Hurricane Fay

Last updated

Hurricane Fay
Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Fay Oct 12 2014 1455Z.jpg
Hurricane Fay at peak intensity over Bermuda on October 12
FormedOctober 10, 2014
DissipatedOctober 13, 2014
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 80 mph (130 km/h)
Lowest pressure983 mbar (hPa); 29.03 inHg
Damage≥ $3.8 million (2014 USD)
Areas affected Bermuda
Part of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Fay was the first hurricane to make landfall on Bermuda since Emily in 1987. [nb 1] The sixth named storm and fifth hurricane of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season, Fay evolved from a broad disturbance several hundred miles northeast of the Lesser Antilles on October 10. Initially a subtropical cyclone with an expansive wind field and asymmetrical cloud field, the storm gradually attained tropical characteristics as it turned north, transitioning into a tropical storm early on October 11.


Despite being plagued by disruptive wind shear for most of its lifetime, Tropical Storm Fay steadily intensified. Veering toward the east, Fay briefly achieved Category 1 hurricane status while making landfall on Bermuda early on October 12. Wind shear eventually took its toll on Fay, causing the hurricane to weaken to a tropical storm later that day and degenerate into an open trough early on October 13.

A few tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in anticipation of Fay's impact on Bermuda. Despite its modest strength, Fay produced extensive damage on Bermuda. Winds gusting over 100 mph (155 km/h) clogged roadways with downed trees and utility poles, and left a majority of the island's electric customers without power. The terminal building at L.F. Wade International Airport was flooded after the storm damaged its roof and sprinkler system. Along the coast, the storm unmoored and destroyed numerous boats. Immediately after the hurricane, 200  Bermuda Regiment soldiers were called to clear debris and assist in initial damage repairs. Cleanup efforts overlapped with preparations for the approach of the stronger Hurricane Gonzalo, which struck the island less than six days later and compounded the damage. Fay and Gonzalo marked the first recorded instance of two Bermuda hurricane landfalls in one season. [1]

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Fay 2014 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Hurricane Fay originated in a disturbance calved from a mid- to upper-level trough over the east-central Atlantic. [2] On October 7, a broad region of showers and thunderstorms formed around it, possibly enhanced by moisture from a tropical wave to the south. Tracking westward, the energy coalesced into an upper-level cold-core low on the following day, and an associated trough formed at the surface. Southwesterly wind shear initially hindered development, but as the system became more vertically aligned on October 9, the hostile winds calmed. In turn, a curved banding feature was able to take form. [2] Early on October 10, satellite imagery indicated that the center of circulation had become better-defined, with a swath of deep convection to the north and west of the low. [3] It became a subtropical storm at 06:00  UTC on October 10, [2] though it was not named "Fay" until later that day, after initially being classified Subtropical Depression Seven. [3] Its involvement with the upper-level low and wide radius of maximum winds precluded designation as a fully tropical cyclone. [3]

Fay as a subtropical storm on October 10 Fay 2014-10-10 1510Z.jpg
Fay as a subtropical storm on October 10

Immediately after forming, the storm moved northwestward around the periphery of a ridge of high pressure in the central Atlantic. As Fay moved away from its parent upper low, wind shear once again increased. [2] The National Hurricane Center originally expected the cyclone to remain weak, [3] but Fay began organizing more quickly than anticipated. Relatively strong winds sampled by a Hurricane Hunters aircraft necessitated a special off-hour advisory to raise the cyclone's intensity estimate. [4] The storm started to acquire characteristics of a fully tropical system, and despite strong southerly wind shear preventing thunderstorms from developing near the center, [5] Fay's wind speeds steadily increased. Upper-level air divergence from the nearby non-tropical low may have contributed to the storm's resilience. [2] After convection became more symmetrical and the wind field contracted, Fay transitioned into a tropical storm at 06:00 UTC on October 11. [2] At the same time, the system turned toward the north around the central Atlantic ridge, [6] soon gaining an easterly component to its movement. Fay remained heavily sheared, with the deepest convection still displaced from the center. [7]

