List of retired South Pacific cyclone names

Last updated
Satellite image of Cyclone Winston, the strongest recorded tropical cyclone in the Southern Hemisphere Winston 2016-02-20 0130Z (cropped).jpg
Satellite image of Cyclone Winston, the strongest recorded tropical cyclone in the Southern Hemisphere

Tropical cyclones are non-frontal, low pressure systems that develop, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft. [1] Within the South Pacific, names are assigned from a pre-determined list, to such systems, once they reach or exceed ten-minute sustained wind speeds of 65 km/h (40 mph), near the center, by either the Fiji Meteorological Service or New Zealand's MetService. [1] Within the South Pacific, tropical cyclones have been officially named since the 1964–65 South Pacific cyclone season, though a few meteorological papers show that a few tropical cyclones were named before 1964–65. [2] [3] [4] The names of significant tropical cyclones that have caused a high amount of damage and/or caused a significant number of deaths are retired from the lists of tropical cyclone names by the World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee at their bi-annual meeting. [1]

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Weather front boundary separating two masses of air of different densities

A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics. In surface weather analyses, fronts are depicted using various colored triangles and half-circles, depending on the type of front. The air masses separated by a front usually differ in temperature and humidity.

A low-pressure area, low, depression or cyclone is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations. Low-pressure systems form under areas of wind divergence that occur in the upper levels of the troposphere. The formation process of a low-pressure area is known as cyclogenesis. Within the field of meteorology, atmospheric divergence aloft occurs in two areas. The first area is on the east side of upper troughs, which form half of a Rossby wave within the Westerlies. A second area of wind divergence aloft occurs ahead of embedded shortwave troughs, which are of smaller wavelength. Diverging winds aloft ahead of these troughs cause atmospheric lift within the troposphere below, which lowers surface pressures as upward motion partially counteracts the force of gravity.

Contents

Within the South Pacific, there have been a total of 103 tropical cyclone names retired, with the 1990s having the most retired tropical cyclone names. The most intense tropical cyclone to have its name retired was Winston, which had an estimated peak pressure of 884 hPa (26.1 inHg). The deadliest tropical cyclone to have its name retired was Severe Tropical Cyclone Namu, which caused over 100 deaths, when it affected the Solomon Islands in May 1986. The most damaging system was Yasi which caused over

Cyclone Winston Category 5 South Pacific cyclone in 2016

Severe Tropical Cyclone Winston was the most intense tropical cyclone in the Southern Hemisphere on record, as well as the strongest to make landfall in the Southern Hemisphere, with the possible exception of 1899's Cyclone Mahina in both regards. Winston is also the costliest tropical cyclone on record in the South Pacific basin. The system was first noted as a tropical disturbance on 7 February 2016, when it was located to the northwest of Port Vila, Vanuatu. Over the next few days, the system gradually developed as it moved southeast, acquiring gale-force winds by 11 February. The following day, it underwent rapid intensification and attained ten-minute maximum sustained winds of 175 km/h (110 mph). Less favourable environmental conditions prompted weakening thereafter. After turning northeast on 14 February, Winston stalled to the north of Tonga on 17 February. Due to a change in higher level steering, the storm drifted back to the west. In the process, Winston again rapidly intensified, reaching Category 5 intensity on both the Australian tropical cyclone scale and the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on 19 February. The storm passed directly over Vanua Balavu, where a national record wind gust of 306 km/h (190 mph) was observed.

Cyclone Yasi Category 5 South Pacific and Australian region cyclone in 2011

Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi was a powerful and destructive tropical cyclone that made landfall in northern Queensland, Australia in early 2011, causing major damage to the affected areas. Originating as a tropical low near Fiji on 26 January, the system intensified to tropical cyclone status during the evening of 30 January. Yasi deepened rapidly over the next 24 hours, and was classified as a Category 3 cyclone at about 5 PM AEST on 31 January 2011. Late on 1 February, the cyclone strengthened to a Category 4 system; then, early on 2 February, the cyclone intensified into a Category 5 Severe Tropical Cyclone. The system had a well-defined eye and continued to track west-southwestward, maintaining a central pressure of 930 hPa and a Dvorak intensity of T6.5 into the evening.

