Antigua

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Antigua
Native name:
Waladli or Wadadli
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Aerial view of Antigua
Antigua parishes english.png
Map of Antigua showing the parishes
Antigua and Barbuda location map Topographic.png
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Antigua
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Antigua
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Antigua
Geography
Location Caribbean Sea
Coordinates 17°05′06″N61°48′00″W / 17.08500°N 61.80000°W / 17.08500; -61.80000
Archipelago Leeward Islands
Total islands1
Area281 km2 (108 sq mi)
Coastline87 km (54.1 mi)
Highest elevation402 m (1319 ft)
Highest point Boggy Peak
Administration
Largest settlement St. John's (pop. 22,000)
Magistrate for Districts "A" and "B"Carden Conliffe Clarke
Demographics
Population95,882 (July 2018)
Pop. density285.2/km2 (738.7/sq mi)
Ethnic groups87.12% Black, 3.86% Other Mixed Race, 1.7% White, 5.64% Other [1]
Turner Beach in Antigua TurnerBeachAntigua.JPG
Turner Beach in Antigua

Antigua ( /ænˈtɡə/ ann-TEE-gə), [2] also known as Waladli or Wadadli by the local population, is an island in the Lesser Antilles. It is one of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region and the most populous island of the country of Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 November 1981. [3]

Contents

The island's perimeter is roughly 87 km (54 mi) and its area 281 km2 (108 sq mi). Its population was 83,191 (at the 2011 Census). [4] The economy is mainly reliant on tourism, with the agricultural sector serving the domestic market.

Over 22,000 people live in the capital city, St. John's. The capital is situated in the north-west and has a deep harbour which is able to accommodate large cruise ships. Other leading population settlements are All Saints (3,412) and Liberta (2,239), according to the 2001 census.

English Harbour on the south-eastern coast provides one of the largest deep water, protected harbors in the Eastern Caribbean. It is the site of UNESCO World Heritage Site Nelson's Dockyard, a restored British colonial naval station named after Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson. [5] [6] English Harbour and the neighbouring village of Falmouth are yachting and sailing destinations and provisioning centres. During Antigua Sailing Week, at the end of April and beginning of May, an annual regatta brings a number of sailing vessels and sailors to the island to take part in sporting events. Every December for the past 60 years, Antigua has been home to one of the largest charter yacht shows, welcoming super-yachts from around the world. [7]

Etymology

Antigua means "ancient" or "old" in Spanish. In 1493, Christopher Columbus, sailing for Spain, named the island Santa María de la Antigua  [ es ]. Some sources claim Columbus named the island after a church in Seville called Santa María de la Antigua. [8] [9] [10] However, there is no church by that name in Seville. Columbus may have actually named the island in honor of the Santa María de la Antigua chapel in Seville Cathedral, [11] [12] or more specifically in honor of the iconic mural Virgen de la Antigua (or Santa María de la Antigua) in Seville Cathedral. [13] [14]

The name Waladli [15] comes from the island's indigenous inhabitants and means approximately "our own".[ citation needed ]

History

Rocky shoreline near St. John's Antiguashoreline.jpg
Rocky shoreline near St. John's
Dickenson Bay beach, Antigua Dickinson bay beach antigua.jpg
Dickenson Bay beach, Antigua

Early Antiguans

The first inhabitants were the Guanahatabey people [ citation needed ]. Eventually, the Arawak migrated from the mainland, followed by the Carib. Prior to European colonization, Christopher Columbus was the first European to visit Antigua, in 1493. [16]

The Arawak were the first well-documented group of indigenous people to settle Antigua. They paddled to the island by canoe (piragua) from present-day Venezuela, pushed out by the Carib, another indigenous people. The Arawak introduced agriculture to Antigua and Barbuda. Among other crops, they cultivated the Antiguan "black" pineapple. They also grew corn, sweet potatoes (white with firmer flesh than the bright orange "sweet potato" grown in the United States), chili peppers, guava, tobacco, and cotton.

Some of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, continue to be staples of Antiguan cuisine. Colonists took them to Europe, and from there, they spread around the world. For example, a popular Antiguan dish, dukuna (/ˈduːkuːnɑː/), is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes, flour and spices. Another staple, fungi (/ˈfuːndʒi/), is a cooked paste made of cornmeal and water.

