|1984 Atlantic hurricane season|
|First system formed||June 11, 1984|
|Last system dissipated||December 24, 1984|
|• Maximum winds||130 mph (215 km/h)|
|• Lowest pressure||949 mbar (hPa; 28.02 inHg)|
|Total fatalities||37–40 total|
|Total damage||$228.7 million (1984 USD)|
The 1984 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active since 1971, though the season was below average in hurricanes and major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1, 1984, and lasted until November 30, 1984. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The 1984 season was an active one in terms of named storms, but most of them were weak and stayed at sea. Most of the cyclones tracked through the northwest subtropical Atlantic west of the 50th meridian to near the Eastern coast of the United States between mid-August and early October. The most damaging storm was Hurricane Klaus, which caused $152 million (1984 dollars) in damage in Puerto Rico. Hurricane Diana was the first hurricane to strike a nuclear power plant without incident; it was also the first major hurricane to strike the U.S. East Coast in nearly 20 years. Also of note was Hurricane Lili, which lasted well after the official end of the season. It was downgraded from a named storm on December 24. Damage overall from the tropical cyclones in 1984 totaled $228.7 million (1984 USD). Unusually, no hurricanes developed from tropical waves in 1984, which usually are the source of the strongest storms in an Atlantic hurricane season.
|Record high activity||30||15||7|
|Record low activity||4||2||0†|
Forecasts of hurricane activity are issued before each hurricane season by noted hurricane experts such as Dr. William M. Gray and his associates at Colorado State University (CSU). named storms, with 6 of those reaching hurricane status. About 3 hurricanes strengthen into major hurricanes, which are tropical cyclones that reach at least Category 3 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson scale.A normal season, as defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the period from 1981 to 2010, has approximately 12
Early in 1984, the Weather Research Center (WRC) forecast called for a below-average season with seven named storms, with four of those strengthening into a hurricane. 24, 1984, forecasters at CSU predicted a near-average season with a total of 10 tropical storms developing, 7 of which would reach hurricane status. CSU based this prediction on the presence of an El Niño, the Quasi-biennial oscillation, and favorable sea-level pressures over the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. These numbers were unchanged in CSU's next season outlook, issued on July 30. None of these predictions included a forecast for the number of major hurricanes. Ultimately, the predictions issued by CSU proved to be too low, with 13 subtropical or tropical storms forming in 1984 and 5 of those reaching hurricane status.The May
Six storms during the season had subtropical characteristics at some point in their track, those being Subtropical Storm One,Tropical Storm Cesar, Hurricane Hortense, Hurricane Josephine, Hurricane Klaus, and Hurricane Lili.
The season's activity was reflected with a cumulative accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 84, mph (63 km/h), which is the threshold for tropical storm strength.which is classified as "near normal". ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. It is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 39
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 11 – June 14|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) ≤ 1016 mbar (hPa)|
By June 11, an upper-level low caused thunderstorm development off the Florida coast, which caused the formation of a tropical depression. Moving westward, the depression moved into St. Augustine, causing a total of 5.02 inches (128 mm) of rainfall at Jacksonville Beach, Florida, as its main thunderstorm activity was concentrated north of the center. It dissipated as a tropical cyclone on June 14 while moving through the Florida panhandle. The small remnant low continued moving westward inland of the Gulf coast, causing occasional redevelopment of thunderstorm activity as the system moved into Louisiana, before both the thunderstorm activity and low-pressure area dissipated by June 17.
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 18 – June 20|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1008 mbar (hPa)|
An upper-level low-pressure area traversing the southern Gulf of Mexico spawned convective activity over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on June 16. This convective area waxed and waned somewhat in intensity, until becoming a larger disturbance on June 18. A surface low soon formed, and around 12:00 UTC that day, the system developed into a tropical depression over the Bay of Campeche. With vertical wind shear preventing significant further intensification, the depression made landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas, with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h). The depression quickly dissipated over the mountainous terrain of eastern Mexico. The cyclone and its precursor dropped heavy rainfall in some areas, including a peak total of 11.43 in (290 mm) of precipitation in San Lucas Ojitlán, Oaxaca.