Background

Within the region the credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems, is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 – 1907. [5] Wragge used names drawn from the letters of the Greek alphabet, Greek and Roman mythology and female names, to describe weather systems over Australia, New Zealand and the Antarctic. [5] After the new Australian government had failed to create a federal weather bureau and appoint him director, Wragge started naming cyclones after political figures. [6] This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the region, by the New Caledonia Meteorological Office during the 1958–59 cyclone season. [5] [7] During the 1963–64 cyclone season the Australian Bureau of Meteorology started to use female names for tropical cyclones that occurred within the Australian region, before the New Zealand Meteorological Service's Fiji office also started using female names for tropical cyclones within the South Pacific during the 1969–70 cyclone season. [5] [7] During the International Women's Year of 1975 the NZMS decided to incorporate male names into the naming lists for the South Pacific, following a request from the Fiji National Council of Women who considered the practice discrimination. [5] At around the same time the Australian Science Minister ordered that tropical cyclones, within the Australian region should carry both men's and women's names. [5] This was because the minister thought "that both sexes should bear the odium of the devastation caused by cyclones." [5] As a result, male names were added to the lists of names for both basins, ahead of the 1975–76 season. [5] [8]

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

New Zealand Country in Oceania

New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.

Antarctic region around the Earths South Pole

The Antarctic is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica, the Kerguelen Plateau and other island territories located on the Antarctic Plate or south of the Antarctic Convergence. The Antarctic region includes the ice shelves, waters, and all the island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, a zone approximately 32 to 48 km wide varying in latitude seasonally. The region covers some 20 percent of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5.5 percent is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administered under the Antarctic Treaty System. Biogeographically, the Antarctic ecozone is one of eight ecozones of the Earth's land surface.

Later that decade as the dual sex naming of tropical cyclones started in the Northern Hemisphere, the NZMS looked at adding ethnic Pacific names to the naming lists rather than the European names that were currently used. [5] As a result of the many languages and cultures in the Pacific there was a lot of discussion surrounding this matter, with one name "Oni" being dropped as it meant the end of the world in one language. [5] One proposal suggested that cyclones be named from the country nearest to which they formed, however, this was dropped when it was realized that a cyclone might be less destructive in its formative stage than later in its development. [5] Eventually it was decided to throw names from all over the South Pacific into a pot at a training course, where each course member provided a list of names that were short, easily pronounced, culturally acceptable throughout the Pacific and did not contain any idiosyncrasies. [5] These names were then collated, edited for suitability before being cross-checked with the group for acceptability. [5] It was intended that the four lists of names should be alphabetical with alternative male and female names while using only ethnic names, however, it was not possible to complete the lists using only ethnic names so some European names were added in. [5] As a result, there was a scattering of European names in the final naming lists, which have been used by the Fiji Meteorological Service and NZMS since the 1980–81 season. [5]

Fiji Meteorological Service meteorological service of Fiji

The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) is a Department of the government of Fiji responsible for providing weather forecasts and is based in Nadi. The current director of Fiji Meteorological Service is Ravind Kumar. Since 1985, FMS has been responsible for naming and tracking tropical cyclones in the Southwest Pacific region. Current Meteorologists working at FMS have a Graduate Diploma in Meteorology from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

The practice of retiring significant names was started during 1955 by the United States Weather Bureau in the Northern Atlantic basin, after hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the Northeastern United States and caused a significant amount of damage in the previous year. [9] Initially the names were only designed to be retired for ten years after which they might be reintroduced, however, it was decided at the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference, that any significant hurricane in the future would have its name permanently retired. [9] [10] The first tropical cyclone name to be removed in the South Pacific, was Rosie after it had impacted Vanuatu and New Caledonia during 1971. [1] Several names have been removed from the Pacific naming lists for various other reasons than causing a significant amount of death/destruction, which include being pronounced in a very similar way to other names and political reasons. [11] [12]

