems has become much more common. Other infection rates of illnesses such as Dengue fever and COVID are increasing as well. Some are refusing to be tested for COVID due to fears of being refused shelter due to infection. People in need of medications have not been able to get them. [75]

Colombia

Following restoration of communication with Providencia on November 16, President Duque pledged immediate aid to the island. [41] A state of emergency was declared for a year. [61] Rough seas on November 17 prevented the Colombian Navy from reaching the island, though Duque was able to fly by helicopter for an aerial survey. Two field hospitals and 4,000 tents were to be set up on the island. [41] Emphasis was placed on evacuating critical injuries to the mainland before establishing the field hospitals. [35] By November 19, 112 people were airlifted from the island. [61] The Colombian military deployed engineers and 15 tons of food. Duque stated that a plan for the complete reconstruction of Providencia's infrastructure was to be drawn up within 100 days and that all of the destroyed housing would be rebuilt by 2022. [35] Duque pledged 150 billion pesos (US$41 million) for infrastructure repair. [61] The relative lack of casualties in Providencia is attributed to residents adhering to warnings and seeking refuge in sturdy structures or interior bathrooms. [60]

Opposition to Duque criticized him for not evacuating Providencia ahead of the storm. [35]

On November 18, the Government of Colombia pledged 500 billion pesos (US$136 million) for recovery efforts in Bolívar and Cartagena. [76]

Nicaragua

Nicaragua's power company, Enatrel, dispatched more than 100 crews to the Caribbean Coast to restore electricity. By November 17, nearly half of the outages were restored. [67]

Operation USA began preparations for relief efforts on November 17. [77] Nicaragua's army had sent 100 rescuers to a site where a landslide caused damage. Downed trees blocking the road hampered the effort. [78] About 1,000 food kits will be delivered, as well as recreational activities for sheltered children. The food kits will be available until the government is able to provide adequate food support. 1,000 hygiene kits, which include laundry soap, hand and dish soap, bleach, and toilet paper will be given. Families will also receive purified water, face masks, blankets, buckets, plastic sheets, eggs and beef (the last two for preferred protein sources). [79]

Honduras

As of November 25, 2.5 million people had limited or no access to health services due to impacts. Officials have reported that more than 4 million people have been affected by Eta and Iota. Project HOPE has given shipments of Personal protective equipment, 50,000 masks, as well as items for the WASH project. 185,000 people have been displaced. 10 health facilities have reported a complete loss of cold-chain equipment, which hampered preparations made for distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. [80]

Guatemala

Immediate support for 1,000 people will be given. Money will be used to purchase food, hygiene kits, and COVID-19 protection for families.

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Adrian (2005)

Hurricane Adrian was an early season hurricane which took an unusual southwest to northeast track, bringing it closer to El Salvador than any other hurricane since reliable records began in 1949. The first storm of the 2005 Pacific hurricane season, Adrian developed on May 17, just two days after the official start of the season, several hundred miles south-southeast of Mexico. Tracking in an atypical northwestward direction, the storm gradually intensified. On May 19, the storm reached its peak strength as a minimal hurricane with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). Not long after reaching this intensity, the storm abruptly weakened. By the morning of May 20, the system had weakened to a minimal tropical storm and turned due west. Later that day, the storm made landfall along the Gulf of Fonseca in Honduras before dissipating several hours later.

Hurricane Felix

Hurricane Felix was the southernmost landfalling Category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic, surpassing Hurricane Edith of 1971. It was the sixth named storm, second hurricane, and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. Felix formed from a tropical wave on August 31, passing through the southern Windward Islands on September 1 before strengthening to attain hurricane status. On the next day, Felix rapidly strengthened into a major hurricane, and early on September 3 it was upgraded to Category 5 status; at 2100 UTC on the same day, the hurricane was downgraded to Category 4 status, but strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane for the second and final time by the morning of September 4.

