|Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||September 13, 1964|
|Dissipated||September 24, 1964|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained: 130 mph (215 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||945 mbar (hPa); 27.91 inHg|
|Areas affected||East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada|
|Part of the 1964 Atlantic hurricane season|
Hurricane Gladys was a tropical cyclone that caused minor impact along the East Coast of the United States, Bermuda, and Atlantic Canada. The ninth named storm and fifth hurricane of the 1964 Atlantic hurricane season, Gladys developed from a tropical wave located east of the Lesser Antilles on September 13. Shortly thereafter, it strengthened into a tropical storm. On September 14, Gladys abruptly intensified into a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. However, early on the following day, Gladys weakened slightly to a Category 1 hurricane. Between late on September 16 and late on September 17, the storm rapidly strengthened, peaking as a 145 mph (230 km/h) Category 4 hurricane on the latter. Gladys began weakening on the following day and curved northward on September 19.
The storm turned northwestward on September 22 and briefly threatened the East Coast of the United States. However, it veered northeastward on September 23 and moved rapidly toward Atlantic Canada. By 0000 UTC on September 25, Gladys became extratropical while centered between Sable Island and Nova Scotia. Along the East Coast of the United States, Gladys produced light rainfall, gusty winds, and storm surge. Coastal flooding was reported in North Carolina and Virginia. In the former, high tides inundated homes and buildings with 2 feet (0.61 m) of water in two small villages on the Outer Banks and flooded a highway to Manteo. In the state of Virginia, one death occurred when a man was fatally struck in the throat by debris. Tides also effected the Mid-Atlantic, New England, and Atlantic Canada.
A tropical wave was first observed over western Africa on September 8 and moved offshore in the vicinity of Dakar, Senegal on the following day. At 0600 UTC on September 13, a tropical depression developed while centered about halfway between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles. Later that day, the S.S. Gerwi reported heavy rain and winds of 63 mph (101 km/h), confirming the existence of Tropical Storm Gladys at 1200 UTC on September 13. Four hours later, the Weather Bureau Office in San Juan, Puerto Rico initiated advisories on Gladys. A hurricane hunter plane flew into Gladys on the afternoon of September 13 was unable to obtain wind data due to darkness. A reconnaissance flight into the storm on September 14 noted that it had strengthened into a hurricane, while moving west-northwestward at about 18 mph (29 km/h). HURDAT records indicate that around that time, Gladys became a Category 2 hurricane as winds reached 100 mph (155 km/h). However, early on September 15, Gladys weakened slightly to a Category 1 hurricane.
Early on September 17, the storm began to rapidly intensify. By 1800 UTC, Gladys attained its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 945 mbar (27.9 inHg ). The storm later began to weaken and fell to a Category 3 hurricane early on September 19. Around that time, Gladys curved northward in response to a weak trough in the westerlies. Early on September 20, it further weakened to a Category 2 hurricane. Rising atmospheric pressures to the north forced the storm to curve northwestward on September 21. Later that day, Gladys weakened to a Category 1 hurricane. The storm posed a threat to the East Coast of the United States, and passed about 140 miles (230 km) east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, before a deepening low pressure area over the Great Lakes region caused it to veer northeastward. Gladys then accelerated and approached Atlantic Canada, before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone at 0000 UTC on September 25, while located between Nova Scotia and Sable Island. The extratropical remnants continued northeastward into Newfoundland and dissipated later on September 25.