Hurricane Carol Category 3 North Atlantic Ocean hurricane in 1954

Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones on record to affect the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island in the United States. It developed from a tropical wave near the Bahamas on August 25, 1954, and slowly strengthened as it moved northwestward. On August 27, Carol intensified to reach winds of 105 mph (165 km/h), but weakened as its motion turned to a northwest drift. A strong trough of low pressure turned the hurricane northeastward, and Carol later intensified into a major hurricane. While paralleling the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, the storm produced strong winds and rough seas that caused minor coastal flooding and slight damage to houses in North Carolina, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Delaware, and New Jersey. The well-organized hurricane accelerated north-northeastward and made landfall on eastern Long Island, New York, and then over eastern Connecticut on August 31 with sustained winds estimated at 110-mph and a barometric pressure near 956 mb. Carol later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over New Hampshire, on August 31, 1954.

Hurricane Edna Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1954

Hurricane Edna was a deadly and destructive major hurricane that impacted the United States East Coast in September of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. It was one of two hurricanes to strike Massachusetts in that year, the other being Hurricane Carol. The fifth tropical cyclone and storm of the season, as well as the fourth hurricane and second major hurricane, Edna developed from a tropical wave on September 2. Moving towards the north-northwest, Edna skirted the northern Leeward Islands as a tropical depression before turning more towards the west. The depression attained tropical storm status to the east of Puerto Rico and strengthened further to reach hurricane status by September 7. The storm rapidly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 125 mph (205 km/h) north of the Bahamas before weakening to Category 2 status near landfall in Massachusetts on September 11. Edna transitioned into an extratropical cyclone in Atlantic Canada before its remnants dissipated in the northern Atlantic.

Hurricane Hazel Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1954

Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed at least 469 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina as a Category 4 hurricane. After causing 95 fatalities in the US, Hazel struck Canada as an extratropical storm, raising the death toll by 81 people, mostly in Toronto. As a result of the high death toll and the damage caused by Hazel, its name was retired from use for North Atlantic hurricanes.