Most of the Arawak left Antigua about A.D. 1100. Those who remained were raided by the Carib coming from Venezuela. According to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies. They enslaved some and cannibalised others. [17] Watson points out that the Caribs had a much more warlike culture than the Arawak. [17]

The indigenous people of the West Indies built excellent sea vessels, which they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean resulting in much of the South American and the Caribbean islands being populated by the Arawak and Carib. Their descendants live throughout South America, particularly Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, infectious diseases introduced from Europe, high rates of malnutrition and enslavement led to a rapid population decline among the Caribbean's native population. There are some differences of opinions as to the relative importance of these causes. [18]

British

Aerial view of Jolly Harbour on the western coast of Antigua Jolly Harbour.jpg
Aerial view of Jolly Harbour on the western coast of Antigua

Christopher Columbus named the island "Antigua" in 1493 in honour of the "Virgin of the Old Cathedral" [19] (Spanish : La Virgen de la Antigua) found in Seville Cathedral in southern Spain. On his 1493 voyage, honouring a vow, he named many islands after different aspects of St. Mary, including Montserrat and Guadeloupe.

In 1632, a group of English colonists left St Kitts to settle on Antigua. Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent English settlement on the island. [16] Antigua rapidly developed as a profitable sugar colony. For a large portion of Antigua's history, the island was considered Britain's "Gateway to the Caribbean". It was on the major sailing routes among the region's resource-rich colonies. Lord Horatio Nelson, a major figure in Antigua's history, arrived in the late 18th century to defend the island's commercial shipping prowess.

Slavery

Slaves planting and tilling, 1823 Digging the Cane-holes - Ten Views in the Island of Antigua (1823), plate II - BL.jpg
Slaves planting and tilling, 1823
Slaves working in the boiling house, 1823 The boiling house - Ten Views in the Island of Antigua (1823), plate VI - BL.jpg
Slaves working in the boiling house, 1823
Slaves loading barrels into a boat, 1823 Sugar-Hogsheads - Ten Views in the Island of Antigua (1823), plate X - BL.jpg
Slaves loading barrels into a boat, 1823

Sugar became Antigua's main crop in about 1674, when Christopher Codrington (c. 1640–1698) settled at Betty's Hope plantation. He came from Barbados, bringing the latest sugar technology with him. Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar.[ citation needed ] This resulted in their importing slaves to work the sugar cane crops. [16]

According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, many West Indian colonists initially tried to use locals as slaves. These groups succumbed easily to disease and/or malnutrition, and died by the thousands. The enslaved Africans adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number-one choice of unpaid labour; they also provided medical services and skilled labour, including carpentry, for their masters. However, the West African slave population in the Caribbean also had a high mortality rate, which was offset by regular imports of very high numbers of new slaves from West and Central Africa. [20]

Sugar cane was one of the most gruelling and dangerous crops slaves were forced to cultivate. Harvesting cane required backbreaking long days in sugar cane fields under the hot island sun. Sugar cane spoiled quickly after harvest, and the milling process was slow and inefficient, forcing the mill and boiling house to operate 24 hours a day during harvest season. [21] Sugar mills and boiling houses were two of the most dangerous places for slaves to work on sugar plantations. In mills wooden or metal rollers were used to crush cane plants and extract the juices. Slaves were at risk of getting their limbs stuck and ripped off in the machines. [21] Similarly, in sugar boiling houses slaves worked under extremely high temperatures and at the risk of being burned in the boiling sugar mixture or getting their limbs stuck. [21]

Today, collectors prize the uniquely designed colonial furniture built by West Indian slaves. Many of these works feature what are now considered "traditional" motifs, such as pineapples, fish and stylized serpents.

By the mid-1770s, the number of slaves had increased to 37,500, up from 12,500 in 1713. The white population, in contrast, had fallen from 5,000 to below 3,000. [22] The slaves lived in wretched and overcrowded conditions and could be mistreated or even killed by their owners with impunity. The Slave Act of 1723 made arbitrary murder of slaves a crime, but did not do much to ease their lives. [23]

Unrest against enslavement among the island's enslaved population became increasingly common. In 1729, a man named Hercules was hung, drawn and quartered and three others were burnt alive, for conspiring to kill the slave owner Nathaniel Crump and his family. In 1736, an enslaved man called "Prince Klaas" (whose slave name was Court) allegedly planned to incite a slave rebellion on the island. Court was crowned "King of the Coromantees" in a pasture outside the capital of St. John's. The coronation appeared to be just a colourful spectacle but was, for the enslaved people, a ritual declaration of war on the colonists. From information obtained from other slaves, the colonists discovered the plot and implemented a brutal crackdown on suspected rebels. Prince Klaas and four accomplices were caught and executed on the breaking wheel. (However, some doubts exist about Court's guilt.) [24] [20] Six of the rebels were hanged in chains and starved to death, and another 58 were burnt at the stake. The site of these executions is now the Antiguan Recreation Ground. [25] [20]

The American War of Independence in the late 18th century disrupted the Caribbean sugar trade. At the same time, public opinion in Great Britain gradually turned against slavery. [26] "Traveling ... at slavery's end, [Joseph] Sturge and [Thomas] Harvey (1838 ...) found few married slaves residing together or even on the same estate. Slaveholders often counted as 'married' only those slaves with mates on the estate." [27] [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 3] Great Britain abolished the slave trade in 1807, and all existing slaves were emancipated in 1834. [16]

Horatio, Lord Nelson

Horatio Nelson (who was created 1st Viscount Nelson in 1801) was Senior Naval Officer of the Leeward Islands from 1784 to 1787 on HMS Boreas. During his tenure, he tried to enforce the Navigation Acts. These acts prohibited trade with the newly formed United States of America. Most of the merchants in Antigua depended upon trading with the USA, so many of them despised Captain Nelson. As a result, he was unable to get a promotion for some time after his stint on the island.