As Gladys strengthened in the Atlantic Ocean, forecasters at the United States Weather Bureau predicted that the storm would bring high surf to areas as far north as North Carolina. Additionally, it was suggested that Gladys could have threatened northern Florida, as the storm was on a similar path as Hurricane Dora. As a result, residents along the coast of the Southeastern United States were advised to remain alert and small craft advisories were issued. 20, small craft advisories were issued for The Bahamas. After Gladys turned northwestward on September 21, forecasters at the United States Weather Bureau issued hurricane watches for North Carolina, Virginia, and some Mid-Atlantic states. Gale warnings and small craft advisories were issued on September 23 from Massachusetts to Rhode Island. In Rhode Island, ships of the United States Navy were diverted to Narragansett Bay as a precaution. At 0400 UTC on September 24, the gale warnings for New England were lowered as Gladys turned northeastward away from the coast however, small water craft were advised to remain in port until the seas subsided.On September
In the United States, Gladys produced high tides as far south as Florida and Georgia. inch (25.4 mm) in Myrtle Beach, as well as storm tides of 2 feet (0.6 m) above normal along the upper coast of South Carolina.Hurricane Gladys' effects on South Carolina was minimal as the center of the hurricane was a considerable distance from the coastline. The only effects Gladys was minor rainfall, peaking at 1
In North Carolina, the large wind field of Gladys produced tropical storm force winds near Manteo. Waves produced by the strong winds flooded a highway leading away from Manteo. 2 feet (0.61 m) of water. Near Cape Hatteras, a weather station recorded sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and gusts up to 41 mph (66 km/h). Additionally, tides in the area ranged from 2–2.5 feet (0.6-0.76 m) above normal. The abnormal tides and heavy wave action flooded two small villages, leaving many homes and buildings under 2 feet (0.6 m) of water and washed away grasses that were planted to stabilize the sand dunes. In Wilmington, sustained winds of 25 mph (40 km/h) and gusts of 28 mph (45 km/h) were reported, as well as tides 2–3 feet (0.6-0.9 m) above normal. Elsewhere in the Outer Banks, high winds caused a mobile home to fall off its foundations and blew down two television antennas.Between Kill Devil Hills and Nags Head, U.S. Route 158 was inundated by
A weather station in Norfolk, Virginia recorded gusts of 38–44 mph (61–71 km/h) and 0.17 inches (4.31 mm) of rainfall. In Cape Henry, sustained winds of 42 mph (68 km/h) and a precipitation total of 0.02 inches (0.5 mm) were reported. Coastal sections of southeastern Virginia experienced tides 2.2–6.1 feet (0.6–1.8 m) above normal, resulting in minor tidal flooding. One indirect fatality was attributed from Gladys when a man suffered fatal wounds to his throat due to flying debris. High winds and strong ocean currents from Gladys produced beach erosion in New Jersey, New York and Massachusetts. In Rhode Island, the outer bands of Gladys produced light rainfall, peaking at 0.38 inches (9.6 mm). A boy was washed into the sea by the waves offshore Narragansett and was rescued by United States Coast Guard servicemen, who dove into the water after two previous attempts to rescue him failed.
Hurricane Gladys produced rough seas that affected Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, the northern Leeward Islands and the northern Bahamas. mph (120 km/h) extratropical storm but no damage was reported. At St. John's Harbor, 65 ships took shelter as a precaution. Some ships suffered damage, including two foreign freighters.The outer bands of Gladys also lashed Bermuda with winds but little damage if any was reported. In Atlantic Canada, Gladys passed over Newfoundland as a 70
The 1959 Atlantic hurricane season had a then record-tying number of tropical cyclones – five – develop before August 1. The season was officially to begin on June 15, 1959 and last until November 15, 1959, the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin, however in actuality the season began early when Tropical Storm Arlene formed on May 28. Tropical Storm Arlene struck Louisiana and brought minor flooding to the Gulf Coast of the United States. The next storm, Beulah, formed in the western Gulf of Mexico and brought negligible impact to Mexico and Texas. Later in June, an unnamed hurricane, nicknamed the Escuminac disaster, caused minor damage in Florida and devastated coastal Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, after becoming extratropical. Hurricane Cindy brought minor impact to The Carolinas. In late July, Hurricane Debra produced flooding in the state of Texas. Tropical Storm Edith in August and Hurricane Flora in September caused negligible impact on land.
The 1963 Atlantic hurricane season featured one of the deadliest tropical cyclones on record in the Atlantic basin: Hurricane Flora. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was an season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of ten nameable storms. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed over the Bahamas on June 1. In late July, Hurricane Arlene, developed between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles. The storm later impacted Bermuda, where strong winds resulted in about $300,000 (1963 USD) in damage. Other storms such as hurricanes Beulah and Debra, as well as an unnamed tropical storm, did not impact land. During the month of September, Tropical Storm Cindy caused wind damage and flooding in Texas, leaving three deaths and approximately $12.5 million in damage. Hurricane Edith passed through the Lesser Antilles and the eastern Greater Antilles, causing 10 deaths and about $43 million in damage, most of which occurred on Martinique.
The 1964 Atlantic hurricane season featured the highest number of U.S.-landfalling hurricanes since 1933. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was above average, with thirteen named storms, seven hurricanes, and five major hurricanes. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed on June 2, almost two weeks before the official start of the season. Striking Florida on June 6, the storm brought localized flooding to portions of Cuba and the Southeastern United States, leaving about $1 million in damage. The next storm, also unnamed, developed near the end of July; it did not impact land.