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 24 – July 26|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical depression formed about 800 mi (1,285 km) east of the Windward Islands on July 24. Moving west-northwestward, the depression passed between Martinique and Saint Lucia early on the following day. On the latter, the storm dropped up to 8 in (200 mm) of precipitation. The Castries River overflowed its banks, washing away three homes in the eastern section of Castries. Two commercial fisherman were reported missing. Barbados recorded up to 6 in (150 mm) of rainfall in association with the system. The depression entered the Caribbean Sea and failed to intensify further, dissipating about halfway between the Dominican Republic and Venezuela late on July 26.
|Subtropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 18 – August 21|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)|
A weak frontal trough generated a low-pressure system that organized into a subtropical depression north of Bermuda on August 18. The depression headed northeast and strengthened to a subtropical storm. It is believed to have merged with a front on August 21. The history of Subtropical Storm One is not entirely certain, as satellite images were largely unavailable due to a failure of the VISSR unit on GOES EAST (then GOES-5), and this system remained at the fringe of the GOES WEST and Meteosat throughout its existence. 65 mph (105 km/h) were reported on the southwest coast of Newfoundland. In addition, a weather office on the island reported rainfall at 2.1 in (53 mm).Wind gusts up to
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 28 – September 5|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 1004 mbar (hPa)|
A well-defined tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on August 23. Moving westward and later northwestward, the system remained to the south of a persistent shearing pattern that inhibited the development of several tropical waves. A reconnaissance aircraft flight indicated that a tropical depression formed late on August 28 roughly 700 mi (1,100 km) east of Trinidad. On the next day, another reconnaissance flight recorded tropical storm conditions, and thus, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Arthur. The cyclone attained its peak intensity several hours later with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1,004 mbar (29.6 inHg). Arthur was downgraded to a depression on September 1 after being negatively impacted by vertical wind shear, and dissipated on September 5 about halfway between the Bahamas and Bermuda. Despite its close proximity to the Lesser Antilles, Arthur caused no significant impact on land as it was a tropical depression at the time.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 30 – September 4|
|Peak intensity||40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1007 mbar (hPa)|
On August 26, a tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa. Tracking westward, the wave developed into a tropical depression about 1,170 mi (1,885 km) west-southwest of the southwesternmost islands of Cape Verde and in close proximity to the east of Arthur. A reconnaissance flight into the depression on August 31 indicated that it strengthened into Tropical Storm Bertha. Later that day, Bertha peaked as a minimal tropical storm with maximum sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1,007 mbar (29.7 inHg). The system moved northwestward due to a weakening high pressure ridge to the north. Based on observations from reconnaissance flights on September 1, Bertha was downgraded to a tropical depression. On September 2, Bertha turned north-northeastward into response to an approaching cold front. The cold front then eroded the high pressure ridge, causing the cyclone to accelerate northeastward. Bertha later merged with the cold front on September 4.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 31 – September 2|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 994 mbar (hPa)|
A second storm formed on August 31 as a non-tropical low strengthened into Tropical Storm Cesar off the East Coast of the United States. Cesar traveled east-northeast and strengthened gradually until it became extratropical and merged with another system off the coast of Newfoundland on September 2.
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 6 – September 8|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)|
A tropical wave moved across Central America into the far eastern north Pacific Ocean by August 28. The system moved westward with no signs of development until September 1, when an upper-level low to its north across the Gulf of Mexico caused an area of thunderstorms to form just south of the Mexican coastline. An upper trough developed across the southern Plains of the United States, which slowly lured the northern portion of this increasingly large disturbance northward through the Mexican Isthmus. The southern portion moved westward, developing into Hurricane Marie. For a short while, Marie acted as a source of vertical wind shear from the west for this system, halting further development.