2011 Pacific hurricane season

The 2011 Pacific hurricane season was a below average season in terms of named storms and hurricanes, although it had an above average number of major hurricanes. During the season, 13 tropical depressions formed along with 11 tropical storms, 10 hurricanes and six major hurricanes. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

Hurricane Beta Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Beta was a compact and intense tropical cyclone that impacted the southwestern Caribbean in late October 2005. Beta was the twenty-fourth tropical storm, fourteenth hurricane, and seventh and final major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. On October 21, a developing tropical wave entered the eastern Caribbean Sea and spawned Tropical Storm Alpha the following day. As the wave entered the southwestern Caribbean, convection redeveloped and on October 26, the system spawned another low-pressure area which developed into Tropical Depression Twenty-six. The depression intensified into a tropical storm the next morning and was named Beta. By the morning of October 28, the storm intensified into a hurricane, the fourteenth of the season. Beta underwent rapid intensification for several hours to attain its peak intensity with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) on October 30. The storm began to deteriorate before landfall, weakening to Category 2 status as it crossed the Nicaraguan coastline. Rapid weakening followed landfall, and the storm dissipated early the next morning.

Hurricane Ida

Hurricane Ida was the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone during the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season, crossing the coastline of Nicaragua with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). The remnants of the storm became a powerful nor'easter that caused widespread damage along coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic States. Ida formed on November 4 in the southwestern Caribbean, and within 24 hours struck the Nicaragua coast with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). It weakened significantly over land, although it restrengthened in the Yucatán Channel to peak winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). Hurricane Ida weakened and became an extratropical cyclone in the northern Gulf of Mexico before spreading across the southeastern United States. The remnants of Ida contributed to the formation of a nor'easter that significantly affected the eastern coast of the United States.

2020 Atlantic hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2020

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record and the seventh costliest on record. In addition, it was the fifth consecutive above average Atlantic hurricane season from 2016 onward, though it was the first extremely active season since 2017. The season featured a total of 31 (sub)tropical cyclones, all but one of which became a named storm. Of the 30 named storms, 13 developed into hurricanes, and six further intensified into major hurricanes, with one, Hurricane Iota, attaining Category 5 strength on the Saffir–Simpson scale. It was the second season to use the Greek letter storm naming system, the first being 2005. Of the 30 named storms, 12 made landfall in the contiguous United States, breaking the record of nine set in 1916. The season was also the fifth consecutive season in which at least one Category 5 hurricane formed. During the season, 27 tropical storms have broken the record for the earliest formation by storm number. This season has also featured a record 10 tropical cyclones that have undergone rapid intensification, tying it with 1995. This unprecedented activity was fueled by a La Niña that developed in the summer months of 2020.

Hurricane Otto

Hurricane Otto was the first tropical cyclone since Hurricane Cesar–Douglas in 1996 to survive the crossover from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Forming late on November 20 in the southwestern Caribbean Sea, Otto was the fifteenth and final named storm, seventh hurricane and fourth major hurricane of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season. It quickly intensified into a strong tropical storm the next day, and on November 23–24, rapidly strengthened into a Category 3 major hurricane, the first in the month of November since Hurricane Paloma in 2008, and the latest date an Atlantic hurricane attained such intensity on record. Otto made landfall in Nicaragua at peak intensity on November 24, thus becoming the latest hurricane to make landfall in the Atlantic basin since 1851 when records began. Traveling along the Nicaragua–Costa Rica border, the system rapidly weakened to a tropical storm before emerging over the eastern Pacific Ocean, becoming the final storm of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season as well. Hostile environmental conditions inhibited reorganization, and Otto subsequently degenerated into an elongated trough on November 26.

2020 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2020

The 2020 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since 2010. The season was near-average in terms of named storms, featuring a total of 16 named storms; but had a well below average number of hurricanes and major hurricanes with merely 4 hurricanes and 3 major hurricanes forming, the fewest since 2010. Despite this, it featured the earliest start to a season east of 140°W on record, with Tropical Depression One-E forming on April 25, surpassing Tropical Storm Adrian in 2017 by two weeks. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific and they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year, as shown by the record-early formation of Tropical Depression One-E.

Hurricane Lorena (2019) Category 1 hurricane that made landfall on Mexico

Hurricane Lorena was a strong tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall, flooding, and mudslides to Southwestern Mexico and the Baja California Peninsula in September 2019. Lorena was the thirteenth named storm and seventh and final hurricane of 2019 Pacific hurricane season. Lorena formed from the stronger of two disturbances off the coast of Mexico. The disturbance closest to Mexico became Tropical Storm Lorena, while the other disturbance became Tropical Storm Mario. Lorena strengthened in a favorable environment, and made landfall as a 75 mph Category 1 hurricane in southwestern Mexico on September 18, but weakened back to a tropical storm due to land interaction. However, after moving back over water between Baja California Sur and mainland Mexico, Lorena re-strengthened into a hurricane, and reached its peak intensity with 85 mph winds and a minimum barometric pressure of 986 millibars. Lorena made a second landfall on Baja California Sur, and quickly weakened thereafter. Lorena degenerated to a remnant low over the Gulf of California. The remnant low moved inland over Mexico and quickly dissipated.