Tropical cyclone names retired

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
RosieDecember 30, 1970
 – January 4, 1971
Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)New Caledonia, VanuatuMinorNone [13]
VivienneDecember 17 – 19, 1971Category 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)French PolynesiaNoneNone
CarlottaJanuary 8 – 26, 1972Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Solomon Islands, New Caledonia
Vanuatu
Unknown4 [13] [14]
WendyJanuary 23 
February 9, 1972
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)New Caledonia, VanuatuUnknown4 [13] [15]
AgathaMarch 27 – 29, 1972Category 3 severe tropical cyclone120 km/h (75 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Cook IslandsUnknownNone
Bebe October 19 – 28, 1972Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Fiji, Tuvalu$20 million24 [16] [17]
LottieDecember 5 – 12, 1973Category 3 severe tropical cyclone130 km/h (80 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Fiji, TongaModerate80 [18] [19]
TinaApril 24 – 28, 1974Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Fiji, TongaMinorNone [19]
AlisonMarch 4 – 12, 1975Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)New Caledonia, New Zealand
Vanuatu
$1 millionNone [20]
ElsaJanuary 21 – 26, 1976Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)New Caledonia, VanuatuNoneNone [13]
MarionJanuary 12 – 21, 1977Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)VanuatuUnknownNone
RobertApril 16 – 22, 1977Category 3 severe tropical cyclone130 km/h (80 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)French PolynesiaUnknownNone
BobJanuary 31 
February 12, 1978
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Fiji, New Caledonia
Vanuatu, New Zealand
Moderate1 [21]
CharlesFebruary 14 – 28, 1978Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Samoan IslandsUnknownNone
DianaFebruary 15 – 22, 1978Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)French PolynesiaUnknownNone
FayDecember 27 – 31, 1978Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)FijiModerateNone [21]
GordonJanuary 4 – 12, 1979Category 3 severe tropical cyclone130 km/h (80 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Australia, New Caledonia
Vanuatu
SevereNone [13]
KerryFebruary 13 
March 6, 1979
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Australia, Solomon IslandsUnknown4 [14]
MeliMarch 24 – 31, 1979Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)FijiSevere53 [21]
WallyApril 2 – 7, 1980Category 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Fiji$2.26 million18 [21] [15]
TahmarMarch 8 – 13, 1981Category 3 severe tropical cyclone120 km/h (75 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)French PolynesiaUnknownNone
GyanDecember 18 – 29, 1981Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)VanuatuUnknownNone
IsaacFebruary 27 
March 5, 1982
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Tonga$10 million6 [22] [23]
JotiOctober 31 
November 7, 1982
Category 2 tropical cyclone110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)VanuatuMinorNone [24] [25]
[26]
LisaDecember 10 – 18, 1982Category 2 tropical cyclone110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Cook IslandsUnknownNone
MarkJanuary 21 
February 1, 1983
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)FijiUnknownNone
Oscar February 26 
March 6, 1983
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Fiji$130 million9 [21] [27]
VeenaApril 8 – 14, 1983Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)French PolynesiaUnknownNone
Eric January 12 – 20, 1985Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Fiji, Vanautu$40 million9 [21] [28]
ImaFebruary 5 – 16, 1986Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Cook IslandsUnknownNone
Namu May 16 – 22, 1986Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Solomon Islands$10 million111 [29]
Raja December 21, 1986 
January 5, 1987
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Fiji, Tonga, Tuvalu
Wallis and Futuna
$14 million2 [28] [30]
SallyDecember 26, 1986 
January 5, 1987
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Cook Islands, French Polynesia$24.6 millionNone [31]
Tusi January 13 – 21, 1987Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)American Samoa$24 millionNone [32]
UmaFebruary 4 – 8, 1987Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Vanuatu$150 million50 [4] [33]
Anne January 5 – 14, 1988Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)New Caledonia, Vanuatu$500 thousand2 [34] [35]
Bola February 24 
March 4, 1988
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Fiji, New Zealand, Vanuatu$87 million3 [34] [36]
HarryFebruary 8 – 19, 1989Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)New CaledoniaUnknownNone
LiliApril 7 – 11, 1989Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)New Caledonia, Solomon Islands
Vanuatu
UnknownNone
Ofa January 27 
February 10, 1990
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)American Samoa, Niue, Samoa
Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu
$187 million8 [15] [37] [38]
PeniFebruary 12 – 18, 1990Category 3 severe tropical cyclone120 km/h (75 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Cook Islands $1 million1 [39]
Sina November 20 