By September 6, the disturbance had emerged into the southwest Gulf of Mexico and consolidated into a smaller system which had enough organization to be classified as a tropical depression, the seventh of the season. The depression moved north-northwest into northeast Mexico on the afternoon of September 7, dissipating completely on September 8.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 8 – September 16|
|Peak intensity||130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 949 mbar (hPa)|
On September 8, an extratropical cyclone organized into Tropical Storm Diana north of the Bahamas. Diana proved difficult for meteorologists to forecast, initially moving westward towards Cape Canaveral, but then turned to the north and paralleled the coastline. 2 hurricane on September 13. A weakened Tropical Storm Diana curved back out to sea and headed northeast until it became extratropical near Newfoundland on September 16.On September 11, the storm reached hurricane strength, and continued to intensify to a Category 4 hurricane. Diana moved north-northeast, and performed a small anti-cyclonic loop before striking near Cape Fear as a minimal Category
Damage estimates were set at $65.5 million. Three indirect deaths were associated with Diana. Diana was the first hurricane to strike a nuclear power plant — the Carolina Power and Light Brunswick Nuclear Power Plant recorded sustained hurricane-force winds, but there was no damage to the facility.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 14 – September 15|
|Peak intensity||65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 998 mbar (hPa)|
The origins of Tropical Storm Edouard are unclear, but an area of persistent organized storms formed in the Bay of Campeche, which strengthened into a tropical storm on September 14. Edouard rapidly intensified, with wind speeds reaching 65 miles per hour (105 km/h) in 18 hours as a faint eye feature became visible. Following its strengthening, Edouard dissipated even more quickly, degenerating into an area of thunderstorms the next day. The remnants of Edouard moved over land near the port of Veracruz.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 15 – September 20|
|Peak intensity||65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 994 mbar (hPa)|
On September 14, a well-defined tropical wave exited the coast of Africa. The next day, it had rapidly organized into a tropical depression. On the afternoon of September 16 the depression attained tropical storm strength, and it was given the name Fran. It turned to the northwest, and passed very near the Cape Verde. 65 mph (105 km/h) and a minimum surface pressure of 994 mbar (29.35 inHg ). As Fran passed the Cape Verde islands weather stations reported 35 miles per hour (55 km/h) winds, which is tropical depression force. During the period of September 19–20 Fran turned towards westward and began to encounter strong upper-level wind shear, which caused Fran to dissipate on September 20.31 people were killed in the country. Fran continued between the northwest and west-northwest on September 17–18 as it continued to organize. During this period satellite imagery indicated that Fran peaked with winds of
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 16 – September 19|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 1006 mbar (hPa)|
Gustav spent most of its life as a well-organized tropical depression, which formed on September 16 in the open Atlantic south of Bermuda. The depression moved north, and its motion stalled over Bermuda on September 17. A day later, the depression had strengthened to a tropical storm and was named Gustav. Tropical Storm Gustav headed northeast until it was absorbed by a front on September 19.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 23 – October 2|
|Peak intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 993 mbar (hPa)|
A large frontal system spawned a subtropical depression early on September 23, about 385 miles (620 km) east of Bermuda. Ship and satellite data confirmed its development, and indicated the system intensified into a subtropical storm later on September 23. Initially the cyclone moved toward the south-southwest, although on September 24 it turned to the west. That day, the hurricane hunters reported that the system transitioned into a tropical cyclone; as such, it was named Tropical Storm Hortense. The newly-tropical storm quickly intensified while turning to the northwest, and late on September 25 Hortense attained hurricane status, about 300 miles (475 km) southeast of Bermuda.
Twelve hours after reaching hurricane status, Hortense began a sharp weakening trend while passing east of Bermuda. By September 27 it was a minimal tropical storm, and subsequently it executed a clockwise loop to the southwest. The intensity of Hortense fluctuated slightly over the subsequent few days, although it never regained its former intensity. On September 30, after turning to the west and later to the north, the storm passed just 7 miles (11 km) west of Bermuda. As the storm was so weak, the island only reported winds of 18 miles per hour (29 km/h). Hortense accelerated to the northeast, moving rapidly across the north Atlantic before being absorbed by a larger extratropical storm late on October 2, northwest of the Azores.
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 25 – October 1|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 999 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical depression formed on September 25 off the southeastern Bahamas. The depression headed west, and was upgraded to a tropical storm in the central Bahamas on September 26. It struck the US coast near Jupiter, Florida. Retaining tropical storm strength, Isidore curved to the northeast, emerging over water near Jacksonville, Florida. Isidore continued northeast until it was absorbed by a front on October 1.Total damages were estimated at over $750,000 (1984 US dollars). One death from electrocution was reported.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 7 – October 18|
|Peak intensity||105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 965 mbar (hPa)|
Josephine became a named storm on October 8 while northwest of Puerto Rico. It briefly moved west then turned almost due north. While it stayed well away from the U.S. coast, Josephine was a large storm and sustained tropical storm winds were measured at the Diamond Shoals of Cape Hatteras. When it passed 36°N latitude (roughly level with Norfolk, Virginia), Josephine curved to the southeast, then back to the northeast. It continued on this path until it made a cyclonic loop beginning on October 17 while becoming extratropical. The storm lost its identity on October 21.The hurricane caused wave damage to coastal areas, but primarily posed a threat to the shipping lanes of the North Atlantic.