Tropical Storm Amanda (2020) Pacific tropical storm in 2020

Tropical Storm Amanda was a short-lived but devastating tropical cyclone that is regarded as the worst natural disaster in El Salvador since Hurricane Mitch. Amanda caused deadly flooding and landslides across Central America and Mexico in late-May 2020 that killed 40 people. The second tropical cyclone and first named storm of the 2020 Pacific hurricane season, Amanda developed out of a broad area of low pressure associated with a tropical wave, that moved off the coast of Nicaragua on May 26. The disturbance slowly developed a more well defined circulation and on May 30, and the system was designated as Tropical Depression Two-E. Originally expected not to significantly strengthen, nevertheless it compacted and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Amanda at 09:00 UTC the next day. Three hours later, Amanda made landfall in southeast Guatemala, the first tropical cyclone to make landfall along that nation's Pacific coast since Tropical Storm Agatha in 2010. Once inland, Amanda rapidly weakened and dissipated over the region's rough terrain. However, the system's remnants survived, crossing Central America and Mexico and re-organized into Tropical Storm Cristobal in the Atlantic.

Hurricane Genevieve (2020) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Genevieve was a strong tropical cyclone that almost made landfall on the Baja California Peninsula in August 2020. The twelfth tropical cyclone, seventh named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2020 Pacific hurricane season, Genevieve formed from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center (NHC) first started monitoring on August 10. The wave merged with a trough of low pressure on August 13, and favorable conditions allowed the wave to intensify into Tropical Depression Twelve-E at 15:00 UTC. Just six hours later the depression became a tropical storm and was given the name Genevieve. Genevieve quickly become a hurricane by August 17, and Genevieve began explosive intensification the next day. By 12:00 UTC on August 18, Genevieve reached its peak intensity with winds of 130 mph and a pressure of 950 mbar. Genevieve began to weaken the next day possibly due to cooler waters caused by Hurricane Elida, earlier that month. Genevieve weakened below tropical storm status around 18:00 UTC on August 20, as it passed close to Baja California Sur. Soon after, Genevieve began to lose its deep convection and became a post-tropical cyclone by 21:00 UTC on August 21, eventually dissipating off the coast of Southern California late on August 24.

Hurricane Marco (2020) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Marco was the first of two tropical cyclones to threaten the Gulf Coast of the United States within a three-day period, with the other being Hurricane Laura. The thirteenth named storm and third hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Marco developed from a fast-moving tropical wave west of the Windward Islands and south of Jamaica on August 20. The fast motion of the wave inhibited intensification initially, but as the wave slowed down and entered a more favorable environment, the system developed into a tropical depression, which in turn rapidly intensified into a strong tropical storm. Due to strong wind shear, Marco's intensification temporarily halted; however, after entering the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico on August 23, Marco briefly intensified into a hurricane, only to quickly weaken later that evening due to another increase in wind shear. Marco made landfall near the mouth of the Mississippi River on the evening of August 24, as a weak tropical storm and subsequently weakened to a tropical depression before becoming a remnant low early on the next morning. Marco's remnants subsequently dissipated on August 26.

Hurricane Nana (2020) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Nana was a minimal Category 1 hurricane that caused moderate damage across the countries of Belize and Guatemala in early September 2020. The sixteenth tropical cyclone, fourteenth named storm, and the fifth hurricane of the very active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Nana originated from a tropical wave near the Lesser Antilles. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) began tracking the wave on August 27, giving it a low chance of formation. Contrary to predictions, the wave rapidly organized, though data failed to locate a closed circulation, and the system was not designated a tropical cyclone. However, the system continued organizing, and data from a hurricane hunter aircraft recorded tropical storm force winds along with a closed circulation; the NHC subsequently named the system Tropical Storm Nana on September 1. Nana rapidly intensified that day, though wind shear increased early the next day, preventing the storm from intensifying further. However, early on September 3, reconnaissance aircraft found that Nana had strengthened into a hurricane just before making landfall in Southern Belize. After landfall, it began to rapidly weaken. Early on September 4, its low-level center dissipated and it degenerated into a mid-level remnant low. The remnants moved into the Eastern Pacific, where they reformed into Tropical Storm Julio.