Forecasters originally believed Fay to have only briefly been a hurricane, but post-season reanalysis revealed that the system had actually strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane by early on October 12 and maintained that strength for 12 hours. The upgrade was confirmed by buoy and land observations and weather radar data. At 08:10 UTC, the cyclone made landfall on Bermuda with maximum sustained winds of 80 mph (130 km/h), the hurricane's peak intensity. Fay was the first hurricane to make landfall on the island since Emily in 1987. [2] Its satellite presentation improved as a mid-level eye feature formed, [8] though the system remained lopsided. Fay then accelerated toward the east-northeast ahead of a shortwave trough to the north, which also acted to further enhance shear in the area. The hurricane finally succumbed to the persistent wind shear when the low-level center decoupled from the mid-level low and became elongated. [2] By the early morning hours of October 13, Fay started transitioning into an extratropical cyclone as it entered a baroclinic environment and ingested colder, drier air. [9] The circulation rapidly deteriorated; consequently, the NHC issued its last operational advisory on the system at 21:00 UTC on October 12. [10] Early the following day, the storm degenerated into an open trough, ending its existence as a tropical cyclone. Shortly after, the system became reestablished as a frontal cyclone, which lost its definition over the northeastern Atlantic on October 15. [2]

Preparations and impact

In advance of Fay, a tropical storm watch was issued on October 10 and upgraded to a tropical storm warning the next day. Additionally, in response to the storm's unexpected strengthening, a hurricane watch was posted at 21:00 UTC on October 11. [2] As it was a Sunday, all public schools on the island were closed. [11] Bus and ferry services were canceled, [12] and two cruise ships delayed their arrival into port to avoid the cyclone. [13]

One of numerous yachts wrecked by Hurricane Fay Fay storm damage Bermuda.jpg
One of numerous yachts wrecked by Hurricane Fay

Fay produced unexpectedly strong winds across Bermuda, especially over western and southern parts of the territory. L.F. Wade International Airport reported 10-minute sustained winds of 61 mph (98 km/h), with gusts to 82 mph (132 km/h). Several stations at higher elevations recorded gusts in excess of 115 mph (185 km/h), reaching 123 mph (198 km/h) at Commissioner's Point, about 150 ft (46 m) above sea level. [2] The most intense winds occurred in a relatively quick burst on the backside of the storm, within a large band of thunderstorms that affected the island a couple hours after the official landfall. [2] [12] Local radar imagery indicated possible tornadic activity coinciding with the period of most damaging winds, though this could also have been an artifact of radar velocity folding. [14] A gauge at St. George's recorded a 1.78 ft (0.54 m) storm surge, though higher water rises may have affected the southern and western sides of the island. [2] Rainfall unofficially amounted to 3.70 in (94 mm) as reported by a member of the public, and the airport recorded 1.87 in (47 mm) of rain, though the observing equipment was compromised in both cases. [2]

The hurricane brought down thousands of trees and tree limbs, making streets impassable. [14] [15] The winds also toppled utility poles and inflicted roof damage on buildings. [11] [16] Over 27,000 of the Bermuda Electric Light Company's 36,000 customers lost power at the height of the storm. [17] Several roads, including Front Street in Hamilton, were flooded. [11] Many boats up to 60 ft (18 m) in length broke free from their moorings and were damaged or destroyed upon being driven aground. [18] Hamilton city parks sustained considerable damage, and were closed due to safety hazards. [19] The combined effects of Fay and Gonzalo forced the Botanical Gardens and Arboretum to stay closed until mid-November, while cleanup of vegetation damage was underway. [20]

Fay damaged the roof of the airport's terminal building, causing the sprinkler system to malfunction and inundate parts of the structure with water; the resultant flooding crippled computer systems crucial to processing passenger information. The airport's radar was also impacted by the storm. In response to the damage, the airport was closed to all flights, though it quickly reopened to emergency diversions and non-commercial flights. [21] Including subsequent damage from Gonzalo, about $2 million was spent on airport repairs, and the storms were later cited as evidence of the need for a newer terminal in a more protected location. [22]

Overall, the cyclone's effects were greater than anticipated, with destruction at least partially facilitated by saturated soils from nearly 14 inches (360 mm) of rain in August and above-normal precipitation in September. [2] Farmers reported that much of their autumn and winter crops had been lost, along with a few head of livestock. [23] Fay and Gonzalo had a significant cumulative impact on Bermuda's agriculture and fishing industries, contributing to a slight GDP decline. [24] By about a week after Fay's landfall, a local insurance company had received nearly 400 claims resulting from the storm, accounting for $3.8 million in damage. [25] However, with several insurers on the island, the actual damage total was likely much higher; [2] in a report to the World Meteorological Organization, the Bermuda Weather Service speculated that all insurance claims from Fay totaled "tens of millions of dollars". [14] [nb 2] Ten people suffered minor storm-related injuries, but no fatalities were attributed to the storm. [11]