Offshore, a sailboat with six crewmen on it became disabled due to high waves, estimated to have exceeded 15 ft (4.6 m), produced by the hurricane. All of the people on the ship were quickly rescued after issuing a distress signal by a nearby tanker vessel. In Massachusetts, one man drowned after falling off his boat on North River amidst large swells produced by the storm. In Long Island, New York and parts of New Jersey, tides between 2 and 4 ft (0.61 and 1.22 m) above normal resulted in minor coastal flooding.
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 25 – October 28|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1013 mbar (hPa)|
This system was recognized as the seventeenth tropical depression of the season by the National Hurricane Center after the season ended.A retrograding upper-level low spurred the development of a low east of the Bahamas on October 25. The system tracked westward with limited shower and thunderstorm activity, crossing Florida on October 26 before moving into the Gulf of Mexico. Once the system moved into the north-central Gulf, deep convection began to develop near its center, expanding in intensity and coverage near and after landfall in extreme southeast Mississippi. The small system accelerated rapidly to the north and northeast ahead of an approaching cold front, moving across the Tennessee Valley and central Appalachians before linking up with the front and becoming a weak extratropical cyclone. The non-tropical cyclone then moved through coastal New England.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||November 5 – November 13|
|Peak intensity||90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 971 mbar (hPa)|
Forming from a broad area of low pressure on November 5, Klaus maintained a northeast movement throughout much of its path. After making landfall on extreme eastern Puerto Rico, it passed to the north of the Leeward Islands, resulting in strong southwesterly winds and rough seas. Klaus attained hurricane status and reached peak winds of 90 miles per hour (145 km/h) before becoming extratropical over cooler waters on November 13. The storm dropped heavy rainfall in Puerto Rico, causing minor flooding and light damage. Klaus caused heavy marine damage in the Leeward Islands, including wrecking at least three ships. The Virgin Islands experienced heavy damage, as well. Damage from the storm totaled to $152 million (1984 USD), and the hurricane killed two on Dominica.
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||November 22 – November 29|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
A low-pressure system formed east of Florida on November 22 and rode up the East Coast of the United States producing heavy rain before curving back out to sea and dissipating on November 26. The storm left one fatality and $7.4 million (1984 USD) in damage. There has been evidence that the November storm may have become a subtropical cyclone east of Bermuda. The remnants of the cyclone contributed to formation of a potent nor'easter.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||December 12 – December 24|
|Peak intensity||80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 980 mbar (hPa)|
Hurricane Lili was one of only four Atlantic tropical cyclones on record to reach hurricane status in the month of December.Lili developed as a subtropical cyclone which originated from a frontal trough to the south of Bermuda on December 12. It tracked southeastward, then northward, slowly attaining tropical characteristics and becoming a hurricane on December 20. Lili turned to the south and southwest, briefly threatening the northern Caribbean islands before weakening and dissipating near the coast of the Dominican Republic. Lili was the longest lasting tropical cyclone outside of the Atlantic hurricane season, as well as the strongest hurricane to form during the month of December. It briefly threatened to pass through the Leeward Islands as a minimal hurricane, though upon passing through the area as a dissipating tropical depression Lili produced light rainfall and no reported damage.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1984. No names were retired, so the same list of names was used again in the 1990 season. gray.This is the first time these names were used since the post-1978 naming change, except for Bertha and Fran which were previously used in 1957 and 1973. Names that were not assigned are marked in
This is a table of the storms in 1984 and their landfall(s), if any. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical or a wave or low.