Unlike the Antiguan merchants, Nelson had a positive view of the controversial Navigation Acts: [28]

The Americans were at this time trading with our islands, taking advantage of the register of their ships, which had been issued while they were British subjects. Nelson knew that, by the Navigation Act, no foreigners, directly or indirectly, are permitted to carry on any trade with these possessions. He knew, also, that the Americans had made themselves foreigners with regard to England; they had disregarded the ties of blood and language when they acquired the independence which they had been led on to claim, unhappily for themselves, before they were fit for it; and he was resolved that they should derive no profit from those ties now. Foreigners they had made themselves, and as foreigners they were to be treated. [28]

Nelson said: "The Antiguan Colonists are as great rebels as ever were in America, had they the power to show it." [28]

A dockyard started in 1725, to provide a base for a squadron of British ships whose main function was to patrol the West Indies and thus maintain Britain's sea power, was later named "Nelson's Dockyard" in his honour.

While Nelson was stationed on Antigua, he frequently visited the nearby island of Nevis, where he met and married a young widow, Fanny Nisbet, who had previously married the son of a plantation family on Nevis.

1918 labour unrest

Following the foundation of the Ulotrichian Universal Union, a friendly society which acted as a trade union (which were banned), the sugar cane workers were ready to confront the plantation owners when they slashed their wages. The cane workers went on strike and rioted when their leaders were arrested. [29]

Independence

In 1967, with Barbuda and the tiny island of Redonda, Antigua became an associated state of the Commonwealth, and in November 1981 it was disassociated from Britain. [16] [ dead link ] [30]

U.S. government presence

Commissioned, 9 August 1956, the Naval Facility (NAVFAC) Antigua was one of the shore terminal stations that were part of the Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and the Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS), which were used to track Soviet submarines. NAVFAC Antigua was decommissioned 4 February 1984. [31]

From 1958 through 1960 the United States installed the Missile Impact Location System (MILS) in the Atlantic Missile Range, later the Eastern Range, to localize the splashdowns of test missile nose cones. MILS was developed and installed by the same entities that had completed the first phase of the Atlantic SOSUS system. A MILS installation consisting of both a target array for precision location and a broad ocean area system for good positions outside the target area was installed at Antigua, 1,300 nmi (1,500 mi; 2,400 km) downrange. The island was the second downrange MILS installation with the furthest being 4,400 nmi (5,100 mi; 8,100 km) downrange at Ascension Island. [32] [33]

Until July 7, 2015, the United States Air Force maintained a small base near the airport, designated Detachment 1, 45th Operations Group, 45th Space Wing (known as Antigua Air Station). The mission provided high rate telemetry data for the Eastern Range and its space launches. The unit was deactivated due to US government budget cuts and the property given to the Antiguan Government. [34]

Continued Influence of British Colonialism

Vere Cornwall Bird

The emancipation of Antigua indeed bolstered the island's economy; however, the sugar industry in the British territories had already began to decline. [35] Antiguans faced economic hardships until the emergence of tourism in recent decades. The surge of a robust labor movement in the 1940s, led by Vere Cornwall Bird, served as a catalyst for the pursuit of independence. Into the 20th century, British presence remained in Antigua. [36] In 1939, Vere Cornwall Bird spearheaded the establishment of the nation's inaugural labor union and advocated for sugar workers to stage strikes demanding increased wages. [37] By the 1950s, Bird had ascended to a position in the colonial legislature. Following Antigua's attainment of independence in 1981, Bird assumed the role of prime minister. However, pervasive corruption plagued the Antiguan Labor Party, transforming Antigua into a center for illicit activities such as money laundering. Instances of fraud and drug trafficking were rampant among senior government figures. [38] In 1990, the Bird family was implicated in a scandal over the shipment of Israeli arms that were diverted from Antigua to a Columbian drug lord. [39] This controversy was covered in U.S media. A number of these articles were later posted by the Stanford Victims Coalition on its Anti-Crime Anti-Antigua web site. This organization has itself stated that “Antigua is [the] home of one of the world’s most corrupt governments, which is deeply rooted in nepotism and moral depravity.” [40]

