SEPTA

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Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA)
SEPTA text.svg
Overview
Locale Delaware Valley
Transit type
Number of lines196
(3 rapid transit lines)
Number of stations290
(73 rapid transit)
Annual ridership308,299,800 (2017) [1]
Chief executive Leslie Richards
(General Manager)
Headquarters1234 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Website SEPTA
Operation
Began operationNovember 1, 1965 (1965-11-01)
Operator(s)SEPTA
(Some routes contracted)
Reporting marks SEPA
SPAX
Number of vehicles2,295
Technical
System length450 mi (720 km) (total)
39 mi (63 km) (rapid transit)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
5 ft 2 14 in (1,581 mm) [2] [3]
System map

Philadelphia Transit and Commuter Rail System.png Geographically-accurate map of SEPTA and connecting rail transit services. Includes Regional Rail, rapid transit, and selected interurban and suburban trolley lines. Does not include SEPTA's subway-surface lines or Girard streetcar.

Contents

The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is a regional public transportation authority [4] that operates bus, rapid transit, commuter rail, light rail, and electric trolleybus services for nearly 4 million people in five counties in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It also manages projects that maintain, replace and expand its infrastructure, facilities and vehicles.

SEPTA is the major transit provider for Philadelphia and the counties of Delaware, Montgomery, Bucks and Chester. It is a state-created authority, with the majority of its board appointed by the five Pennsylvania counties it serves. [5] While several SEPTA commuter rail lines terminate in the nearby states of Delaware and New Jersey, additional service to Philadelphia from those states is provided by other agencies: the PATCO Speedline from Camden County, New Jersey is run by the Delaware River Port Authority, a bi-state agency; NJ Transit operates many bus lines and a commuter rail line to Philadelphia's Center City; and DART First State runs feeder bus lines to SEPTA stations in the state of Delaware.

SEPTA has the 6th-largest U.S. rapid transit system by ridership, and the 5th largest overall transit system, with about 302 million annual unlinked trips as of fiscal year 2018. [6] It controls 290 active stations, over 450 miles (720 km) of track, 2,350 revenue vehicles, and 196 routes. [7] It also oversees shared-ride services in Philadelphia and ADA services across the region, which are operated by third-party contractors.

SEPTA is one of only two U.S. transit authorities that operates all of the five major types of terrestrial transit vehicles: regional (commuter) rail trains, "heavy" rapid transit (subway/elevated) trains, light rail vehicles (trolleys), trolleybuses, and motorbuses. (The other is Boston's Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, which runs ferryboat service as well. [8] )

SEPTA's headquarters are at 1234 Market Street in Center City, Philadelphia.

History

SEPTA logo from the 1970s SEPTA logo 1970s.svg
SEPTA logo from the 1970s

Formation

SEPTA was created by the Pennsylvania legislature on August 17, 1963, to coordinate government subsidies to various transit and railroad companies in southeastern Pennsylvania. It commenced on February 18, 1964. [9]

On November 1, 1965, SEPTA absorbed two predecessor agencies:

By 1966, the Reading Company and Pennsylvania Railroad commuter railroad lines were operated under contract to SEPTA. On February 1, 1968, the Pennsylvania Railroad merged with the New York Central railroad to become Penn Central, only to file for bankruptcy on June 21, 1970. Penn Central continued to operate in bankruptcy until 1976, when Conrail took over its assets along with those of several other bankrupt railroads, including the Reading Company. Conrail operated commuter services under contract to SEPTA until January 1, 1983, when SEPTA took over operations and acquired track, rolling stock, and other assets to form the Railroad Division.

Subsequent expansion

Like New York's Second Avenue Subway, the original proposal for the Roosevelt Boulevard Subway dates to 1913, but construction has remained elusive. Instead, after completing the Frankford Elevated, transit service in and around the city stagnated until the early 2000s.

Philadelphia Transportation Company tokens (1940-68) Philadelphia Transportation Company (PTC) Bridge Line & Fare Tokens.jpg
Philadelphia Transportation Company tokens (1940-68)

On September 30, 1968, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Transportation Company (PTC), which operated a citywide system of bus, trolley, and trackless trolley routes, the Market–Frankford Line (subway-elevated rail), the Broad Street Line (subway) and the Delaware River Bridge Line (subway-elevated rail to City Hall, Camden, NJ) which became SEPTA's City Transit Division. The PTC had been created in 1940 with the merger of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company (formed in 1902) and a group of smaller, then independent transit companies operating within the city and its environs.

The former SEPTA Route 6 trolley during the early 1980s. PCC2790 Philly 1970s.jpg
The former SEPTA Route 6 trolley during the early 1980s.