Hurricane Sally Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Sally was a destructive Atlantic hurricane which became the first hurricane to make landfall in the U.S. state of Alabama since Ivan in 2004, coincidentally on the same date. The eighteenth named storm, and seventh hurricane of the extremely active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Sally formed out of an area of disturbed weather which was first monitored over the Bahamas on September 10. The system grew a broad area of low-pressure on September 11, and was designated as a tropical depression late that day. Early the next day, the depression made landfall at Key Biscayne, and subsequently strengthened into Tropical Storm Sally that afternoon. Moderate northwesterly shear prevented significant intensification for the first two days, but convection continued to grow towards the center and Sally slowly intensified. On September 14, a center reformation into the center of the convection occurred, and data from a hurricane hunter reconnaissance aircraft showed that Sally rapidly intensified into a strong Category 1 hurricane. It further intensified into a Category 2 hurricane that evening. However, an increase in wind shear and upwelling of colder waters weakened Sally slightly back down to Category 1 on September 15. Despite this increase in wind shear, it unexpectedly re-intensified, reaching Category 2 status again early on September 16 before making landfall at peak intensity at 09:45 UTC on September 16 near Gulf Shores, Alabama, with maximum sustained winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). The storm rapidly weakened after landfall, becoming a remnant low early the next day.

Hurricane Teddy Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Teddy was a large and powerful Cape Verde hurricane that was the fourth-largest Atlantic hurricane by diameter of gale-force winds recorded and produced large swells along the coast of the Eastern United States and Atlantic Canada in September 2020. The twentieth tropical depression, nineteenth named storm, eighth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the extremely active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Teddy initially formed from a tropical depression that developed from a tropical wave on September 12. Initially, the depression's large size and moderate wind shear kept it from organizing, but it eventually intensified into Tropical Storm Teddy on September 14. After steadily intensifying for about a day, the storm rapidly became a Category 2 hurricane on September 16 before moderate wind shear caused the storm to fluctuate in intensity. It then rapidly intensified again on September 17 and became a Category 4 hurricane. Internal fluctuations and eyewall replacement cycles then caused the storm to fluctuate in intensity before it weakened some as it approached Bermuda. After passing east of the island as a Category 1 hurricane on September 21, Teddy restrengthened back to Category 2 strength due to baroclinic forcing. It weakened back down to Category 1 hurricane the next day before becoming a post-tropical as it approached Atlantic Canada early on September 23. It then weakened to a gale-force low and made landfall in Nova Scotia with winds of 65 mph. It executed a large loop as it accelerated first northward then eastward north of Newfoundland, briefly strengthening back to a storm-force low before weakening again and losing its identity on September 27.

Hurricanes in Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Tropical cyclones are common in the country, with an average of one storm a year. The coast is especially subject to destructive tropical storms and hurricanes, particularly from July through October. The high winds and floods, accompanying these storms often cause considerable destruction of property. Hurricanes or heavy rains in the central highlands where agriculture has destroyed much of the natural vegetation also cause considerable crop damage and soil erosion. One of the deadliest hurricanes to hit Nicaragua has been Hurricane Mitch in 1998, in which the storm killed thousands in the country.

Hurricane Delta Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Delta was the record-tying fourth named storm of 2020 to strike Louisiana, as well as the record-breaking tenth named storm to strike the United States in that year. The twenty-sixth tropical cyclone, twenty-fifth named storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Delta formed from a tropical wave which was first monitored by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) on October 1. Moving westward, the tropical wave began to quickly organize and due to its imminent threat to land, it was designated a potential tropical cyclone late on October 4. The next day, the system sufficiently organized and was designated as Tropical Depression Twenty-six and soon thereafter, Tropical Storm Delta. Extremely rapid intensification ensued throughout October 5 into October 6, with Delta becoming a Category 4 hurricane within 28 hours of attaining tropical storm status. The rate of intensification was the fastest in the Atlantic basin since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. After peaking in intensity however, an unexpected slight increase in wind shear greatly disrupted the small core of Delta and the storm quickly weakened before making landfall in Puerto Morelos, Mexico, as a high-end Category 2 hurricane with 110 miles per hour. It weakened some more over land before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico, where it was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane. After that, it began to restrengthen, regaining Category 3 status late on October 8. It then turned northward and reached a secondary peak intensity of 953 mb and winds of 120 mph early on October 9. Delta then began to turn more north-northeastward into an area of cooler waters, higher wind shear, and dry air, causing it to weaken back to Category 2 status. Delta then made landfall at 23:00 UTC near Creole, Louisiana with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) and a pressure of 970 mb (28.64 inHg). The storm began to weaken more rapidly after landfall, becoming post-tropical just 22 hours later.