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|One||June 11–14||Tropical depression||35 miles per hour (55 km/h)||1016 hPa (29.88 inHg)||Florida||None||None|
|Two||June 18–20||Tropical depression||35 miles per hour (55 km/h)||1008 hPa (29.77 inHg)||northern Mexico||None||None|
|Three||July 25–26||Tropical depression||35 miles per hour (55 km/h)||1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Unnumbered||August 6–8||Tropical depression||35 miles per hour (55 km/h)||Unknown||None||None||None|
|One||August 18–21||Subtropical storm||60 miles per hour (95 km/h)||1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Arthur||August 28 – September 5||Tropical storm||50 miles per hour (80 km/h)||1004 hPa (29.65 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Bertha||August 30 – September 4||Tropical storm||40 miles per hour (65 km/h)||1007 hPa (29.74 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Cesar||August 31 – September 2||Tropical storm||60 miles per hour (95 km/h)||994 hPa (29.35 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Seven||September 6–8||Tropical depression||35 miles per hour (55 km/h)||Unknown||northern Mexico||None||None|
|Diana||September 8–16||Category 4 hurricane||130 miles per hour (210 km/h)||949 hPa (28.02 inHg)||Southeastern United States||$65.5 million||0 (3)|
|Edouard||September 14–15||Tropical storm||65 miles per hour (105 km/h)||998 hPa (29.47 inHg)||northern Mexico||None||None|
|Fran||September 15–20||Tropical storm||65 miles per hour (105 km/h)||994 hPa (28.35 inHg)||Cape Verde Islands||$2.8 million||29–32|
|Gustav||September 16–19||Tropical storm||50 miles per hour (80 km/h)||1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)||Bermuda||None||None|
|Hortense||September 23 – October 2||Category 1 hurricane||75 miles per hour (120 km/h)||993 hPa (29.32 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Isidore||September 25 – October 1||Tropical storm||60 miles per hour (95 km/h)||999 hPa (29.50 inHg)||Bahamas, Southeastern United States||$1 million||0 (1)|
|Josephine||October 7–18||Category 2 hurricane||105 miles per hour (169 km/h)||965 hPa (28.50 inHg)||East Coast of the United States||Minor||1|
|Unnumbered||October 25–28||Tropical depression||35 miles per hour (55 km/h)||1013 hPa (29.91 inHg)||Southeastern United States||None||None|
|Klaus||November 5–13||Category 1 hurricane||90 miles per hour (145 km/h)||971 hPa (28.67 inHg)||Puerto Rico, Leeward Islands||$152 million||2|
|Unnumbered||November 22–29||Tropical depression||35 miles per hour (55 km/h)||1009 hPa (29.80 inHg)||Bahamas, Florida, Bermuda||$7.4 million||1|
|Lili||December 12–24||Category 1 hurricane||80 miles per hour (130 km/h)||980 hPa (28.94 inHg)||Puerto Rico, Hispaniola||None||None|
|20 systems||June 11 – December 24||130 miles per hour (210 km/h)||949 hPa (28.02 inHg)||$228.7 million||37–40|
A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of both tropical and an extratropical cyclone.
The 2003 Atlantic hurricane season was a highly active Atlantic hurricane season with tropical activity before and after the official bounds of the season—the first such occurrence since the 1970 season. The season produced 21 tropical cyclones, of which 16 developed into named storms; seven of those attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. With sixteen storms, the season was tied for the fifth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, although it has since dropped down to become the seventh most active season. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isabel, which reached Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale northeast of the Lesser Antilles; Isabel later struck North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane, causing $3.6 billion in damage and a total of 51 deaths across the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season was a near-average Atlantic hurricane season. It officially started on June 1, 2002 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean. The season produced fourteen tropical cyclones, of which twelve developed into named storms; four became hurricanes, and two attained major hurricane status. While the season's first cyclone did not develop until July 14, activity quickly picked up: eight storms developed in the month of September. It ended early however, with no tropical storms forming after October 6—a rare occurrence caused partly by El Niño conditions. The most intense hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isidore with a minimum central pressure of 934 mbar, although Hurricane Lili attained higher winds and peaked at Category 4 whereas Isidore only reached Category 3.
The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active Atlantic hurricane season that produced 17 tropical cyclones, 15 named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. The season officially lasted from June 1, 2001, to November 30, 2001, dates which by convention limit the period of each year when tropical cyclones tend to form in the Atlantic Ocean basin. The season began with Tropical Storm Allison on June 4, and ended with Hurricane Olga, which dissipated on December 6. The most intense storm was Hurricane Michelle, which attained Category 4 strength on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.