On January 30, 1970, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company, also known as the Red Arrow Lines, which included the Philadelphia and Western Railroad (P&W) route now called the Norristown High Speed Line, the Media and Sharon Hill Lines (Routes 101 and 102) and several suburban bus routes in Delaware County. Today, this is the Victory Division, though it is sometimes referred to as the Red Arrow Division.

On March 1, 1976, SEPTA acquired the transit operations of Schuylkill Valley Lines, which is today the Frontier Division.

Meanwhile, SEPTA gradually began to take over the Pennsylvania Railroad and Reading Company commuter trains. SEPTA primarily sought to consolidate the formerly-competing services, leading to severe cutbacks in the mid-1980s. [10] Subsequent proposals have been made to restore service to Allentown, Bethlehem, West Chester and Newtown, with support from commuters, local officials and pro-train advocates. SEPTA's planning department focused on the Schuylkill Valley Metro, a "cross-county metro" that would re-establish service to Phoenixville, Pottstown and Reading without requiring the rider to go into Philadelphia. [11] [12] However, ridership projections were dubious, and the FRA refused to fund the project. [13] [14]

Many derelict lines under SEPTA ownership have been converted to rail trails, postponing any restoration proposals for the foreseeable future. [15]

Proposals have also been made for increased service on existing lines, including later evenings and Sundays to Wilmington and Newark in Delaware. Maryland's MARC commuter rail system is considering extending its service as far as Newark, which would allow passengers to connect directly between SEPTA and MARC.

Other recent proposals have focused on extending and enhancing SEPTA's other transit services. Senator Bob Casey has supported recent proposals expanding the Broad Street Line to the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. [16] As of December 2017, SEPTA had completed an Environmental Impact Statement to extend the Norristown High Speed Line to the King of Prussia area. [17] [18]

Governance

SEPTA is governed by a 15-member board of directors:

The members of the SEPTA Board as of February 2020 are: [19]

NameAppointed byNameAppointed by
Michael A. Carroll City of Philadelphia Kenneth Lawrence Jr. Montgomery County
(vacant)Robert D. Fox
Pasquale T. Deon Sr. (Chairman) Bucks County Obra S. Kernodle IV Pennsylvania Governor
Charles H. Martin Stewart Greenleaf Senate Majority Leader
Kevin L. Johnson Chester County William J. Leonard Senate Minority Leader
Joseph E. Brion Marcy Toepel House Majority Leader
Thomas E. Babcock Delaware County John I. Kane House Minority Leader
Mark H. Dambly 

The day-to-day operations of SEPTA are handled by the general manager, who is appointed and hired by the board of directors. The general manager is assisted by nine department heads called assistant general managers.

The present general manager is Leslie Richards. Past general managers include Jeffrey Knueppel, Joseph Casey, Faye L. M. Moore, Joseph T. Mack, John "Jack" Leary, Louis Gambaccini, and David L. Gunn. Past acting general managers include James Kilcur and Bill Stead.

SEPTA is a member of the Northeast Corridor Commission, a federal commission on Northeast Corridor rail service.

Routes and ridership

Rapid transit

Both rapid transit lines run from 5:00 a.m. to 1:00 a.m. Monday through Thursday, with "Night Owl" bus service running along the line from 1:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m. The lines run nonstop from 5:00 a.m. on Friday to 1:00 on Monday morning.

Interurban transit

Trolley and light rail

SEPTA Route 11 subway-surface trolley SEPTA9001.jpg
SEPTA Route 11 subway–surface trolley

Trackless trolley (trolleybus)

Trolleybuses, or trackless trolleys as they are called by SEPTA, operate on routes 59, 66, and 75. Service resumed in spring 2008 after a nearly five-year suspension. [22] Until June 2002, five SEPTA routes were operated with trackless trolleys, using AM General vehicles built in 1978–79. Routes 29, 59, 66, 75 and 79 used trackless trolleys, but were converted to diesel buses for an indefinite period starting in 2002 (routes 59, 66, 75) and 2003 (routes 29, 79). The aging AM General trackless trolleys were retired and in February 2006, SEPTA placed an order for 38 new low-floor trackless trolleys from New Flyer Industries—enough for routes 59, 66 and 75 only—and the pilot trackless trolley arrived in June 2007, for testing. [23] The vehicles were delivered between February and August 2008. Trackless trolley service resumed on Routes 66 and 75 on April 14, 2008, and on Route 59 the following day, but was initially limited to just one or two vehicles on each route, as new trolley buses gradually replaced the motorbuses serving the routes over a period of several weeks. [24] The SEPTA board voted in October 2006 not to order additional vehicles for Routes 29 and 79, and those routes permanently became non-electric. [22] [25]

Bus

SEPTA lists 121 bus routes, not including over 50 school trips, with most routes in the City of Philadelphia proper. SEPTA generally employs lettered, one and two-digit route numbering for its City Division routes; 90-series and 100-series routes for its Suburban Division routes; 200-series routes for its Regional Rail connector routes (Routes 201, 204, and 206 in Montgomery & Chester Counties); 300-series routes for other specialized or third-party contract routes; and 400-series routes for limited service buses to schools within Philadelphia.