December 4, 1990
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone140 km/h (85 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Fiji, Niue, Southern Cook Islands
Tonga
$18.5 millionNone [40]
Tia November 13 – 21, 1991Category 3 severe tropical cyclone140 km/h (85 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Solomon Islands, VanuatuMinimalNone [41]
Val December 4 – 17, 1991Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)American Samoa, Cook Islands
Samoa, Tonga, Tokelau
Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna
$330 million16 [42] [43]
Wasa December 4 – 18, 1991Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)French Polynesia$60 million2 [42] [44]
Betsy January 4 – 15, 1992Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Vanuatu$2 million2 [34] [45]
Esau February 24 
March 7, 1992
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)VanuatuMinimal1 [35] [46]
Fran March 4 – 17, 1992Category 5 severe tropical cyclone205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Fiji, New Caledonia, Queensland
Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna
$1 millionNone
Joni December 3 – 13, 1992Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Fiji, Tuvalu$1.6 million1 [47] [48]
Kina December 26, 1992
 – January 6, 1993
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (95 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Fiji, Tonga$110 million26 [22] [47]
Prema March 26 
April 6, 1993
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)New Caledonia, Vanuatu$50 million1 [34]
Rewa December 26, 1993
 – January 23, 1994
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)New Caledonia, New Zealand
Papua New Guinea, Queensland
Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
Unknown22
WilliamDecember 30, 1994
 – January 5, 1995
Category 2 tropical cyclone110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Cook Islands, French Polynesia$2.5 millionNone [49]
BetiMarch 21 – 28, 1996Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Australia, New Caledonia
New Zealand, Vanuatu
$5.3 million2 [34] [50] [51]
Drena January 3 – 10, 1997Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)New Caledonia, New Zealand
Vanuatu
UnknownNone [52]
Gavin March 3 – 12, 1997Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Fiji, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna$18.3 million18 [47] [52] [53]
Hina March 13 – 18, 1997Category 3 severe tropical cyclone120 km/h (75 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Fiji, Tonga, Tuvalu
Wallis and Futuna
$15.2 millionNone [52] [54]
Keli June 7 – 17, 1997Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (95 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Tuvulu, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna$10 thousandNone [55]
Martin October 27 
November 5, 1997
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Cook Islands, French Polynesia$17.6 million28 [56] [57]
[58]
Osea November 24 – 28, 1997Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (95 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Cook Islands, French PolynesiaUnknownNone [56]
Ron January 2 – 8, 1998Category 5 severe tropical cyclone230 km/h (140 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Niue, Tokelau, Tonga$566 thousandNone [22] [50] [56]
Susan December 20, 1997 
January 9, 1998
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone230 km/h (140 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Fiji, Solomon Islands, VanuatuMinor1 [56]
TuiJanuary 25 – 27, 1998Category 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)American Samoa, Samoa$1 million1 [50] [56]
UrsulaJanuary 30 
February 1, 1998
Category 2 tropical cyclone110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)French PolynesiaMinorNone [56]
VeliFebruary 1 – 3, 1998Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)French PolynesiaMinorNone [56]
CoraDecember 23 – 28, 1998Category 3 severe tropical cyclone140 km/h (85 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Tonga$12 millionNone [22] [59]
DaniJanuary 15 – 22, 1999Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Fiji, New Caledonia, Vanuatu$2 million14 [50] [59] [60]
Frank February 18 – 21, 1999Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (95 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)New CaledoniaUnknownNone [59]
KimFebruary 23 – 29, 2000Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)French PolynesiaMinimalNone [61] [62]
Paula February 26 
March 4, 2001
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Fiji, Tonga, Vanuatu$1.39 million2 [50] [63]
Sose April 5 – 11, 2001Category 2 tropical cyclone110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Australia, New Caledonia, VanuatuUnknown4 [63]
Trina November 29 
December 3, 2001
Category 1 tropical cyclone65 km/h (40 mph)995 hPa (29.38 inHg)Cook Islands$52 thousandNone [64] [65]
Waka December 19, 2001 
January 2, 2002
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Tonga, Wallis and Futuna$51.3 million1 [22] [50] [64]
Zoe December 23, 2002 
January 1, 2003
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone240 km/h (150 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)Solomon Islands, VanuatuSevereNone [66]