The 1997 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average season and is the most recent season to feature no tropical cyclones in August – typically one of the most active months. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The 1997 season was inactive, with only seven named storms forming, with an additional tropical depression and an unnumbered subtropical storm. It was the first time since the 1961 season that there were no active tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin during the entire month of August. A strong El Niño is credited with reducing the number of storms in the Atlantic, while increasing the number of storms in the Eastern and Western Pacific basin to 19 and 26 storms, respectively. As is common in El Niño years, tropical cyclogenesis was suppressed in the tropical latitudes, with only two becoming tropical storms south of 25°N.
The 1996 Atlantic hurricane season had the most major hurricanes since 1950, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The season was above-average, featuring a total of thirteen named storms, nine hurricanes, and six major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1, 1996 and ended on November 30, 1996, dates which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season's first tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Arthur, developed on June 17, while the final cyclone, Hurricane Marco dissipated on November 26. The most intense hurricane, Edouard, was a powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that affected portions of the Mid-Atlantic states and New England. The season featured nine tropical cyclone landfalls, including six hurricanes, one of which was a major hurricane. In total, six major hurricanes formed during the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season—the highest number produced in a single season since 1950.
The 1992 Atlantic hurricane season was a significantly below average season, but it did feature Hurricane Andrew, the costliest Atlantic hurricane known at the time, surpassing Hugo of 1989 and later surpassed by Katrina of 2005. The season officially began on June 1, 1992, and lasted until November 30, 1992. The first storm, an unnamed subtropical storm, developed in the central Atlantic on April 21, over a month before the official start of hurricane season. On August 16, Hurricane Andrew formed and would later strike the Bahamas, as well U.S. States of Florida and Louisiana, becoming the costliest Atlantic hurricane on record until the record was surpassed just over 13 years later. Andrew caused $27.3 billion in damage, mostly in Florida, as well as 65 fatalities. In addition, Andrew was also the strongest hurricane of the season, reaching winds of 175 mph (282 km/h) while approaching Florida.
The 1978 Atlantic hurricane season was the last Atlantic hurricane season to use an all-female naming list. The season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was an above average season due to a subsiding El Niño. The first storm, a subtropical storm, developed unusually early – on January 18 – and dissipated five days later without causing any damage. At the end of July and early August, short-lived Tropical Storm Amelia caused extensive flooding in Texas after dropping as much as 48 in (1,200 mm) of rain. There were 33 deaths and US$110 million in damage. Tropical Storm Bess and Hurricane Cora resulted in only minor land impacts, while the latter was attributed to one fatality.
The 1981 Atlantic hurricane season featured direct or indirect impacts from nearly all of its 12 tropical or subtropical storms. Overall, the season was fairly active, with 22 tropical depressions, 12 of which became a namable storm, while 7 of those reached hurricane status and 3 intensified into major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1, 1981, and lasted until November 30, 1981. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, tropical cyclogenesis can occur before these dates, as demonstrated with the development of two tropical depressions in April and Tropical Storm Arlene in May. At least one tropical cyclone formed in each month between April and November, with the final system, Subtropical Storm Three, becoming extratropical on November 17.
The 1982 Atlantic hurricane season was an extremely inactive Atlantic hurricane season with five named tropical storms and one subtropical storm. Two storms became hurricanes, one of which reached major hurricane status. The most recent prior season to have only two hurricanes was 1931. The season officially began on June 1, 1982, and lasted until November 30, 1982. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. Activity started early with Hurricane Alberto forming on the first day of the season. Alberto threatened the Southwestern Florida coast as a tropical storm, meadering offshore in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico and causing twenty-three fatalities in Cuba. The next system, a subtropical storm, formed later in June and affected the same area as Alberto, causing $10 million in damage.
The 1986 Atlantic hurricane season was a very inactive season that produced 10 depressions, 6 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and no major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1, 1986, and lasted until November 30, 1986. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. During the 1986 season, the first subtropical depression formed in the first week of June, while the last tropical cyclone dissipated at the end of the third week of November. The 1986 season had lower than average activity because of an ongoing El Niño event, and was the least active season in the North Atlantic since the 1983 Atlantic hurricane season. This was also the first season since 1972 to have no major hurricanes.
The 1990 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season since 1969, with a total of 14 named storms. The season also featured eight hurricanes, one of which intensified into a major hurricane. It officially began on June 1, 1990, and lasted until November 30, 1990. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, tropical cyclogenesis can occur prior to the start of the season, as demonstrated with Tropical Depression One, which formed in the Caribbean Sea on May 24.