Jamaica Kincaid's "A Small Place"

Tourism emerged as the predominant economic driver of the country. By 2011, it constituted nearly 75% of the nation's GDP. Jamaica Kincaid's "A Small Place" extensively discusses tourism, particularly highlighting its limited benefits for the local population, with most gains being attributed to the expansion of resorts and a select group of affluent individuals who controlled said resources. [41] She argued that this echoes historical power dynamics akin to the era of slavery, prompting scrutiny of the nation's purported progress. [42] The disproportionate focus on tourism has contributed to deteriorating infrastructure, deficient education, and persistent instability. [43]

Born in 1949 as Elaine Potter Richardson, Kincaid directly experienced the adverse consequences of British colonialism, witnessing efforts by colonizers to transform Antigua into a replica of England and its inhabitants into English citizens, disregarding the native culture. [44] The theme of colonialism plays a large role in "A Small Place," where Kincaid expresses her frustration at both the colonizers and the Antiguans for their incomplete quest for independence. [45] She emphasizes the failure of Antiguans to embrace the positive aspects of colonialism, such as a robust educational system that could uplift their lives. [46] This lack of focus on education and optimism for the future is exemplified by the neglect of Antigua's sole library, St. John's, which remains unfixed years after sustaining damage in the 1974 earthquake, bearing the sign "Repairs Are Pending." [47]

Jamaica Kincaid's novel also describes the corruption of the government through its effects on the Antiguan people. For example, she references "one of the largest Japanese-car dealerships between the borders of Canada and South America, bears the name of a Syrian national, but some of the ministers in government own shares in it, and that is why all government vehicles are that particular brand of Japanese-made vehicle." [48] Her rhetoric is very critical of the Antiguan Government, and expresses a complete dissatisfaction with the morals and actions taken out by the government. She also covers the medical situation in Antigua, discussing the lack of medical care available to the natives, citing even that "when the Minister of Health himself doesn't feel well he takes the first plane to New York to see a real doctor" [49] She sees the government system as rotten from top to bottom, with no sympathy for the Antiguan people. She sees them as another villain in Antigua's story. Her big message is that Antigua is in no better of a place after its independence from the British. If anything, life in Antigua has gotten worse, in her opinion.

Kincaid critiques tourism as a disruptive force that exacerbates social and economic inequalities in Antigua. [50] She condemns the exploitation of the island's natural beauty for the benefit of foreign tourists and wealthy resort owners, highlighting how tourism fails to bring substantial benefits to the local population. [51] Kincaid portrays tourism as a continuation of colonial exploitation, where Antiguans are relegated to service roles and marginalized within their own society. [52] Within her novel, she also highlights the erosion of Antiguan culture and identity in the face of mass tourism, arguing that the pursuit of tourist dollars has led to the neglect of essential infrastructure and the perpetuation of dependency on external forces. [53] Kincaid observes that in a post-colonial era, Antiguans perpetuate the same oppressive behaviors once inflicted upon them by British colonizers. [54] They have internalized colonialist attitudes and embraced tourism to such an extent that they have transformed the degradation and indignity of their daily lives into a spectacle for tourists. [55] In sum, Kincaid's portrayal of tourism in "A Small Place" is deeply critical, emphasizing its detrimental effects on Antigua's social fabric and the well-being of its people.

Demographics

Census data

These figures do not include the island of Barbuda.

Source: [4]