Cleanup efforts after the storm were hastened as Hurricane Gonzalo approached from the south, amid concerns that strewn debris from Fay could become airborne and exacerbate future destruction. The unanticipated heavy damage from Fay prompted residents to prepare more thoroughly for Gonzalo, as evidenced by stores reporting an influx of customers purchasing emergency supplies. [26] Two hundred Bermuda Regiment soldiers helped clear debris and began repairing structural damage. [27] On October 13, crews of soldiers put tarpaulins on 30 homes with roof damage, as well as distributing another 150 tarps to homeowners. [28]

Early on October 16, the Bermuda Electric Light Company (BELCO) switched its focus from service restoration after Fay to preparations for the onslaught of Gonzalo, leaving about 1,500 households without power. The remaining affected customers were asked to refrain from calling in to report outages, as further repairs would not be attempted before Gonzalo's passage unless "an easy fix can be made [and] resources are available". [29] With the same 1,500 customers still without electricity by October 23, BELCO tasked several crews with restoring the residual Fay outages on a priority basis, [30] aided by Caribbean Electric Utility Services Corporation linemen who arrived in the aftermath of Gonzalo. [31] Following the two hurricanes, service was not completely restored to the island until November 3; [14] BELCO ultimately spent $2.9 million on system repairs, having replaced 228 utility poles and over 4 mi (6.5 km) of wire. [32]

See also


  1. A landfall occurs when the precise center of a storm crosses a coastline. It is possible for a tropical cyclone to make a direct hit, but not a landfall (as with 2003's Hurricane Fabian on Bermuda).
  2. The swift arrival of Gonzalo made it difficult to determine an accurate damage total for Fay alone. [2]

Related Research Articles

2004 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was a very deadly, destructive, and extremely active Atlantic hurricane season, with over 3,200 deaths and more than $61 billion in damage. More than half of the 16 tropical cyclones brushed or struck the United States. Due to the development of a Modoki El Niño – a rare type of El Niño in which unfavorable conditions are produced over the eastern Pacific instead of the Atlantic basin due to warmer sea surface temperatures farther west along the equatorial Pacific – activity was above average. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the season's last storm, Otto, dissipated on December 3, extending the season beyond its traditional boundaries. The first storm, Alex, developed offshore of the Southeastern United States on July 31, one of the latest dates on record to see the formation of the first system in an Atlantic hurricane season. It brushed the Carolinas and the Mid-Atlantic, causing one death and $7.5 million (2004 USD) in damage. Several storms caused only minor damage, including tropical storms Bonnie, Earl, Hermine, and Matthew. In addition, hurricanes Danielle, Karl, and Lisa, Tropical Depression Ten, Subtropical Storm Nicole and Tropical Storm Otto had no effect on land while tropical cyclones.

2003 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2003 Atlantic hurricane season was an extremely active Atlantic hurricane season with tropical activity before and after the official bounds of the season—the first such occurrence since the 1954 season. The season produced 21 tropical cyclones, of which 16 developed into named storms; seven of those attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. With sixteen storms, the season was tied for the fifth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, although it has since dropped down to become the seventh most active season. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isabel, which reached Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale northeast of the Lesser Antilles; Isabel later struck North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane, causing $3.6 billion in damage and a total of 51 deaths across the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

2002 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms in the Atlantic in 2002

The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season was a near-average Atlantic hurricane season. It officially started on June 1, 2002 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean. The season produced fourteen tropical cyclones, of which twelve developed into named storms; four became hurricanes, and two attained major hurricane status. While the season's first cyclone did not develop until July 14, activity quickly picked up: eight storms developed in the month of September. It ended early however, with no tropical storms forming after October 6—a rare occurrence caused partly by El Niño conditions. The most intense hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isidore with a minimum central pressure of 934 mbar, although Hurricane Lili attained higher winds and peaked at Category 4 whereas Isidore only reached Category 3.