Hurricane Zeta Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Zeta was the record-tying sixth hurricane to make landfall in the United States and the record fifth named storm to strike Louisiana in 2020. The system was also the first tropical cyclone since Hurricane Sandy in 2012 to produce accumulating snow and one of only four tropical cyclones since 1804 to do so. The twenty-seventh named storm and eleventh hurricane of the exceptionally active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Zeta formed from a broad area of low pressure that formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 19. After battling wind shear, the quasi-stationary low organized into Tropical Depression Twenty-Eight on October 24. The system strengthened into Tropical Storm Zeta early on October 25 before becoming a hurricane the next day as it began to move northwestward. Hurricane Zeta made landfall in the Yucatán Peninsula late on October 26 and weakened while inland to a tropical storm, before moving off the northern coast of the peninsula on October 27. After weakening due to dry air, Zeta reorganized and became a hurricane again, and eventually a Category 2 hurricane, as it turned northeastward approaching the U.S. Gulf Coast on October 28. It continued to strengthen until it reached its peak intensity of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 970 mbar (28.64 inHg) as it made landfall in Cocodrie, Louisiana, that evening. Zeta gradually weakened as it accelerated northeastward, and became post-tropical on October 29, as it moved through central Virginia. After bringing accumulating snow to parts of New England, Zeta accelerated across the north Atlantic, re-intensifying into a hurricane-force extratropical cyclone as it impacted the United Kingdom on November 1 and 2.

Hurricane Eta Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Eta was a devastating Category 4 hurricane that wreaked havoc across parts of Central America in early November 2020. The record-tying twenty-eighth named storm, twelfth hurricane and fifth major hurricane of the extremely active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Eta originated from a vigorous tropical wave in the eastern Caribbean Sea on October 31. The system rapidly organized as it progressed west, with the cyclone ultimately becoming a Category 4 hurricane on November 3. With a peak intensity of 150 mph (240 km/h) and 923 mbar, it was the third most intense November Atlantic hurricane on record behind the 1932 Cuba hurricane and Hurricane Iota just two weeks later. Some weakening took place as the system made landfall near Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, late that same day. Eta rapidly weakened to a tropical depression as it meandered across Central America for two days before moving north over water. It later reorganized over the Caribbean as it accelerated toward Cuba on November 7. Over the next five days, the system moved erratically, moving through the Florida Keys and stalling in the southern Gulf of Mexico, its intensity fluctuating along the way. After briefly regaining hurricane strength it weakened once more and accelerated across the Southeastern United States on November 12. It soon became extratropical and dissipated off the Eastern United States the next day.