Q48 EthnicCounts%
African descendent72,47387.12%
Caucasian/White1,3961.68%
East Indian/India9401.13%
Mixed (Black/White)7400.89%
Mixed (Other)3,2093.86%
Hispanic2,3232.79%
Syrian/Lebanese5680.68%
Other7950.96%
Don't know/Not stated7490.90%
Total83,191100.00%
Q58. Country of birthCounts%
Africa2960.36%
Other Latin or North American countries1640.20%
Antigua and Barbuda56,62068.06%
Other Caribbean countries7650.92%
Canada3500.42%
Other Asian countries3890.47%
Other European countries3010.36%
Dominica3,6294.36%
Dominican Republic2,0762.50%
Guyana5,9937.20%
Jamaica4,4085.30%
Montserrat6280.76%
St. Kitts and Nevis3600.43%
St. Lucia5970.72%
St. Vincent and the Grenadines6620.80%
Syria2960.36%
Trinidad and Tobago4990.60%
United Kingdom8351.00%
USA2,5903.11%
USVI United States Virgin Islands3940.47%
Not Stated1,3371.61%
Total83,191100.00%
Q71 Country of Citizenship 1Counts%
Antigua and Barbuda67,56981.22%
Other Caribbean countries5470.66%
Canada1950.23%
Other Asian and Middle Eastern countries4220.51%
Dominica1,7542.11%
Dominican Republic1,3421.61%
Guyana3,6744.42%
Jamaica3,3163.99%
Montserrat2610.31%
St. Lucia3260.39%
St. Vincent and the Grenadines3190.38%
Trinidad and Tobago1940.23%
United Kingdom4420.53%
USA1,3221.59%
Other countries4940.59%
Not Stated1,0151.22%
Total83,191100.00%
Q71 Country of Citizenship 2 (Country of Second/Dual Citizenship)Counts%
Other Caribbean countries8586.73%
Canada4513.53%
Other Asian and Middle Eastern countries2381.86%
Dominica1,89814.87%
Dominican Republic7295.72%
Guyana2,25717.69%
Jamaica1,1038.64%
Montserrat3452.70%
St. Lucia2732.14%
St. Vincent and the Grenadines3482.73%
Trinidad and Tobago3172.48%
United Kingdom9817.69%
USA2,56020.06%
Other countries3913.07%
Not Stated110.08%
Total12,759100.00%
NotApp :70,432
Employment statusCounts%
Employed38,53460.92%
Unemployed4,4357.01%
Inactive19,78031.27%
Not stated5040.80%
Total63,253100.00%
NotApp :19,938
Q55 Internet UseCounts%
Yes40,42948.60%
No41,23849.57%
Don't know/Not stated1,5241.83%
Total83,191100.00%
St John's Cathedral, Antigua Stjohnscathedralantigua.jpg
St John's Cathedral, Antigua

Geography

Enlargeable, detailed map of Antigua Antigua2021OSM.png
Enlargeable, detailed map of Antigua

Located in the Leeward Islands, Antigua has an area of 281 km2 (108 sq mi) with 87 km (54 mi) of coastline. The highest elevation on the island is 402 m (1,319 ft).

Various natural points, capes, and beaches around the island include: Boon Point, Beggars Point, Parham, Willikies, Hudson Point, English Harbour Town, Old Road Cape, Johnson's Point, Ffryes Point, Jennings, Five Islands, and Yepton Beach, and Runaway Beach.

Several natural harbours are formed by these points and capes, including: Fitches Creek Bay, between Beggars Point and Parham; Nonsuch Bay between Hudson Point and Willikies; Willoughby Bay, between Hudson Point and English Harbour Town; English Harbour leading into English Harbour Town; Falmouth Harbour recessing into Falmouth; Rendezvous Bay between Falmouth and Old Road Cape; Five Islands Harbour, between Jennings and Five Islands; and Green Bay, the main harbour at St. John's, between Yepton Beach and Runaway Beach.

Fauna

The Antiguan racer is among the rarest snakes in the world. The Lesser Antilles are home to four species of racers. All four have undergone severe range reductions; at least two subspecies are extinct and another, Alsophis antiguae, now occupies only 0.1 per cent of its historical range. [56]

Griswold's ameiva (Ameiva griswoldi) is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. It is endemic to Antigua and Barbuda. It is found on both islands.

Administrative divisions

The island is divided into six civil parishes: St. George, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Paul, Saint Mary, and Saint John. The parishes have no type of local government.

Economy

The country's official currency is the East Caribbean dollar. Given the dominance of tourism, many prices in tourist-oriented businesses are shown in US dollars. The EC dollar is pegged to the US dollar at a varied rate and averages about US$1 = EC$2.7.

Tourism

Antigua's economy relies largely on tourism, and the island is promoted as a luxury Caribbean escape. Many hotels and resorts are located around the coastline. The island's single airport, VC Bird Airport, is served by several major airlines, including Virgin Atlantic, British Airways, American Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Caribbean Airlines, Air Canada, WestJet, and JetBlue. There is regular air service to Barbuda.

Education

Antigua has two international primary/secondary schools: CCSET International, which offers the Ontario Secondary School Diploma, and Island Academy, which offers the International Baccalaureate. There are also many other private schools but these institutions tend to follow the same local curriculum (CXCs) as government schools.

The island of Antigua currently has two foreign-owned for-profit offshore medical schools, the American University of Antigua (AUA), [57] founded in 2004, and The University of Health Sciences Antigua (UHSA), [58] founded in 1982. The island's medical schools cater mostly to foreign students but contribute to the local economy and health care.

Online gambling

Antigua was one of the first nations to legalize, license, and regulate online gambling and is a primary location for incorporation of online gambling companies. Some countries, most notably the United States, argue that if a particular gambling transaction is initiated outside the country of Antigua and Barbuda, then that transaction is governed by the laws of the country where the transaction was initiated. This argument was brought before the WTO and was deemed incorrect. [59]

In 2006, the United States Congress voted to approve the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act which criminalized the operations of offshore gambling operators which take wagers from American-based gamblers. This was a prima facie violation of the GATS treaty obligations enforced by the WTO, resulting in a series of rulings unfavourable to the US.