Hurricane Fabian Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2003

Hurricane Fabian was a powerful Cape Verde hurricane that hit Bermuda in early September during the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the sixth named storm, fourth hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season, developed from a tropical wave in the tropical Atlantic Ocean on August 25. It moved west-northwestward under the influence of the subtropical ridge to its north, and steadily strengthened in an area of warm sea surface temperatures and light wind shear. The hurricane attained a peak intensity of 145 mph (230 km/h) on September 1, and it slowly weakened as it turned northward. On September 5, Fabian made a direct hit on Bermuda with wind speeds of over 120 mph (195 km/h). After passing the island, the hurricane turned to the northeast, and became extratropical on September 8, before dissipating two days later.

2008 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season was the most destructive Atlantic hurricane season since 2005, causing over 1,000 deaths and nearly $50 billion in damage. The season ranked as the third costliest ever at the time, but has since fallen to seventh costliest. It was an above-average season, featuring sixteen named storms, eight of which became hurricanes, and five which further became major hurricanes. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the formation of Tropical Storm Arthur caused the season to start one day early. It was the only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November in the North Atlantic. Bertha became the longest-lived July tropical cyclone on record for the basin, the first of several long-lived systems during 2008.

Tropical Storm Edouard (2002) Atlantic tropical cyclone

Tropical Storm Edouard was the first of eight named storms to form in September 2002, the most such storms in the North Atlantic for any month at the time. The fifth tropical storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Edouard developed into a tropical cyclone on September 1 from an area of convection associated with a cold front east of Florida. Under weak steering currents, Edouard drifted to the north and executed a clockwise loop to the west. Despite moderate to strong levels of wind shear, the storm reached a peak intensity of 65 mph (100 km/h) on September 3, but quickly weakened as it tracked westward. Edouard made landfall on northeastern Florida on September 5, and after crossing the state it dissipated on September 6 while becoming absorbed into the larger circulation of Tropical Storm Fay.

2011 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2011 Atlantic hurricane season was the second in a group of three very active Atlantic hurricane seasons. The above-average activity was mostly due to a La Niña that persisted during the previous year. The season is tied with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2012 for the fourth highest number of tropical storms since record-keeping began in 1851. Although the season featured 19 tropical storms, most were weak. Only seven of them intensified into hurricanes, and only four of those became major hurricanes: Irene, Katia, Ophelia, and Rina. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during each year in which most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean. However, the first tropical storm of the season, Arlene, did not develop until nearly a month later. The final system, Tropical Storm Sean, dissipated over the open Atlantic on November 11.

2015 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2015 Atlantic hurricane season was the last of three consecutive below average Atlantic hurricane seasons. It produced twelve tropical cyclones, eleven named storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for the season was 68% of the long-term median value. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2015, and ended on November 30, 2015. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the North Atlantic basin. However, the first named storm, Ana, developed on May 8, nearly a month before the official start of the season, the first pre-season cyclone since Beryl in 2012 and the earliest since Ana in 2003. The formation of Ana marked the first in a series of seven consecutive seasons with pre-season activity, spanning from 2015 to 2021. The season concluded with Kate transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on November 11, almost three weeks before the official end.

2014 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average hurricane season in terms of named storms, and an average season in terms of both hurricanes and major hurricanes. It produced nine tropical cyclones, eight named storms, the fewest since the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season, six hurricanes and two major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1, 2014, and ended on November 30, 2014. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first storm of the season, Arthur, developed on July 1, while the final storm, Hanna, dissipated on October 28, about a month prior to the end of the season.

Hurricane Rafael Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2012

Hurricane Rafael produced minor damage in the northeastern Caribbean Sea in mid-October 2012. The seventeenth named storm and ninth hurricane of the 2012 hurricane season, Rafael originated from a tropical wave roughly 230 mi (370 km) south-southeast of Saint Croix on October 12; because the system already contained tropical storm-force winds, it skipped tropical depression status. Though initially disorganized due to moderate wind shear, a subsequent decrease allowed for shower and thunderstorm activity to develop in earnest by October 14. While moving north-northwestward the following morning, Rafael intensified into a Category 1 hurricane. A cold front off the East Coast of the United States caused the system to turn northward and eventually northeastward by October 16, at which time Rafael attained its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h). As the cyclone entered a more stable atmosphere and tracked across increasingly cooler sea surface temperatures, it began extratropical transition, a process the system completed by the following afternoon. However, Rafael's extratropical remnant persisted for another nine days, with the storm looping around a larger extratropical low over the north-central Atlantic, before turning southeastward and then eastward. Rafael's remnant later made landfall on Portugal on October 26, before dissipating later that day.