Commuter rail

On January 1, 1983, SEPTA took over the commuter rail services formerly operated by Conrail under contract and reorganized them as Regional Rail. This division operates 13 lines serving more than 150 stations covering most of the five-county southeastern Pennsylvania region. It also runs trains to Wilmington and Newark, Delaware as well as Trenton and West Trenton, New Jersey. Daily ridership averaged over 132,000 in 2016, [20] with 29% of ridership on the Paoli/Thorndale and Lansdale/Doylestown lines.

Most of the cars used on the lines were built between 1963 and 1976. After building delays, the first Silverliner V cars were introduced into service on October 29, 2010. These cars represent the first new electric multiple units purchased for the Regional Rail system since the completion of the Silverliner IV order in 1976 and the first such purchase to be made by SEPTA. [26] As of March 19, 2013, all Silverliner V cars are in service and make up almost one-third of the current 400 car Regional Rail fleet, which are replacing the older, aging fleet. [27] At the start of July 2016, however, a serious structural flaw (cracks in a weight-bearing beam on a train car's undercarriage) was discovered during an emergency inspection to exist in more than 95% of the 120 Silverliner V cars in the SEPTA regional rail fleet which the company announced would take "the rest of the summer" to repair and would thus would reduce the system's capacity by as much as 50%. In addition to regular commuter rail service the loss of system capacity was also expected to cause transportation issues for the Democratic National Convention being held in Philadelphia on the week of July 25, 2016. [28] [29]

Divisions

SEPTA has three major operating divisions: City Transit, Suburban and Regional Rail. These divisions reflect the different transit and railroad operations that SEPTA has assumed. SEPTA also offers CCT Connect paratransit ⎌service.

City Transit Division

SEPTA's Route 34 trolley in the 4500 block of Baltimore Avenue 4500 Baltimore Avenue.jpg
SEPTA's Route 34 trolley in the 4500 block of Baltimore Avenue

The City Transit Division operates routes mostly within the City of Philadelphia, including buses, subway–surface trolleys, surface Trolley Lines, the Market–Frankford Line and the Broad Street Line. SEPTA City Transit Division surface routes include bus and trackless trolley lines. Some city division routes extend into Delaware, Montgomery and Bucks counties. This division is the descendant of the Philadelphia Transportation Company. There are eight operating depots in this division: five of these depots only operate buses, one is a mixed bus/trackless trolley depot, one is a mixed bus/streetcar depot and one is a streetcar-only facility.

Suburban Division

Victory District

Norristown High Speed Line at Gulph Mills Station SEPTA N-5.jpg
Norristown High Speed Line at Gulph Mills Station

The Victory District operates suburban bus and trolley (or light rail) routes that are based at 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby in Delaware County. Its light rail routes comprise the Norristown High Speed Line (Route 100) that runs from 69th Street Transportation Center to Norristown Transportation Center and the SEPTA Surface Media and Sharon Hill Trolley Lines (Routes 101 and 102). This district is the descendant of the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company, also known as the Red Arrow Lines. Some residents of the Victory District operating area still refer to this district as the "Red Arrow Division."

Frontier District

The Frontier District operates suburban bus routes that are based at the Norristown Transportation Center in Montgomery County and bus lines that serve eastern Bucks County. This district is the descendant of the Schuylkill Valley Lines in the Norristown area and the Trenton-Philadelphia Coach Lines in eastern Bucks County. SEPTA took over Schuylkill Valley Lines operations on March 1, 1976. SEPTA turned over the Bucks County routes (formerly Trenton-Philadelphia Coach Line Routes, a subsidiary of SEPTA) to Frontier Division in November 1983.