On 21 December 2007, an Article 22 arbitration panel ruled that the United States' failure to comply with WTO rules would attract a US$21 million sanction. [60]

The WTO ruling was notable in two respects:

First, although technically a victory for Antigua, the $21 million was far less than the US$3.5 billion which had been sought; one of the three arbitrators was sufficiently bothered by the propriety of this that he issued a dissenting opinion.

Second, a rider to the arbitration ruling affirmed the right of Antigua to take retaliatory steps in view of the prior failure of the US to comply with GATS. These included the rare, but not unprecedented, right to disregard intellectual property obligations to the US. [61]

Antigua's obligations to the US in respect of patents, copyright, and trademarks are affected. In particular, Berne Convention copyright is in question, and also material not covered by the Berne convention, including TRIPS accord obligations to the US. Antigua may thus disregard the WIPO treaty on intellectual property rights, and therefore the US implementation of that treaty (the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, or DMCA)—at least up to the limit of compensation. [62]

Since there is no appeal to the WTO from an Arbitration panel of this kind, it represents the last legal word from the WTO on the matter. Antigua is therefore able to recoup some of the claimed loss of trade by hosting (and taxing) companies whose business model depends on immunity from TRIPS provisions. [63]

Software company SlySoft was based in Antigua, allowing it to avoid nations with laws that are tough on anti-circumvention of technological copyright measures, in particular the DMCA in the United States. [64]

Banking

Swiss American Bank Ltd., later renamed Global Bank of Commerce, Ltd, was formed in April 1983 and became the first offshore international financial institution governed by the International Business Corporations, Act of 1982 to become a licensed bank in Antigua. [65] The bank was later sued by the United States for failure to release forfeited funds from one of its account holders. [66] Swiss American Bank was founded by Bruce Rappaport. [67]

Established in June 1994 as the East European International Bank, the European Union Bank (EUB) (Russian : Банк Европейского Союза (БЕС)), which was Antigua's first internet bank and was associated with Alex Konanykhin, who had business interests with numerous senior KGB officials, [lower-alpha 4] was shut down in 1996 by Antiguan authorities because the bank had failed to file its 1994 audit and was placed in receivership on 8 August 1997 with two Russians listed as bank directors, Vitali Papsuev (Russian : Виталий Папсуев) [lower-alpha 5] and Sergei Ushakov (Russian : Сергей Ушаков). [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 7]

Stanford International Bank was formed by Allen Stanford in 1986 in Montserrat where it was called Guardian International Bank. On 17 February 2009, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charged Allen Stanford, Laura Pendergest-Holt and James Davis with fraud [80] [81] [82] in connection with the bank's US$8 billion certificate of deposit (CD) investment scheme that offered "improbable and unsubstantiated high interest rates". [83] This led the federal government to freeze the assets of the bank and other Stanford entities. [80] [84] On 27 February 2009, Pendergest-Holt was arrested by federal agents in connection with the alleged fraud. [85] On that day, the SEC said that Stanford and his accomplices operated a "massive Ponzi scheme", misappropriated billions of investors' money and falsified the Stanford International Bank's records to hide their fraud. "Stanford International Bank's financial statements, including its investment income, are fictional," the SEC said. [81] [86]

Antigua Overseas Bank (AOB) was part of the ABI Financial Group and was a licensed bank in Antigua. On 13 April 2012, AOB was placed into receivership by the government of Antigua. [87]

On 27 November 2018, Scotiabank, the leading commercial bank on the island, announced plans to sell its banking operations in Antigua and 9 other non-core Caribbean markets to Republic Financial Holdings Limited. [88]


Sport

The major Antiguan sport is cricket. Vivian ("Viv") Richards is one of the most famous Antiguans, who played for, and captained, the West Indies cricket team. Richards scored the fastest Test century at the Antigua Recreation Ground. What's more Brian Lara twice broke the world record for an individual Test innings at the ARG, scoring 375 in 1993/94 and 400 not out in 2003/04. The ARG was replaced by a new cricketing arena, dubbed the Sir Vivian Richards Stadium, constructed in time for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Both football (soccer) and basketball are becoming popular among the island youth. There are several golf courses in Antigua. Daniel Bailey was the first athlete to win a global world medal at the 2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships.

Being surrounded by water, sailing is one of the most popular sports with Antigua Sailing Week and Antigua Classic Yacht Regatta being two of the region's most reputable sailing competitions. Hundreds of yachts from around the world compete around Antigua each year. Sport fishing is also a very popular sport with several big competitions held yearly. Windsurfing was very popular until kite-surfing came to the island. Kitesurfing or kite-boarding is very popular at Jabbawock Beach.