2016 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season was the first above-average hurricane season since 2012, producing 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes and 4 major hurricanes. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the first storm, Hurricane Alex which formed in the Northeastern Atlantic, developed on January 12, being the first hurricane to develop in January since 1938. The final storm, Otto, crossed into the Eastern Pacific on November 25, a few days before the official end. Following Alex, Tropical Storm Bonnie brought flooding to South Carolina and portions of North Carolina. Tropical Storm Colin in early June brought minor flooding and wind damage to parts of the Southeastern United States, especially Florida. Hurricane Earl left 94 fatalities in the Dominican Republic and Mexico, 81 of which occurred in the latter. In early September, Hurricane Hermine, the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, brought extensive coastal flooding damage especially to the Forgotten and Nature coasts of Florida. Hermine was responsible for five fatalities and about $550 million (2016 USD) in damage.

2020 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active and the fifth costliest Atlantic hurricane season on record. The season also had the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) since 2017. In addition, it was the fifth consecutive above average season from 2016 onward. The season featured a total of 31 (sub)tropical cyclones, all but one of which became a named storm. Of the 30 named storms, 14 developed into hurricanes, and a record-tying seven further intensified into major hurricanes. It was the second and final season to use the Greek letter storm naming system, the first being 2005. Of the 30 named storms, 11 of them made landfall in the contiguous United States, breaking the record of nine set in 1916. During the season, 27 tropical storms established a new record for the earliest formation by storm number. This season also featured a record 10 tropical cyclones that underwent rapid intensification, tying it with 1995. This unprecedented activity was fueled by a La Niña that developed in the summer months of 2020. Despite the extreme activity, this was the first season since 2015 in which no Category 5 hurricane formed.

Timeline of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season Timeline of a tropical cyclone season

The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season was an event in the annual hurricane season in the north Atlantic Ocean. It featured below-average tropical cyclone activity, with the fewest named storms since the 1997 season. The season officially began on June 1, 2014 and ended on November 30, 2014. These dates, adopted by convention, historically describe the period in each year when most tropical systems form. Even so, there were no named storms during either the opening or closing months of the season, as the first, Hurricane Arthur, developed on July 1, and the last, Tropical Storm Hanna, dissipated on October 28.

Hurricane Gonzalo Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2014

Hurricane Gonzalo was the second tropical cyclone, after Hurricane Fay, to directly strike the island of Bermuda in a one-week time frame in October 2014, and was the first Category 4 Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Ophelia in 2011. At the time, it was the strongest hurricane in the Atlantic since Igor in 2010. Gonzalo struck Bermuda less than a week after the surprisingly fierce Hurricane Fay; 2014 was the first season in recorded history to feature two hurricane landfalls in Bermuda. A powerful Atlantic tropical cyclone that wrought destruction in the Leeward Islands and Bermuda, Gonzalo was the seventh named storm, sixth and final hurricane and only the second major hurricane of the below-average 2014 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm formed from a tropical wave on October 12, while located east of the Lesser Antilles. It made landfall on Antigua, Saint Martin, and Anguilla as a Category 1 hurricane, causing damage on those and nearby islands. Antigua and Barbuda sustained US$40 million in losses, and boats were abundantly damaged or destroyed throughout the northern Leeward Islands. The storm killed three people on Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy. Gonzalo tracked northwestward as it intensified into a major hurricane. Eyewall replacement cycles led to fluctuations in the hurricane's structure and intensity, but on October 16, Gonzalo peaked with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (235 km/h).

Hurricane Joaquin Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2015

Hurricane Joaquin was a powerful tropical cyclone that devastated several districts of The Bahamas and caused damage in the Turks and Caicos Islands, parts of the Greater Antilles, and Bermuda. It was also the strongest Atlantic hurricane of non-tropical origin recorded in the satellite era. The tenth named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2015 Atlantic hurricane season, Joaquin evolved from a non-tropical low to become a tropical depression on September 28, well southwest of Bermuda. Tempered by unfavorable wind shear, the depression drifted southwestward. After becoming a tropical storm the next day, Joaquin underwent rapid intensification, reaching hurricane status on September 30 and Category 4 major hurricane strength on October 1. Meandering over the southern Bahamas, Joaquin's eye passed near or over several islands. On October 3, the hurricane weakened somewhat and accelerated to the northeast. Abrupt re-intensification ensued later that day, and Joaquin acquired sustained winds of 155 mph (250 km/h), just short of Category 5 strength.