Suburban contract operations

Krapf Transit operates one bus line under contract to SEPTA in Chester County: Route 204 between Paoli Regional Rail Station and Eagleville. This route is operated from Krapf's own garage, located in West Chester, Pennsylvania. Krapf has operated three other bus routes for SEPTA in the past. Route 202 (West Chester to Wilmington), Route 207 (The Whiteland WHIRL) and Route 208 (Strafford Train Station to Chesterbrook) are no longer operating. SEPTA contracted bus operations before in Chester County. SEPTA and Reeder's Inc. joined forces in 1977 to operate three bus routes out of West Chester. These routes were the Route 120 (West Chester to Coatesville), Route 121 (West Chester to Paoli) and Route 122 (West Chester to Oxford). Bus service between West Chester and Coatesville was a replacement for the previous trolley service operated by West Chester Traction. SEPTA did replace two of the routes with their own bus service. Route 122 service was replaced by SEPTA's Route 91 on July 6, 1982, after only one year of service, Route 91 was eliminated due to lack of ridership. Route 121 was replaced by SEPTA's Route 92 on October 11, 1982, and this service continues to operate today. Since ridership on the Route 120 was strong it continued to operate under the operations of Reeder's Inc. even after SEPTA pulled the funding source. Krapf purchased the Reeder's operation in 1992 and designated the remaining (West Chester to Coatesville) bus route as Krapf Transit "Route A". Route 205 (Paoli Station to Chesterbrook) was formerly operated by Krapf until late 2019 when it was merged into SEPTA's own Route 206 (Paoli Station to Great Valley).

Railroad Division

SEPTA Regional Rail train at Fern Rock Transportation Center SEPTA GE Silverliner IV 308.jpg
SEPTA Regional Rail train at Fern Rock Transportation Center

The Railroad Division [30] operates 13 commuter railroad routes that begin in Central Philadelphia and radiate outwards, terminating in intra-city, suburban and out-of-state locations.

This division is the descendant of the six electrified commuter lines of the Reading Company (RDG), the six electrified commuter lines of the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR, later Penn Central: PC) and the new Airport line constructed by the City of Philadelphia between 1974 and 1984.

With the construction and opening of the Center City Commuter Connection Tunnel in 1984, lines were paired such that a former Pennsylvania Railroad line was coupled with a former Reading line. Seven such pairings were created and given route designations numbered R1 through R8 (with R4 not used). As a result, the routes were originally designed so that trains would proceed from one outlying terminal to Center City, stopping at 30th Street Station, Suburban Station and Jefferson (formerly Market East Station), then proceed out to the other outlying terminal assigned to the route. Since ridership patterns have changed since the implementation of this plan, SEPTA removed the R-numbers from the lines in July 2010 and instead refers to the lines by the names of their termini.

The out-of-state terminals offer connections with other transit agencies. The Trenton Line offers connections in Trenton, New Jersey to NJ Transit (NJT) or Amtrak for travel to New York City. Plans exist to restore NJT service to West Trenton, New Jersey, thus offering a future alternate to New York via the West Trenton Line and NJT. Another plan offers a connection for travel to Baltimore and Washington, D.C. via MARC, involving extensions of the SEPTA Wilmington/Newark Line from Newark, Delaware, an extension of MARC's Penn service from Perryville, Maryland, or both.

CCT Connect

SEPTA CCT Connect paratransit bus SEPTA CCT Connect bus 6248 in Hatboro PA.jpeg
SEPTA CCT Connect paratransit bus

CCT Connect is a paratransit service from SEPTA that offers a Shared-Ride Program for senior citizens and ADA Paratransit Service for people with disabilities. [31] The Shared-Ride Program provides a door-to-door ridesharing service through advance reservations for senior citizens age 65 or older in the city of Philadelphia for travel within the city and to points within 3 miles (4.8 km) of the city's borders. [31] [32] The ADA Paratransit Service provides door-to-door service through advance reservations for people with disabilities in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), allowing for travel across the SEPTA service area within 34 mile (1.2 km) of fixed-route transit service when such service operates. [31] [33] CCT Connect is operated by third-party contractors for SEPTA. Easton Coach, First Transit, MV Transportation, and Total Transit operate CCT Connect service in Philadelphia County; Easton Coach operates CCT Connect service in Bucks County; Krapf Transit operates CCT Connect service in Chester County; Community Transit operates CCT Connect service in Delaware County; and First Transit operates CCT Connect service in Montgomery County. [34]

Fares

SEPTA transit token (discontinued in 2018)
SEPTA transit token front.jpg
Front
SEPTA transit token back.jpg
Back

The cash fare to ride on SEPTA's transit services (buses, rapid transit, trolleys, trackless trolleys) is $2.50, which must be paid in exact change. SEPTA offered tokens as a discount to cash, with each token costing $2; tokens could only be purchased in packs of 2, 5, or 10. Token sales were discontinued in 2018 but are still accepted on transit services. The Travel Wallet on the SEPTA Key card offers single rides on transit for $2. Transfers from one SEPTA transit service to another are available for $1 with a SEPTA Key card with money loaded on the Travel Wallet. A number of interchanges between rapid transit lines can be used for free, without a transfer. A $4 transfer from PATCO Speedline to SEPTA is available from PATCO fare machines. Fares for CCT Connect service cost $4.25. [35]