Notable residents

See also

Notes

  1. Joseph Sturge, English abolitionist
  2. Thomas Harvey
  3. Estate, real estate and houses on it
  4. Alex Konanykhin has business interests with numerous senior KGB officials including Leonid Shebarshin and Nikolai Leonov through the 1991 established think tank Russian National Economic Security Service (Russian: Российской национальной службы экономической безопасности) at which Shebarshin and Leonov were president and vice president, respectively. [68] [69] [70]
  5. Vitali Papsuev (Russian: Виталий Папсуев) allegedly had property in the Bronx.
  6. Sergei Ushakov (Russian: Сергей Ушаков), who is from Saint Petersburg, allegedly had property in Richmond Hill in greater Toronto. Ushakov is a close friend of Vladimir Putin. From 1974 to 2002, Ushakov was in the same KGB-FSB department as Evgeniy Plyusnin (Russian: Евгений Плюснин). Later, in 2002, Ushakov became the first deputy chairman of the Federal Security Service, which formally includes the presidential security service of Russia, and in 2003 became head of the administrative department and security service at Gazprom and also heads the board of Gazfond. [71] [77] [78] [79]
  7. Evgeniy Plyusnin (Russian: Евгений Плюснин), in August 2004, as a former employee of the FSB Directorate for St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region, became the head of the Gazprombank personnel department. [71]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antigua and Barbuda</span> Country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies

Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign island country in the Caribbean. It lies at the conjuncture of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean in the Leeward Islands part of the Lesser Antilles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines</span>

The indigenous inhabitants of the islands of St. Vincent and the Grenadines were various Amerindian groups. The arrivals of Europeans in the early 16th century did not lead to long term settlement, only in 1717 did the French occupy the island in Barrouallie, though the English laid claim on St. Vincent in 1627. The Treaty of Paris (1763) saw St. Vincent ceded to Britain. Frictions with the British led to the First and Second Carib War in the mid- to late-18th century but the British held on to the islands. A Crown Colony government was installed in 1877, a Legislative Council created in 1925, and universal adult suffrage granted in 1951. Following a referendum in 1979, St. Vincent and the Grenadines became the last of the Windward Islands to gain independence on 27 October 1979.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Antigua and Barbuda</span>

The history of Antigua and Barbuda covers the period from the arrival of the Archaic peoples thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Antigua and Barbuda were inhabited by three successive Amerindian societies. The island was claimed by England, who settled the islands in 1632. Under English/British control, the islands witnessed an influx of both Britons and African slaves migrate to the island. In 1981, the islands were granted independence as the modern state of Antigua and Barbuda.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barbuda</span> Island in Antigua and Barbuda

Barbuda is an island located in the eastern Caribbean forming part of the twin-island state of Antigua and Barbuda as an autonomous entity. Barbuda is located approximately 30 miles (48 km) north of Antigua. The sole settlements on the island are Codrington and its surrounding localities. Barbuda is a flat island with the western portion being dominated by Codrington Lagoon, and the eastern portion being dominated by the low-lying Barbuda Highlands, with salty ponds and scrubland spread throughout the island. The climate is classified as tropical marine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vere Bird</span> Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda (1909–1999)

Sir Vere Cornwall Bird, KNH was the first Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda. His son, Lester Bryant Bird, succeeded him as Prime Minister. In 1994, he was declared a "National Hero".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Music of Antigua and Barbuda</span> Musical traditions of Antigua and Barbuda

The music of Antigua and Barbuda is largely African in character, and has only felt a limited influence from European styles due to the population of Antigua and Barbuda descending mostly from West Africans who were made slaves by Europeans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saint Mary, Antigua and Barbuda</span> Parish in Antigua and Barbuda

Saint Mary, officially the Parish of Saint Mary, is a parish of Antigua and Barbuda on the island of Antigua. Saint Mary borders Saint John to the north, and Saint Paul to the east. Saint Mary is dominated by the Shekerley Mountains, and its northern border is largely defined by the mountains, and by Cooks Creek. The largest city in the parish is Bolans, home to the Jolly Harbour neighbourhood, and the parish church is located in Old Road. Saint Mary was created with the other five original parishes on 11 January 1692. It had a population of 7,341 in 2011, and 8,141 in 2018.