Ami January 9 – 15, 2003Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Fiji, Tonga, Tuvalu$65 million14 [50] [66] [67]
Beni January 25 
February 5, 2003
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Australia, New Caledonia
Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
$1 million1 [50] [66]
Cilla January 27 – 29, 2003Category 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)995 hPa (29.38 inHg)TongaUnknownNone [66]
Heta December 25, 2003 
January 8, 2004
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)American Samoa, Niue, Samoa
Tonga, Wallis and Futuna
$225 million3 [15] [50]
[68] [69]
Ivy February 21 
March 2, 2004
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Vanuatu$8 million2 [34] [50] [68] [70]
Meena February 1 – 8, 2005Category 5 severe tropical cyclone215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Cook IslandsSevereNone [71]
Nancy February 10 – 17, 2005Category 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Cook IslandsSevereNone [71]
Olaf February 10 – 20, 2005Category 5 severe tropical cyclone230 km/h (140 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)American Samoa, Cook Islands
Samoa
$10.2 million9 [15] [72]
Percy February 24 
March 5, 2005
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone230 km/h (140 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)American Samoa, Cook Islands
Samoa, Tokelau
$52 thousandNone [71] [72]
Cliff April 1 – 6, 2007Category 2 tropical cyclone95 km/h (60 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Fiji, Tonga$4 million1 [73]
Daman December 2 – 10, 2008Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Fiji, Tonga$330 thousandNone [73]
Funa January 14 – 21, 2008Category 4 severe tropical cyclone175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)VanuatuSevereNone [73]
Gene January 25 
February 9, 2008
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Fiji$35 million8 [73] [74]
Mick December 3 – 15, 2009Category 2 tropical cyclone110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Fiji$33 million3 [75] [76]
Oli January 29 
February 7, 2010
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Cook Islands, French Polynesia$70 million1 [15] [77]
Pat February 6 – 11, 2010Category 3 severe tropical cyclone140 km/h (85 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Cook Islands$13.7 millionNone [78]
Tomas March 9 – 17, 2010Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Wallis and Futuna, Fiji$45 million3 [79]
Ului March 9 – 21, 2010Category 5 severe tropical cyclone215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Australia, Solomon Islands
Vanuatu
$72 million1 [80]
Vania January 5 – 15, 2011Category 2 tropical cyclone100 km/h (65 mph)973 hPa (28.73 inHg)New Caledonia, Vanuatu$11 millionNone [81]
Wilma January 19 – 28, 2011Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)American Samoa, Fiji, Samoa
Tonga, New Zealand
$22 million3 [82] [83]
Yasi January 26 
February 7, 2011
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone215 km/h (130 mph)929 hPa (27.43 inHg)Australia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
$2.5 billion1 [15]
Atu February 13 – 24, 2011Category 4 severe tropical cyclone165 km/h (105 mph)937 hPa (27.67 inHg)New Caledonia, VanuatuUnknownNone
Evan December 9 – 19, 2012Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)943 hPa (27.85 inHg)Fiji, Samoa, American Samoa
Wallis and Futuna
$161 million4
FredaDecember 26, 2012 
January 4, 2013
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Solomon Islands, New CaledoniaUnknown2 [84]
Ian January 2 – 15, 2014Category 5 severe tropical cyclone205 km/h (125 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Fiji, Tonga$4.3 million1
Lusi March 7 –14, 2014Category 3 severe tropical cyclone150 km/h (90 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Fiji, New Caledonia
New Zealand, Vanuatu
$3 million10 [85]
Pam March 6 – 15, 2015Category 5 severe tropical cyclone250 km/h (155 mph)896 hPa (26.46 inHg)Fiji, Kiribati, New Caledonia
New Zealand, Solomon Islands
Tuvalu, Vanuatu
$360 million16
Ula December 26, 2015 
January 12, 2016
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone185 km/h (115 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)American Samoa, Fiji
New Caledonia, Samoa, Tonga
Tuvalu, Vanuatu
Unknown1
Winston February 7 – 25, 2016Category 5 severe tropical cyclone280 km/h (175 mph)884 hPa (26.10 inHg)Fiji, Niue, Tonga, Vanuatu$1.4 billion44
CookApril 6 – 11, 2017Category 3 severe tropical cyclone155 km/h (100 mph)961 hPa (28.38 inHg)Vanuatu, New Caledonia, New ZealandModerate1 [86]
Donna May 1 – 10, 2017Category 5 severe tropical cyclone205 km/h (125 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji
New Caledonia, New Zealand
Significant2 [87]
Gita February 3 – 19, 2018Category 5 severe tropical cyclone205 km/h (125 mph)927 hPa (27.37 inHg)Fiji, Wallis and Futuna, Samoa
American Samoa, Niue, Tonga
New Caledonia, New Zealand
$225 million2
JosieMarch 29 – April 2, 2018Category 1 tropical cyclone75 km/h (45 mph)993 hPa (29.32 inHg)Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga$5 million6
KeniApril 5 – 11, 2018Category 3 severe tropical cyclone140 km/h (85 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga$5 millionNone
[nb 1] [nb 2]