On Regional Rail, fares can be paid with tickets purchased in advance from a ticket office or online, or on board the train from a conductor using cash. Fares purchased in advance are cheaper than fares purchased on board. Fares on Regional Rail are based on fare zones reflecting the station's distance from Center City Philadelphia. Fares are higher during the day on weekdays and lower on evenings and weekends. SEPTA offers 10-trip ticket packs for Regional Rail that offer a greater discount than individual tickets. SEPTA also offers intermediate tickets for trips on Regional Rail that do not go through Center City Philadelphia along with via Center City Philadelphia tickets that can be used between two outlying stations that require travel through Center City Philadelphia. [36]

SEPTA Key Fare Kiosk at the King of Prussia Transit Center SEPTA Key Fare Kiosk King of Prussia.jpg
SEPTA Key Fare Kiosk at the King of Prussia Transit Center

Various passes are offered by SEPTA that can be used on transit and Regional Rail services. The TransPass costs $25.50 weekly and $96 monthly and can be used for all transit rides within the time period. The TransPass is not valid on Regional Rail. [37] The TrailPass is available either weekly or monthly and can be used on Regional Rail up to the zone printed on the pass along with all transit rides within the time period. Prices for the TrailPass are based on fare zones reflecting distance from Center City Philadelphia. TrailPasses have anywhere privileges on weekends and holidays. [38] The Cross County Pass costs $30.75 weekly and $115 monthly and can be used for all transit rides outside Philadelphia and all Regional Rail trips outside Center City Philadelphia within the time period. The pass can be used with payment of an additional Zone 1 fare for travel into Center City Philadelphia. Cross County Passes have anywhere privileges on weekends and holidays. [39] The One-Day Independence Pass can be used for up to 10 trips in one day on transit and Regional Rail services, with an individual pass $13 and a family pass $30. An additional charge of $5 per individual pass and $15 per family pass must be paid for Regional Rail travel in New Jersey. [40] The One-Day Convenience Pass, which is loaded onto a SEPTA Key card, allows for 8 rides on transit services in one day for $9. [41]

SEPTA allows senior citizens to ride transit services and Regional Rail trains in Pennsylvania for free with identification; fares on Regional Rail trains operating to Delaware or New Jersey are half the weekday fare. [42] Disabled persons may ride transit services for half price and Regional Rail trains for half the weekday fare with identification. [43] SEPTA allows up to two children under 5 to ride transit services for free with a fare-paying adult. On Regional Rail, up to two children under 5 may ride for free with a fare-paying adult while children between the ages of 5 and 11 may ride for half the weekday fare. [44]

SEPTA offers special fares for students in K–12 schools who ride SEPTA to get to school. School tokens are available for $1.90-$2 except in the city of Philadelphia. The Student One-Day Convenience Pass costs $6.75 and allows for up to six rides on transit services in a single school day. The Weekday Student Pass, which is provided by the School District of Philadelphia in lieu of school tokens, costs $3.84 per valid day and a can be used for all transit rides on school days. The Weekday Student Pass can be upgraded to be used on Regional Rail for $5.90 per valid day. [45] SEPTA offers the University Pass as a discount transit pass for college students at participating colleges. Colleges participating in the University Pass program include University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Drexel University, University of the Arts, University of the Sciences, Manor College, Neumann University, and Harcum College. [46]

The SEPTA Key card is a smart card that can be used for fares and passes on SEPTA's transit services (bus, trolley, trackless trolley, rapid transit). Presently, a Key card with a valid TransPass is valid on the Airport Line during the week and on all Regional Rail lines on weekends. [47] Tokens are gradually being phased out as part of the transition to Key; SEPTA stopped selling tokens at most locations on April 30, 2018.

Transit police

A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor in SEPTA Transit Police service SEPTA Transit Police car on JFK Boulevard December 2018.jpeg
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor in SEPTA Transit Police service

SEPTA established the current Transit Police Department in 1981. It now has about 260 officers operating in seven patrol zones. It maintains a patrol, bicycle and police dog unit, as well as "Special Operations Response Team" trained to deal with hostage situations. [48]

Equipment

Buses

SEPTA trackless trolley service between 1980 and 2003 was operated by AM General vehicles. SEPTA AM General trolleybus 893 in 1987.jpg
SEPTA trackless trolley service between 1980 and 2003 was operated by AM General vehicles.

In 1982, SEPTA ordered buses from Neoplan USA, a purchase that was both the largest for Neoplan at the time and SEPTA's largest to date. These buses were used throughout the SEPTA service area. SEPTA changed its specifications on new bus orders each year. The Neoplan AK's (numbered 8285–8410), which was SEPTA's first Neoplan order, had longitudinal seating: all of the seats face towards the aisle. However, their suburban counterparts (8411–8434) had longitudinal seating only in the rear of the bus. The back door has a wheelchair ramp, which forced SEPTA officials to limit its use and specify wheelchair lifts in their next order. These buses had a nine-liter 6v92 engine and Allison HT-747 transmission.