Hurricane Alex (2016) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane

Hurricane Alex was the first Atlantic hurricane to occur in January since Hurricane Alice of 1954–1955. Alex originated as a non-tropical low near the Bahamas on January 7, 2016. Initially traveling northeast, the system passed by Bermuda on January 8 before turning southeast and deepening. It briefly acquired hurricane-force winds by January 10, then weakened slightly before curving towards the east and later northeast. Acquiring more tropical weather characteristics over time, the system transitioned into a subtropical cyclone well south of the Azores on January 12, becoming the first North Atlantic tropical or subtropical cyclone in January since Tropical Storm Zeta of 2005–2006. Alex continued to develop tropical features while turning north-northeast, and transitioned into a fully tropical cyclone on January 14. The cyclone peaked in strength as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale (SSHWS), with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph and a central pressure of 981 mbar. Alex weakened to a high-end tropical storm before making landfall on Terceira Island on January 15. By that time, the storm was losing its tropical characteristics; it fully transitioned back into a non-tropical cyclone several hours after moving away from the Azores. Alex ultimately merged with another cyclone over the Labrador Sea on January 17.

Hurricane Nicole (2016)

Hurricane Nicole was the first major hurricane to directly impact Bermuda since Hurricane Fabian in 2003 as equally one of the strongest hurricanes to do so. The fourteenth named storm, sixth hurricane and third major hurricane of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season, Nicole formed in the central Atlantic on October 4. The small, slow-moving storm defied forecasts by steadily organizing in spite of strong wind shear, and it rapidly intensified to a Category 2 hurricane on October 7. The wind shear finally took its toll by October 8, reducing Nicole to a minimal tropical storm, as a building high pressure system forced the storm southwards. Intensification began once again as the storm retreated towards Bermuda, and Nicole reached its peak intensity early on October 13 as a Category 4 hurricane with 140 mph (220 km/h) winds. Shortly thereafter, increased vertical wind shear weakened the storm to Category 3 status, and the eye of the storm passed over Bermuda later that day. Afterwards, Nicole accelerated northeastwards while gradually weakening, but significantly expanding in size as it traversed the Northern Atlantic. By October 18, decreasing sea surface temperatures caused the large hurricane to become extratropical as it accelerated northwards towards Greenland.

Hurricane Humberto (2019) Category 3 Atlantic hurricane that affected Bermuda

Hurricane Humberto was a large and powerful tropical cyclone that caused extensive wind damage in the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda during September 2019. It was the eighth named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane – Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale – of the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season. Humberto formed on September 13 from the prolonged interaction of a tropical wave and an upper-level trough, then paralleled the eastern coastline of Florida through September 16 before turning sharply northeastward. A generally favorable environment allowed Humberto to become a hurricane that day, and the storm further strengthened to reach peak intensity as a Category 3 hurricane on September 18. After its center passed within 65 miles (100 km) of Bermuda around 00:00 UTC on September 19, the system encountered stronger wind shear and drier air. Stripped of its deep thunderstorm activity, the system transitioned to a potent extratropical cyclone early on September 20.

Hurricane Paulette Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Paulette was a long-lived Category 2 Atlantic hurricane which became the first to make landfall in Bermuda since Hurricane Gonzalo did so in 2014. The sixteenth named storm and sixth hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Paulette developed from a tropical wave that left the coast of Africa on September 2. The wave eventually consolidated into a tropical depression on September 7. Paulette fluctuated in intensity over the next few days due to strong wind shear, initially peaking as a strong tropical storm on September 8. It eventually strengthened into a hurricane early on September 13 as shear decreased. On September 14, Paulette made landfall in northeastern Bermuda as a Category 2 hurricane while making a gradual turn to the northeast. The cyclone further strengthened as it moved away from the island, reaching its peak intensity with 1-minute sustained winds of 105 mph and a minimum central atmospheric pressure of 965 mbar on September 14. On the evening of September 15, Paulette began to weaken and undergo extratropical transition which it completed on September 16. The hurricane's extratropical remnants persisted and moved southwards then eastwards, and eventually Paulette regenerated into a tropical storm early on September 20 south of the Azores– which resulted in the U.S National Weather Service coining the phrase "zombie storm" to describe its unusual regeneration. Paulette's second phase proved short-lived, however, as the storm quickly weakened and became post-tropical again 2 days later. The remnants persisted for another week before they dissipated south of the Azores on September 28. Paulette was the longest-lived tropical cyclone worldwide in 2020, its lifetime spanning 21 days.