See also

Notes

  1. Reference for names retired and season. [1] [88]
  2. Reference for tropical cyclone dates, season, windspeeds and pressure between 1969–70 and 2005–06. [89]

Related Research Articles

1999–2000 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1999–2000 South Pacific tropical cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation and ran from November 1, 1999, to April 30, 2000, in the South Pacific.

2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2007 until April 30, 2008, although the first cyclone, Tropical Depression 01F, developed on October 17. The most intense tropical cyclone of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Daman, which reached a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) as it affected Fiji. After the season had ended, the names Daman, Funa, and Gene were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 1, 2005 and ended on April 30, 2006. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the southern Pacific Ocean east of 160°E. Additionally, the regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" runs from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006.

2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004 with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 4 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 23. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.

2002–03 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2002–03 South Pacific cyclone season was the most active and longest tropical cyclone season since 1997–98, with ten tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season started earlier than normal, with two systems developing before the official start of the season on November 1, 2002, while the final system dissipated on June 9, 2003, after the season had officially ended on April 30. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings for American interests. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that occur within the basin, while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate windspeeds over a ten-minute period, while the JTWC estimates sustained winds over a one-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale (SSHS).

2000–01 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2000–01 South Pacific cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 1, 2000 and ended on April 30, 2001. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the southern Pacific Ocean east of 160°E. Additionally, the regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" runs from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001.

A South Pacific tropical cyclone is a non frontal, low pressure system that has developed, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft in the South Pacific Ocean. Within the Southern Hemisphere there are officially three areas where tropical cyclones develop on a regular basis, these areas are the South-West Indian Ocean between Africa and 90°E, the Australian region between 90°E and 160°E and the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W is officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service and New Zealand's MetService, while others like the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. Each tropical cyclone year within this basin starts on July 1 and runs throughout the year, encompassing the tropical cyclone season which runs from November 1 and lasts until April 30 each season. Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).

Timeline of the 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only four tropical cyclones, forming within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2007 to April 30, 2008, although the first cyclone, Tropical Depression 01F, formed on October 17.

2008–09 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2008–09 South Pacific cyclone season was a below average tropical cyclone season, which featured six named tropical cyclones compared to an average of about nine. Ahead of the season officially starting on November 1, 2008, the Island Climate Update tropical cyclone outlook predicted that the season, would feature an average risk of tropical cyclones impacting the South Pacific between 160°E and 120°W. The first tropical disturbance of the season developed to the northeast of the Samoan Islands on December 1, however, it remained weak and was last noted during the next day.

Cyclone Gene Category 3 South Pacific cyclone in 2008

Severe Tropical Cyclone Gene was the deadliest storm as well as the most damaging tropical cyclone of the 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season east of 160ºE. RSMC Nadi monitored Gene as the 12th tropical disturbance, as well as the fourth tropical cyclone and the third severe tropical cyclone to form west of 160ºE during the 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season. Gene was also recognised by RSMC Nadi as the fifth tropical cyclone and fourth severe tropical cyclone to form within the South Pacific Ocean during the 2007-08 season.

Cyclone Xavier (2006) Category 4 South Pacific cyclone in 2006

Severe Tropical Cyclone Xavier was a strong pre-season cyclone that formed on October 20, 2006 to the north of the Santa Cruz Islands. The cyclone was also the strongest storm of the season. During the next day it rapidly developed and was designated as Tropical Depression 01F later that day, before being designated as Tropical Cyclone Xavier while over Santa Cruz early on October 22. Later on October 22, Xavier intensified into a category 3 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, before passing over Tikopia early the next day. Xavier then reached its peak wind speeds of 175 km/h, which made it a Category 4 cyclone early on October 24. Xavier stayed at its peak wind speeds until early the next day when it started to rapidly weaken, becoming a depression early on October 26. The remnants of Xavier persisted until October 28 before dissipating. There were no casualties reported as a result of the storm and little impact reported in the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.