In 1983, SEPTA, along with other transit operators in Pennsylvania, ordered 1,000 Neoplan buses of various lengths. SEPTA ultimately received 450 buses from this order: 425 were 40-foot (12 m) buses (BD 8435–8584 and CD 8601–8875), which came without wheelchair lifts, and 25 35-foot (11 m) buses (BP 1301–1325).

SEPTA purchased additional Neoplans in 1986. The first two groups (3000–3131 and 3132–3251) came without rear wheelchair lifts; the last two groups, one in late 1987 (3252–3371) and another in 1989 (3372–3491), included them. All Neoplans built between 1986 and 1989 were equipped with a ZF 4HP-590 transmission.

By the early 1990s, SEPTA had 1,092 Neoplan AN440 coaches in active service, making it the largest transit in North American with a fleet primarily manufactured by Neoplan USA. These buses dominated the streets of Philadelphia through late 1997, when the earlier fleet of AK and BD Neoplans (8285–8581) was replaced by 400 buses built by American Ikarus and – the same company after a 1996 reorganization – North American Bus Industries. The older GMC RTS 35- and 40-foot buses were also replaced in this order, with the sole remaining exception of No. 4462, a 35-foot coach. More replacements occurred when SEPTA received its first low-floor fleet and retired the last An440 buses on June 20, 2008.

A SEPTA Nova Bus SEPTA Nova Bus.jpg
A SEPTA Nova Bus

The Neoplan model has not entirely vanished from Philadelphia's streets; in 1998, SEPTA ordered 155 articulated buses from the company. These buses replaced the 1984 Volvo 10BM 60-foot articulated buses. These buses are now retired since late 2015, replaced by the 2013–2016 NovaBus LFS-A HEV.

The 1998 purchase also included 80 29-foot Transmark-29 buses from National-Eldorado (4501–4580), the first of which began to arrive in late 2000. Most of these buses are on suburban routes, but some are in the "LUCY" service in the University City section of West Philadelphia, in a special paint scheme, and others on lighter lines within Philadelphia. SEPTA had decided to buy from Metrotrans Legacy, SEPTA's first choice in small buses, but the company filed for bankruptcy in 1999.

A fleet of buses known as "cutaways" were also purchased. These buses were built on Ford van chassis, with bodies similar to those seen on car rental shuttles at various airports. These buses were retired around 2003 and replaced with slightly larger cutaway buses on a Freightliner truck chassis.

After evaluating sample buses from New Flyer and NovaBus in 1994–96, SEPTA ordered 100 low-floor buses (nos. 5401–5500) from New Flyer in 2001.

Trackless trolley (trolley bus) service was suspended in 2003 and the 110 AM General vehicles that had provided service on SEPTA's five trackless trolley routes never returned to service. [49] However, in early 2006 SEPTA ordered 38 new low-floor trackless trolleys from New Flyer, which entered service in 2008, restoring trackless service on routes 59, 66 and 75. These buses replaced SEPTA Neoplan EZs, ending Neoplan's 26-year domination. [24]

A SEPTA New Flyer DE40LF SEPTA 8130 800px.jpg
A SEPTA New Flyer DE40LF

SEPTA placed an order with delivery starting in 2008 for 400 New Flyer hybrid buses—with options for up to 80 additional buses to replace the NABI Ikarus buses at the end of their 12-year life. [50] These will not be the first hybrid buses, since SEPTA purchased two small groups of hybrids, 5601H–5612H, which arrived in 2003, and 5831H–5850H in 2004. Before the 2008 purchase, SEPTA borrowed an MTA New York City Transit Orion VII hybrid bus # 6365 to evaluate it in service. SEPTA was the first to purchase New Flyer DE40LFs equipped with rooftop HVAC units. Currently, SEPTA is delivering 525 2017-2022 NFI XDE40 hybrid buses to replaced all the diesel buses that were delivered between 2001-2004. Additionally. SEPTA is replacing cloth seats with plastic seats on their buses that were delivered since and after 2008 in an effort to combat bed bug infestations. [51]

SEPTA's revenue from advertisements on the backs of its buses leads the authority to order mainly buses equipped with a rooftop HVAC and with their rear route-number sign mounted close to the roof, especially on 2008–2009 New Flyer DE40LFs and future orders. [52]

In 2016, SEPTA launched a pilot program that would see battery electric buses replace diesel buses on former trackless trolley routes 29 and 79. Using a $2.6-million Federal Transit Administration grant, the agency ordered 25 such buses from Proterra, Inc. of California, together with two overhead fast-charging stations. They are expected to enter service in 2017, returning electric propulsion to these routes after nearly 15 years of diesel operation. [53]