The 1965 Atlantic hurricane season was the first to use the modern-day bounds for an Atlantic hurricane season, which are June 1 to November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a slightly below average season, with 10 tropical cyclones developing and reaching tropical storm intensity. Four of the storms strengthened into hurricanes. One system reached major hurricane intensity – Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed during the month of June in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The storm moved northward across Central America, but caused no known impact in the region. It struck the Florida Panhandle and caused minor impact across much of the Southern United States. Tropical cyclogenesis halted for over two months, until Anna formed on August 21. The storm remained well away from land in the far North Atlantic Ocean and caused no impact.
The 1968 Atlantic hurricane season was one of five Atlantic hurricane seasons during the satellite era not to feature a major hurricane, the others being 1972, 1986, 1994, and 2013, and was one of two to not feature a category 2 hurricane either, with the other being 2013. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a below average season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of eight nameable storms. The first system, Hurricane Abby, developed in the northwestern Caribbean on June 1. Abby moved northward and struck Cuba, bringing heavy rainfall and flooding to western portions of the island. Making landfall in Florida on June 4, Abby caused flooding and spawned four tornadoes, but left behind little damage. Overall, the hurricane resulted in six deaths and about $450,000 (1968 USD) in damage. In late June, Tropical Storm Candy brought minor flooding and spawned several tornadoes across portions of the Southern United States. Overall damage from the cyclone reached approximately $2.7 million.
The 1975 Atlantic hurricane season featured the first tropical storm to be upgraded to a hurricane based solely on satellite imagery – Hurricane Doris. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was near average, with nine tropical storms forming, of which six became hurricanes. Three of those six became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The first system, Tropical Depression One, developed on June 24. Tropical Storm Amy in July caused minor beach erosion and coastal flooding from North Carolina to New Jersey, and killed one person when a ship capsized offshore North Carolina. Hurricane Blanche brought strong winds to portions of Atlantic Canada, leaving about $6.2 million (1975 USD) in damage. Hurricane Caroline brought high tides and flooding to northeastern Mexico and Texas, with two drownings in the latter.
The 1955 Atlantic hurricane season was, at the time, the costliest season ever recorded, just ahead of the previous year. The hurricane season officially began on June 15, 1955, and ended on November 15, 1955. It was an extremely active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), but slightly above average in terms of tropical storms, with 13 recorded tropical cyclones. The first storm, Alice, had persisted since December 30, 1954. Alice caused relatively minor impact as it tracked through the Lesser Antilles and eastern Caribbean Sea in early January. Tropical Storm Brenda caused two deaths and minor damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States in early August. The quick succession of Hurricanes Connie and Diane caused significant flooding in the Northeastern United States, with nearly $1 billion (1955 USD) in losses and at least 232 fatalities. The next three storms – Hurricanes Edith and Flora and Tropical Storm Five – caused very minor or no impact. In early September, Hurricane Gladys caused severe localized flooding in Mexico, primarily in Mexico City. Additionally, an offshoot of Gladys inflicted minor impact in Texas.
The 1952 Atlantic hurricane season was the last Atlantic hurricane season in which tropical cyclones were named using the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet. It was a near normal Atlantic hurricane season, although it was the least active since 1946. The season officially started on June 15; however, a pre-season unnamed storm formed on Groundhog Day, becoming the only storm on record in the month of February. The other six tropical cyclones were named using the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet, the first of which formed on August 18. The final storm of the season dissipated on October 28, two and a half weeks before the season officially ended on November 15.
The 1942 Atlantic hurricane season was one of seven seasons to feature multiple hurricane landfalls in Texas. The season officially lasted from June 16, 1942, to October 31, 1942. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. A total of 11 tropical storms from 1943 are listed in the Atlantic hurricane database, with two additional tropical depressions. The first system of the year, a tropical depression, developed over the central Gulf of Mexico on June 3, while the last system, the Belize hurricane, dissipated over the Yucatán Peninsula on November 11. After the depression dissipated on June 3, the season remained dormant until the next system developed two months later. In mid-August, a hurricane struck Texas, causing about $790,000 (1942 USD) in damage.
The 1929 Atlantic hurricane season was among the least active hurricane seasons in the Atlantic on record – featuring only five tropical cyclones. Of these five tropical systems, three of them intensified into a hurricane, with one strengthening further into a major hurricane. The first tropical cyclone of the season developed in the Gulf of Mexico on June 27. Becoming a hurricane on June 28, the storm struck Texas, bringing strong winds to a large area. Three fatalities were reported, while damage was conservatively estimated at $675,000 (1929 USD).