  1. Daniel P. Brown (March 4, 2015). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Gonzalo (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Todd B. Kimberlain (December 17, 2014). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Fay (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Todd B. Kimberlain (October 10, 2014). Subtropical Depression Seven Discussion Number 1 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  4. Michael J. Brennan (October 10, 2014). Subtropical Storm Fay Special Discussion Number 3 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  5. Michael J. Brennan (October 10, 2014). Subtropical Storm Fay Discussion Number 4 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  6. Stacy R. Stewart (October 11, 2014). Tropical Storm Fay Discussion Number 6 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  7. Michael J. Brennan (October 11, 2014). Tropical Storm Fay Discussion Number 8 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  8. Lixion A. Avila (October 12, 2014). Tropical Storm Fay Discussion Number 10 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  9. David P. Roberts (October 13, 2014). Tropical Storm Fay Discussion Number 13 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  10. John P. Cangialosi (October 13, 2014). Remnants of Fay Discussion Number 15 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Raymond Hainey, Jonathan Bell, and Simon Jones (October 13, 2014). "Island counts cost of Fay's fury". The Royal Gazette (Bermuda) . Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. 1 2 "Clean-up begins after Tropical Storm Fay batters Bermuda". The Jamaica Observer. October 12, 2014. Archived from the original on November 22, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  13. Simon Jones (October 12, 2014). "Storm forces cruise delays". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Review of the Past Hurricane Season. RA IV Hurricane Committee – Thirty-seventh session. San José, Costa Rica: World Meteorological Organization. April 13–17, 2015. Doc. 4.2(4): "Report from Bermuda". RA IV/HC-37. Archived from the original (DOC) on June 18, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  15. David McFadden (October 12, 2014). "Tropical Storm Gonzalo takes aim at Caribbean". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  16. "Hurricane Fay Recap". The Weather Channel. October 14, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-15. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  17. Jonathan Bell and Leanne McGrath (October 15, 2014). "Belco may get outside support". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  18. Sam Strangeways (October 14, 2014). "Day of misery for boat owners". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  19. "Post storm update from city of Hamilton". Bernews. October 13, 2014. Archived from the original on November 22, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  20. "Gardens and arboretum re-opened after storms". Bernews. November 14, 2014. Archived from the original on November 22, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  21. Jonathan Bell and Simon Jones (October 12, 2014). "Airport flooding causes 'rolling delays'". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  22. Jonathan Kent (August 13, 2015). "Richards: Why we really need a new terminal". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on August 14, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
  23. Simon Jones (October 14, 2014). "Crops destroyed, several farm animals killed". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
  24. Scott Neil (September 15, 2015). "Hurricanes and newspaper's closure hit GDP". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  25. Jonathan Bell (October 20, 2014). "Gonzalo fell short of Fabian, but TS Fay 'punched above her weight'". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
  26. "Major Hurricane Gonzalo targets Bermuda after killing 1 in St. Maarten, injuring 12 others in Antigua". The Weather Channel. October 15, 2014. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  27. Olivia Demarinis (October 15, 2014). "Hurricane takes aim at Bermuda". Latin Post. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  28. "200 regiment soldiers help clean up after Fay". Bernews. October 13, 2014. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
  29. Owain Johnston-Barnes (October 16, 2014). "Belco: 1,500 still without power". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  30. "Belco to dedicate some crews to 'Fay 1500'". The Royal Gazette. October 24, 2014. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
  31. Jonathan Bell (October 24, 2014). "Electricity restoration encounters obstacles". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
  32. Jonathan Kent (May 12, 2015). "Belco seeks electricity price increase". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.