References

  1. 1 2 Digital, Por Edición (November 18, 2020). "EN VIVO | Iota deja al menos 16 muertos en Nicaragua, según fuentes oficiales". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Ariel Trigueros (November 18, 2020). "A la fecha se registran 16 hondureños muertos tras paso de Iota". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 Andrea Sosa Cabrios (November 19, 2020). "Death toll from storm Iota rises past 45 in Central, South America". bakersfield.com. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  4. 1 2 "Monitoreo Azul y Blanco reporta 28 muertos por el huracán Iota en Nicaragua". Confidencial (in Spanish). November 21, 2020. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
  5. 1 2 3 "Pérdidas por huracanes superan los 18 mil millones de córdobas". La Gente | Radio La Primerísima (in Spanish). November 19, 2020. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  6. 1 2 Situation Report (November 20, 2020). "Latin America & The Caribbean: 2020 Hurricane Season Situation Report No. 4". reliefweb.int. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  7. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  8. "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  9. 1 2 "NHC Graphical Outlook Archive". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  10. Pedersen, Joe Mario (November 13, 2020). "31st tropical depression of record season to form, Eta chills out as an extratropical low". orlandosentinel.com.
  11. Brown, Daniel. "Tropical Depression Thirty-One Advisory Number 1". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  12. Brown, Daniel. "Tropical Storm Iota Discussion Number 2". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  13. 1 2 "Tropical Storm Iota Intermediate Advisory Number 5A". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  14. "Hurricane Iota Intermediate Advisory Number 7A". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  15. "Hurricane Iota Intermediate Advisory Number 10A". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  16. "Hurricane Iota Intermediate Advisory Number 11A". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  17. "Hurricane Iota Discussion Number 12". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  18. "Some wild reports from the 16 mile wide eye of major #Hurricane #Iota. 8ºC/14ºF temperature increase inside the eye, along with notation of frequent lightning in the southwest eyewall and hail. Hail is very rare in hurricanes at that flight level; really bizarre and intense". Twitter. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  19. "Hail is very rare in hurricanes for several reasons: – Hurricanes are wicked warm even at mid-levels due to hefty release of latent heat – Updrafts weaker than in supercells – If hail fell, sideways winds would blow it around while falling, giving time to melt before surface". Twitter. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  20. "Hurricane Iota Tropical Cyclone Update". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  21. 1 2 "Hurricane Iota Advisory Number 13". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  22. "Hurricane Iota Discussion Number 13". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  23. John Cangialosi; Dave Roberts (November 17, 2020). "Hurricane Iota Advisory Number 15". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  24. 1 2 Stacy Stewart and Andrew Latto (November 16, 2020). Hurricane Iota Tropical Cyclone Update. www.nhc.noaa.gov (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  25. Emily Shapiro, Max Golembo (November 17, 2020). "Record-breaking Hurricane Iota to bring dangerous flooding to Central America". abcnews.go.com. ABC News. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  26. 1 2 Stacy R. Stewart (November 17, 2020). "Hurricane Iota Discussion Number 16". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  27. Eric S. Blake (November 17, 2020). "Tropical Storm Iota Intermediate Advisory Number 17A". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  28. Stacy R. Stewart (November 18, 2020). "Tropical Depression Iota Discussion Number 20". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  29. Stacy R. Stewart (November 18, 2020). "Tropical Depression Iota Advisory Number 20...Corrected". www.nhc.noaa.gov. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  30. Richard Pasch (November 18, 2020). "Remnants of Iota Discussion Number 21". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  31. "Tropical Storm Iota Advisory Number 5". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  32. "Tropical Storm Iota Advisory Number 6". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  33. "Tropical Storm Iota Advisory Number 7". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  34. Hurricane Iota lands a new blow onto Central America, Oxfam ready to respond (Report). ReliefWeb. Oxfam. November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Iota: los destrozos y el impacto del huracán convertido en tormenta a su paso por el Caribe y Centroamérica" (in Spanish). BBC News. November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  36. 1 2 Goeovanny Shiffman, Leonor Álvarez, and Lésber Quintero (November 17, 2020). "Seis muertos y 63 mil evacuados en Nicaragua por Iota". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved November 17, 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  37. CBS, AP (November 17, 2020). "Hurricane Iota makes landfall over Nicaragua as an "extremely dangerous" Category 4 storm". cbsnews.com. CBS News. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  38. Anthony Harrup (November 17, 2020). "Hurricane Iota Tears Across Nicaragua". wsj.com. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  39. Hurricane Eta & Iota Situation Report #2 (Report). ReliefWeb. Project HOPE. November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  40. 1 2 3 4 "Dos muertos y un desaparecido, el balance del paso de Iota por Providencia". El País (in Spanish). November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Huracán Iota: devastación en Providencia, daños en Nicaragua y alto riesgo en Honduras y Guatemala" (in Spanish). CNN Español. November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  42. 