The 1923 Atlantic hurricane season featured 11 tropical cyclones, 9 of which intensified into tropical storms, the most since 1916. Four of the tropical storms intensified into hurricanes, one of which reached major hurricane intensity—Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. No tropical storms or hurricanes formed in or entered the Caribbean Sea. The first known system, a tropical depression, formed on June 19, while the last known system, a tropical storm, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 26. A total of Additionally, an October tropical depression was previously recognized as a tropical storm until reanalysis in 2009, while the first and third tropical storms were added to the Atlantic hurricane database that year. The sixth, seven, and eight storms as well as the October tropical depression existed simultaneously on October 16.
The 1921 Atlantic hurricane season featured the most recent major hurricane to strike the Tampa Bay Area in Florida. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on June 1, while the last, a tropical storm, dissipated on November 25. Of note, three of the twelve cyclones co-existed with another tropical cyclone during the season.
The 1919 Atlantic hurricane season was among the least active hurricane seasons in the Atlantic on record, featuring only five tropical storms. Of those five tropical cyclones, two of them intensified into a hurricane, with one strengthening into a major hurricane Two tropical depressions developed in the month of June, both of which caused negligible damage. A tropical storm in July brought minor damage to Pensacola, Florida, but devastated a fleet of ships. Another two tropical depressions formed in August, the first of which brought rainfall to the Lesser Antilles.
The 1917 Atlantic hurricane season featured nine known tropical cyclones, four of which made landfall. The first system appeared on July 6 east of the Windward Islands. After crossing the islands and traversing the Caribbean Sea, the storm struck Honduras, Belize, and Mexico, before dissipating on July 14. After more than three weeks without tropical cyclogenesis, another tropical storm developed west of Bermuda. As the storm brushed eastern New England, four ships sank near Nantucket, causing 41 fatalities. The same cyclone brought damaging winds to Nova Scotia before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on August 10.
The 1913 Atlantic hurricane season was the third consecutive year with a tropical cyclone developing before June. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on May 5 while the last transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 30. Of note, the seventh and eighth cyclones existed simultaneously from August 30 to September 4.
The 1912 Atlantic hurricane season featured the first recorded major hurricane – Category 3 or higher on the modern day Saffir–Simpson scale – in the month of November. There were eleven tropical cyclones, seven of which became tropical storms; four of those strengthened into hurricanes, and one reached major hurricane intensity. The season's first cyclone developed on April 4, while the final dissipated on November 21. The season's most intense and most devastating tropical cyclone was the final storm, known as the Jamaica hurricane. It produced heavy rainfall on Jamaica, leading to at least 100 fatalities and about $1.5 million (1912 USD) in damage. The storm was also blamed for five deaths in Cuba.
The 1908 Atlantic hurricane season ran from June 1 to November 30 in 1908. These dates conventionally delimit the year in which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, this season got off to a very early start, with a Category 2 hurricane forming on March 6, making it the third earliest hurricane on record to form in the Atlantic Basin after Hurricane One in 1938 and Hurricane Alex in 2016. It is the only known Atlantic tropical cyclone to exist in the month of March. Another hurricane formed and existed during the last week of May, and became the earliest hurricane to hit the U.S. in recorded history. Cape Hatteras was affected by two hurricanes and one tropical storm this year. Overall, this season was near average with 10 tropical storms forming.
The 1901 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active season without a major hurricane – tropical cyclones that reach at least Category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale – until 2013. The first system was initially observed in the northeastern Caribbean Sea on June 11. The fourteenth and final system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone near Bermuda on November 5. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Eight of the fourteen tropical cyclones existed simultaneously.
The 1900 Atlantic hurricane season featured seven known tropical cyclones, three of which made landfall in the United States. The first system, Hurricane One, was initially observed on August 27. The final storm, Tropical Storm Seven, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 29. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Every storm of the season except Tropical Storm Seven existed simultaneously with another tropical cyclone.
The 1897 Atlantic hurricane season was an inactive season, featuring only six known tropical cyclones, four of which made landfall. There were three hurricanes, none of which strengthened into major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The first system was initially observed south of Cape Verde on August 31, an unusually late date. The storm was the strongest of the season, peaking as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h). While located well north of the Azores, rough seas by the storm sunk a ship, killing all 45 crewmen. A second storm was first spotted in the Straits of Florida on September 10. It strengthened into a hurricane and tracked northwestward across the Gulf of Mexico, striking Louisiana shortly before dissipating on September 13. This storm caused 29 deaths and $150,000 (1897 USD) in damage.