Order YearManufacturerModelPowertrain
(Engine/Transmission)
PropulsionFleet SeriesAmount in ServiceNotes
2003NFID40LF
  • Cummins ISL
    • Allison WB-400R
Diesel5613-57123
  • Originally used Detroit Diesel 50 series engines
  • 5705 retired due to fire damage
  • Being retired
  • Only 4 units remain 5613, 5630, 5645 & 5646.
2004NFID40LF
  • Cummins ISL
  • Originally used Detroit Diesel 50 EGR series engines
Diesel5713-5830, 5851-5950175
  • Being retired
2004NFIDE40LF
  • Cummins ISL
    • GM-Allison ep-40 HybriDrive
Hybrid5831H-5850H18
2005NFID40LFDiesel8000-8119118
  • 8000 was a prototype.
  • 8046 & 8047 retired due to fire damage.
2007-08NFIE40LFR Electric 800-83738
  • 800 delivered in 2007.
  • Being Overhauled
2008NFIDE40LF
  • Cummins ISL
    • Allison EP-40 HybriDrive
Hybrid8120-8219100
  • Features roof-mounted HVAC units & low-profile capsules.
2009NFIDE40LFHybrid8220-8339120
2010NFIDE40LFR
  • Cummins ISL9
    • Allison EP-40 HybriDrive
Hybrid8340-8459120
2011NFIDE40LFR
  • Cummins ISL9
    • Allison ep-40 HybriDrive
Hybrid8460-8559100
  • First DE40LFRs to feature a streamline rooftop design.
  • Currently being overhauled
2013-2016 NovaBus LFS-A HEV
  • Cummins ISL9
    • Allison H 50 EP
Hybrid7300-7484185
  • 7300 & 7301 are 2016 units; the original 7300 & 7301 were built in 2013 but were rejected by SEPTA and are now Nova Bus demos.
2013-2016NovaBusLFS HEV
  • Cummins ISL9
    • Allison H 40 EP
Hybrid8600-868990
2016 NFI MiDi 30
  • Cummins ISB 6.7
    • Allison WB-300R
Diesel4600-463435
2017-2022NFIXDE40
  • Cummins ISL9
    • Allison H 40 EP
Hybrid3000-3524380
  • Being delivered.
2017 Proterra, Inc. Catalyst BE40
  • N/A
    • Eaton EEV-7202 2
Battery Electric900-92425
  • Entered service March 2019.
  • Serves only Routes 29 & 79
  • Currently sidelined from service.

Subway

Interior of a Broad St. Line train Broad St Line Interior.jpg
Interior of a Broad St. Line train

The Broad Street Line uses cars built by Kawasaki between 1982 and 1984. These cars, known as B-IV as they are the fourth generation used on the line, are stainless steel and include some cars with operating cabs at both ends, as well as some with only a single cab.

The Market-Frankford Line uses a class of car known as M-4, as they, like the Broad Street B-IV's, represent the line's fourth generation of cars and were built from 1997 to 1999 by Adtranz. These cars are built to the unusual broad gauge of 5 ft 2 14 in (1,581 mm)[ discuss ], known as "Pennsylvania trolley gauge".

Trolley

Single-end Kawasaki trolleys waiting in the yard in 1993 SEPTA LRVs at the maintenance facility, 1993.jpg
Single-end Kawasaki trolleys waiting in the yard in 1993
One of the PCC streetcars built in 1947 by the St. Louis Car Co. for PTC, running in 2019 at the Baltimore Streetcar Museum SEPTA PCC -2168.png
One of the PCC streetcars built in 1947 by the St. Louis Car Co. for PTC, running in 2019 at the Baltimore Streetcar Museum

The vehicles used on SEPTA's Subway-Surface trolleys were built by Kawasaki in 1981. Known as "K-cars", they use the Pennsylvania trolley gauge of 5 ft 2 14 in (1,581 mm).

Uniquely, the Girard Street Line uses "PCC II" trolleys, originally built in 1947 by the St. Louis Car Company, which were rebuilt for the line's reopening in 2003 to include air conditioning. The line, like the Subway-Surface lines, is Pennsylvania trolley gauge.

The suburban trolley lines use Kawasaki-built vehicles similar to, but larger than, the Subway-Surface trolleys. They use a slightly wider Pennsylvania trolley gauge, 5 ft 2 12 in (1,588 mm). Notably, they are double ended, unlike the Subway-Surface trolleys, as the suburban lines lack any loops to turn the vehicles on their suburban-bound termini.

Interurban

The Norristown High Speed Line uses a class of cars known as N-5s. They were delivered in 1993 by ABB after significant production delays. These cars are unique in that they are powered by a third rail and are standard gauge.