2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season was an average tropical cyclone season, with seven tropical cyclones and five severe tropical cyclones developing during the season. The season ran from November 1, 2010 until April 30, 2011, though if any tropical cyclones had developed between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011, the official tropical cyclone year, they would have been counted towards the season's total. Within the South Pacific basin tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji, north of 25°S, and to the south the Meteorological Service of New Zealand's Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Wellington, New Zealand. Any disturbances forming in the region were designated with a sequential number suffixed by the letter F. In addition, the United States Military's Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially monitored parts of the basin during the season, where any systems judged to have achieved tropical storm strength or greater received a number suffixed with the letter P. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure wind speeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute which can be applied to the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Seven named storms formed or moved into the South Pacific basin during the 2010–11 season, the strongest of which was Severe Tropical Cyclone Wilma in late January.

2011–12 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2011–12 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with only three tropical cyclones occurring during the season. The season ran from November 1, 2011 to April 30, 2012, however, any tropical cyclones that form before June 30, 2012 would have fallen within the 2011–12 tropical cyclone year and would have counted towards the season total. The strongest and only severe tropical cyclone that occurred during the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Jasmine, which tracked in from out of the South Pacific basin. Within the basin, tropical cyclones are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji, and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) in Wellington, New Zealand. RSMC Nadi attaches an F designation to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the South Pacific. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues unofficial warnings within the South Pacific, designating tropical storm-equivalent or greater tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute and uses the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

2012–13 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 2012–13 South Pacific cyclone season was a somewhat below average tropical cyclone season, with six tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season officially ran from November 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013, however the last tropical disturbance was last noted on May 1, as it moved into the subtropics. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS), Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and New Zealand's MetService. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and other national meteorological services including Météo-France and NOAA also monitored the basin during the season. During the season there were 22 significant tropical disturbances assigned a number and a F suffix by the FMS's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji (RSMC Nadi), including Severe Tropical Cyclone Sandra which moved into the basin from the Australian region on March 9. The BoM, MetService and RSMC Nadi all estimated sustained wind speeds over a period of 10-minutes and used the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHS).

Cyclone Vania Category 2 South Pacific cyclone in 2011

Tropical Cyclone Vania was the third depression and first tropical cyclone of the 2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season.

1995–96 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1995–96 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific Ocean to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1995, until April 30, 1996. The first storm developed on January 12, while the last one dissipated on April 2. During the season the most intense tropical cyclone was Severe Tropical Cyclone Beti, which reached a minimum pressure of 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) as it affected New Caledonia. After the season ended Beti's name was the only name to be retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists and was replaced with Bune, after it inflicted over 5.6 million (USD) worth of damage to Australia, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and New Zealand.

2013–14 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2013–14 South Pacific cyclone season was a slightly below average tropical cyclone season, with six tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season ran from November 1, 2013 to April 30, 2014, however, the first four tropical disturbances occurred during October 2013 and were included as a part of the season. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS), Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and New Zealand's MetService. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and other national meteorological services including Météo-France and NOAA also monitored the basin during the season. During the season there were 21 significant tropical disturbances were assigned a number and an "F" suffix by the FMS's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji (RSMC Nadi), including the remnants of Tropical Cyclone Hadi from the Australian region. The BoM, MetService and RSMC Nadi all estimated sustained wind speeds over a period of 10-minutes and used the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHS).

2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season was a slightly-below average tropical cyclone season, with five tropical cyclones occurring within the basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season officially ran from November 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015. During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings for American interests. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the basin while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

Cyclone Gavin Category 4 South Pacific cyclone in 1997

Severe Tropical Cyclone Gavin was the most intense tropical cyclone to affect Fiji, since Cyclone Oscar of the 1982–83 cyclone season and was the first of three tropical cyclones to affect the island nations of Tuvalu and Wallis and Futuna during the 1996–97 season. The system that was to become Gavin was first identified during March 2, as a weak tropical depression that had developed within the monsoon trough of low pressure. Over the next two days the depression gradually developed further, before it was named Gavin by RSMC Nadi early on March 4 as it had developed into a tropical cyclone.

Cyclone Lusi

Cyclone Lusi was the second severe tropical cyclone of the 2013–14 season and affected Fiji, Vanuatu and New Zealand.

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