A Small Place is a work of creative nonfiction published in 1988 by Jamaica Kincaid. A book-length essay drawing on Kincaid's experiences growing up in Antigua, it can be read as an indictment of the Antiguan government, the tourist industry and Antigua's British colonial legacy, which includes slavery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda</span> Constitutional monarchy as a system of government in Antigua and Barbuda

The monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Antigua and Barbuda. The current Antiguan and Barbudan monarch and head of state, since 8 September 2022, is King Charles III. As sovereign, he is the personal embodiment of the Crown of Antigua and Barbuda. Although the person of the sovereign is equally shared with 14 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially titled King of Antigua and Barbuda and, in this capacity, he and other members of the Royal Family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of Antigua and Barbuda. However, the King is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antigua Carnival</span> Celebration in Antigua

The Antiguan Carnival is a celebration of emancipation from slavery, held annually on the island of Antigua. It is a thirteen-day festival of colorful costumes, beauty pageants, talent shows, and music. The festival begins in late July and ends the first Tuesday in August, known as Carnival Tuesday. Both Carnival Monday and Carnival Tuesday are public holidays on the island. Antiguan Carnival replaced the Old Time Christmas Festival in 1957, with hopes of inspiring tourism in Antigua and Barbuda. Some elements of the Old Time Christmas Festival remain in the modern Carnival celebrations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antigua and Barbuda cuisine</span>

Antigua and Barbuda cuisine refers to the cuisines of the Caribbean islands Antigua and Barbuda. The national dish is fungee and pepperpot. Fungee is a dish similar to Italian polenta, made mostly with cornmeal. Other local dishes include ducana, seasoned rice, saltfish and lobster. There are also local confectioneries which include sugar cake, fudge, raspberry and tamarind stew, and peanut brittle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism in Latin America and the Caribbean</span> Overview of tourism in the Caribbean

Tourism is one of the Caribbean's major economic sectors, with 25 million visitors contributing $49 billion towards the area's gross domestic product in 2013, which represented 14% of its total GDP. It is often described as, "the most tourism-dependent region in the world".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Betty's Hope</span> Former sugar plantation in Antigua

Betty's Hope was a sugarcane plantation in Antigua. It was established in 1650, shortly after the island had become an English colony, and flourished as a successful agricultural industrial enterprise during the centuries of slavery. It was the first large-scale sugar plantation to operate in Antigua and belonged to the Codrington family from 1674 until 1944. Christopher Codrington, later Captain General of the Leeward Islands, acquired the property in 1674 and named it Betty's Hope, after his daughter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Antigua and Barbuda</span> Twin island country in the Caribbean

The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to Antigua and Barbuda:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Antigua and Barbuda</span>

The economy of Antigua and Barbuda is service-based, with tourism and government services representing the key sources of employment and income. Tourism accounts directly or indirectly for more than half of GDP and is also the principal earner of foreign exchange in Antigua and Barbuda. However, a series of violent hurricanes since 1995 resulted in serious damage to tourist infrastructure and periods of sharp reductions in visitor numbers. In 1999 the budding offshore financial sector was seriously hurt by financial sanctions imposed by the United States and United Kingdom as a result of the loosening of its money-laundering controls. The government has made efforts to comply with international demands in order to get the sanctions lifted. The dual island nation's agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals. Estimated overall economic growth for 2000 was 2.5%. Inflation has trended down going from above 2 percent in the 1995-99 period and estimated at 0 percent in 2000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caribbean</span> Region to the east of Central America

The Caribbean is a subregion of the Americas that includes the Caribbean Sea and its islands, some of which are surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some of which border both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean; the nearby coastal areas on the mainland are sometimes also included in the region. The region is south-east of the Gulf of Mexico and Northern America, east of Central America, and north of South America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Culture of Antigua and Barbuda</span>

The traditions of West Africa and the United Kingdom have the biggest impact on the culture of Antigua and Barbuda. As a crucial component of its culture, Antigua and Barbuda also has its own creole language.

Sir Molwyn Joseph, KGCN, is an Antiguan politician and Chairman of the Antigua Labour Party (ALP). First entering politics in 1984 when he was made a Minister without Portfolio in the government of Vere Bird, Joseph became Minister of Finance seven years later, renegotiating the Antiguan national debt and introducing fiscal reforms. After a 1996 scandal in which it was discovered he had used his position to import a 1930s Rolls-Royce for a friend, bypassing normal import duties and taxes, he was dismissed from the Bird administration, returning 14 months later to serve as Minister for Planning, Implementation and the Environment. Following the 1999 general election, he became Minister of Heath and Social Improvement before being made Minister of Tourism and the Environment a few months later. As Minister, Joseph attempted to improve the perception of Antigua as a tourist destination and invest in the industry, spending 2 million US dollars increasing the number of hotel rooms on the island and providing money for both Air Jamaica and Air Luxor to provide flights to the island.

<i>At the Bottom of the River</i> Short story collection by Jamaica Kincaid

At the Bottom of the River is a collection of short stories by Caribbean novelist Jamaica Kincaid. Published in 1983, it was her first short story collection. The collection consists of ten inter-connected short stories, seven of which were previously published in The New Yorker and The Paris Review between 1978 and 1982. Kincaid was awarded the Morton Dauwen Zabel Award of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1983 for the collection.

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Bibliography

Further reading