The 1991 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season since 1984 in which no hurricanes developed from tropical waves, which are the source for most North Atlantic tropical cyclones. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was the least active in four years due to higher than usual wind shear across the Atlantic Ocean. The first storm, Ana, developed on July 2 off the southeast United States and dissipated without causing significant effects. Two other tropical storms in the season – Danny and Erika – did not significantly affect land. Danny dissipated east of the Lesser Antilles, and Erika passed through the Azores before becoming extratropical. In addition, there were four non-developing tropical depressions. The second depression of the season struck Mexico with significant accompanying rains.
The 1987 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average hurricane season that was limited by an ongoing El Niño. The season officially began on June 1, 1987, and lasted until November 30, 1987, although activity began on May 24 when a tropical depression developed 400 mi (640 km) east of the central Bahamas. The June through November dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first cyclone to attain tropical storm status was an unnamed tropical storm which formed on August 9, nearly a month later than usual. The final storm of the year, Tropical Depression Fourteen, merged with a weak extratropical low on November 4. The season marked the first year tropical storm watches and warnings were issued; previously, gale watches and warnings were used for tropical storms, and this season was one of only a few seasons with no deaths in the United States; the last time this happened was in the 1981 season.
Hurricane Lili was a moderate tropical cyclone of the 1990 Atlantic hurricane season. It began as a subtropical cyclone over the central Atlantic and became a hurricane while moving westward toward the United States. Lili did not gain any additional strength before curving away from land and weakening into a tropical storm. After transitioning into an extratropical cyclone, it made landfall in southeastern Newfoundland. Overall, the hurricane's effects on land were minimal, despite multiple tropical cyclone watches and warnings. Initial uncertainty in its track prompted some concern of a landfall in North Carolina, but it remained predominately over the open ocean.
Hurricane Florence was a strong, late season hurricane that remained out over the open waters of the Central Atlantic for nearly a week, before being absorbed into a large extratropical cyclone. With peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 972 mbar, Florence was the strongest storm of the 1994 Atlantic hurricane season. Florence developed out of an area of low pressure associated with a stalled frontal system located 1,150 mi (1,850 km) east-southeast of Bermuda in late October. The system gradually became better organized and was classified a subtropical depression on November 2. The storm intensified into a subtropical storm shortly thereafter before weakening into a tropical depression on the next day.
The 1994 Atlantic hurricane season was the final season in the most recent negative Atlantic multidecadal oscillation period of tropical cyclone formation within the basin. Despite the below average activity, the season was very deadly, with almost 97% of deaths occurring during Hurricane Gordon, a devastating late-season tropical cyclone that severely impacted the Caribbean Sea, the Greater Antilles and the United States, and one of the longest-lived Atlantic hurricanes on record at the time. The season produced seven named tropical cyclones and three hurricanes, a total below the seasonal average. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. The first tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Alberto, developed on June 30, while the last storm, Hurricane Gordon, dissipated on November 21. The season was unusual in that it produced no major hurricanes, which are those of Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. The most intense hurricane, Hurricane Florence, peaked as a Category 2 storm with winds of 110 mph (180 km/h). Aside from Chris, Florence, and Gordon, none of the storms exceeded tropical storm intensity.
The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season was an average Atlantic hurricane season in which twelve named storms formed. Although Tropical Storm Arthur formed on July 14, the season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's final storm, Tropical Depression Fourteen, dissipated on October 16.
The 1990 Atlantic hurricane season featured the most named storms of any hurricane season at the time. During the season, 14 tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean became named storms. Although Tropical Depression One formed on May 24, the season officially began on June 1; it ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's final storm, Hurricane Nana, dissipated on October 21.
The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season was the fourth consecutive above-average and damaging season dating back to 2016. However, many were weak and short-lived, especially towards the end of the season. Six of those named storms achieved hurricane status, while three intensified into major hurricanes. Two storms became Category 5 hurricanes, marking the fourth consecutive season with at least one Category 5 hurricane, the third consecutive season to feature at least one storm making landfall at Category 5 intensity, and the seventh on record to have multiple tropical cyclones reaching Category 5 strength. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the formation of Subtropical Storm Andrea on May 20, marking the record fifth consecutive year where a tropical or subtropical cyclone developed before the official start of the season.