1 2 Laura Vanessa Rosales Castro (November 17, 2020). "Dos muertos dejó el paso del huracán Iota en Cartagena" (in Spanish). RCN Radio. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 "Las torrenciales lluvias del huracán Iota causan desastres en Colombia". La Tribuna (in Spanish). November 15, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  44. Carlos Mario Marquez (November 18, 2020). "La tempête tropicale Iota s'affaiblit après avoir fait 38 morts". La Presse (in French). Agence France-Presse. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  45. AFP (November 27, 2020). "Eta and Iota left 200 dead, millions in financial losses across Central America". ticotimes.net. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  46. TV, Vos. "Vos TV". Vostv.com.ni (in Spanish). Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  47. Mariana Souquett Gil (November 15, 2020). "Lluvias generaron inundaciones en la población de Santa Ana en Falcón" (in Spanish). Effect Cocuyo. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  48. "Fuertes lluvias causaron inundación en el sector Los Lagos de Los Teques". El Nacional (in Spanish). November 14, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  49. 1 2 3 "Ola invernal en Colombia: Lluvias en 25 departamentos por 'La Niña' y el huracán Iota". El País (in Spanish). Colprensa. November 15, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  50. 1 2 3 "Inundaciones, muertos y cientos de afectados dejan las lluvias en Colombia" (in Spanish). Noticias RCN. November 14, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  51. "Inundaciones en Colombia: 3 muertos" (in Spanish). Turkish Radio. November 15, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  52. "Declaran calamidad pública en Cartagena: Iota deja hasta ahora 155.000 damnificados" (in Spanish). Infobae. November 15, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  53. "Cartagena declara calamidad pública por lluvias e inundaciones". El Tiempo (in Spanish). November 15, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  54. 1 2 3 4 "El huracán Iota deja incomunicada a la isla colombiana de Providencia" (in Spanish). Yahoo! News. EFE. November 16, 2020. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  55. "Ojo del huracán Iota estuvo a 18 kilómetros de Providencia: Ideam". El País (in Spanish). November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  56. "Por un baño: así se salvó un hombre durante el paso de Iota por Providencia". RCN Radio (in Spanish). November 18, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  57. "Twitter". mobile.twitter.com.
  58. "Huracán: Un muerto y 98% de infraestructura de Providencia, afectada". El Tiempo (in Spanish). November 16, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  59. "Confirman que hay deterioro del 98% en infraestructura de Providencia". El Tiempo (in Spanish). November 16, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  60. 1 2 3 Daniel Pardo (November 18, 2020). "Huracán Iota: cómo se salvaron los habitantes de Providencia pese a que la tormenta lo "destruyó todo"" (in Spanish). BBC Mundo. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  61. 1 2 3 4 "$150 mil millones invertirán inicialmente para atender emergencia en Providencia". Vanguardia (in Spanish). November 19, 2020. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  62. "El presidente Iván Duque logró llegar al aeropuerto El Embrujo de la isla Providencia". La Repúblicas (in Spanish). November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  63. 1 2 "Tragedia en San Andrés: así fueron las peores 24 horas de su historia". El Tiempo (in Spanish). November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  64. Post, The Jakarta. "Hurricanes Eta, Iota hit Nicaragua with $743 million in economic losses". The Jakarta Post.
  65. Madeline Holcombe, Amir Vera, Elliot C. McLaughlin (November 17, 2020). "Iota considered the strongest hurricane in history to hit Nicaragua, government says". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved November 18, 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  66. 1 2 "Hurricane Eta Tears Off Roofs". The Weather Channel. November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  67. 1 2 "Sin agua, sin energía eléctrica, ni redes de comunicación. Costa Caribe Norte queda aislada por Iota". La Prensa (in Spanish). November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  68. TV, Vos. "Vos TV". Vostv.com.ni.
  69. "Passenger truck crash kills at least 17 in Nicaragua". CTVNews. November 23, 2020.
  70. Daniel Bellamy (November 21, 2020). "Hurricanes Iota and Eta deal Honduras a catastrophic double-blow". euronews.com. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  71. EFE (November 17, 2020). "Llueve en todo Honduras por Iota que entrará por oriente del país". radioamerica.hn (in Spanish). Honduras: Radio America. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  72. "Tropical Storm IOTA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  73. Press, Associated. "Hurricane Iota blasts Nicaraguan coast, floods parts of Honduras" via www.washingtonpost.com.
  74. Cappucci, Matthew. "Scenes of flooding, devastation lie in wake of monstrous Hurricane Iota" . Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  75. "In pictures: Hurricanes leave Hondurans homeless and destitute". BBC. November 29, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  76. "Bolívar y Cartagena recibirán inversiones por más de $500 mil millones". El Tiempo (in Spanish). November 18, 2020. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  77. Hurricane Iota response (Report). ReliefWeb. Operation USA. November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  78. Herrera, Carlos. "Iota's devastation comes into focus in storm-weary Nicaragua" . Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  79. Updated Emergency Appeal: Hurricanes Eta and Iota in Central America (Report). ReliefWeb. Church World Service. November 26, 2020. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  80. Hurricane Eta & Iota Situation Report #3 (Report). ReliefWeb. Project HOPE. November 25, 2020. Retrieved November 27, 2020.