Regional Rail

SEPTA Silverliner V approaching Hatboro station SEPTA Silverliner V 834 inbound approaching Hatboro Station.jpg
SEPTA Silverliner V approaching Hatboro station

SEPTA uses a mixed fleet of General Electric and Hyundai Rotem "Silverliner" electric multiple unit self-operated cars. It also uses push-pull equipment consisting of coaches built by Bombardier and hauled by Siemens ACS-64 electric locomotives for express and rush-hour service. Push-pull trains were previously hauled by AEM-7 or ALP-44 electric locomotives. The aging locomotives, which have already been retired by their other operators, Amtrak and NJ Transit, were replaced by 15 Siemens ACS-64 locomotives in 2018. [54]

Maintenance-of-way vehicles

Maintenance facilities

Transit Divisions
Regional Rail

Connecting transit agencies in the Philadelphia region

Local services

SEPTA Market-Frankford Line at 52nd Street Station MarketFrankfordLineTrain.jpg
SEPTA Market–Frankford Line at 52nd Street Station

The PATCO Speedline is a rapid transit line that runs from Center City Philadelphia to Camden, New Jersey and terminates in Lindenwold, New Jersey. At the 8th Street station, one can transfer to the Market–Frankford Line and Broad–Ridge Spur with an additional transfer fare. Paid transfers are also available at PATCO's 12th–13th Street station and 15th–16th Street station with SEPTA's Broad Street Line Walnut–Locust station. The PATCO Speedline crosses over the Delaware River via the Ben Franklin Bridge. It is owned by the Delaware River Port Authority.

In the western Philadelphia suburbs, Krapf's Transit runs regularly scheduled buses for the TMACC between Coatesville, Downingtown, Exton and West Chester. SEPTA Routes 92 and 104 connect with this service in West Chester, and route 92 also connects with this service at the Exton Square Mall. Krapf's also provide contract services to SEPTA on route 204. They also operate a free express shuttle bus from Center City to the Navy Yard in South Philadelphia as well as a free shuttle bus loop within the Navy Yard itself.

In King of Prussia, the Greater Valley Forge Transportation Management Association runs a community shuttle, the Rambler, which connects with SEPTA at the King of Prussia Transit Center.

In the northwestern Philadelphia suburbs, Pottstown Area Rapid Transit (PART, formerly known as Pottstown Urban Transit) operates five bus routes within Pottstown Borough and the neighboring townships of Douglass, Limerick, Lower Pottsgrove, Upper Pottsgrove, and West Pottsgrove in Montgomery County and North Coventry Township in Chester County. PART and SEPTA have an agreement allowing transfers between PART service and SEPTA Route 93 buses in Pottstown.

Regional services

NJ Transit runs buses from Philadelphia to New Jersey points. Many NJT buses stop at the Philadelphia Greyhound Terminal, which is immediately north of Jefferson Station or at other locations in Center City Philadelphia. NJT also operates the River Line light rail line between Camden and Trenton, the Northeast Corridor Line between Trenton and New York, and the Atlantic City Line between 30th Street Station and Atlantic City. Both the Northeast Corridor Line and River Line connect with SEPTA's Regional Rail Trenton Line at the Trenton Transit Center. SEPTA Route 127 connects with NJT bus and rail services here also.

DART First State provides bus service in Delaware. This service connects with SEPTA's Wilmington/Newark Line Regional Rail service in Wilmington and Newark. In 2007, SEPTA bus Route 306 began service, connecting the Great Valley Corporate Center and West Chester with the Brandywine Town Center; service between West Chester and Brandywine Town Center was discontinued in 2010 due to low ridership. In February 2009, SEPTA bus Route 113 commenced connecting bus service with DART at the Tri-State Mall, allowing service between Delaware County and the State of Delaware, and connecting with DART First State's #1 (now #13) and #61 bus at the Tri-State Mall.

National and international services

Amtrak provides rail service between 30th Street Station and Lancaster, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, and Chicago to the west, Baltimore and Washington, D.C. to the southwest, and New York, Boston, and Montreal to the northeast. Amtrak's service overlaps to some degree with the Wilmington/Newark Line, Paoli/Thorndale Line and Trenton Line. All Regional Rail routes stop at 30th Street Station. Other shared Amtrak/Regional Rail stations include Wilmington and Newark on the Wilmington/Newark Line, Ardmore, Paoli, Exton, and Downingtown on the Paoli/Thorndale Line, and Trenton on the Trenton Line. Amtrak also offers limited service from North Philadelphia and Cornwells Heights, which are also on Trenton Line. Amtrak is faster than SEPTA, but significantly more expensive, particularly for services along the Northeast Corridor.

Greyhound and a variety of interregional bus operators, most of which are part of the Trailways system, stop at the Philadelphia Greyhound Terminal. In addition to being adjacent to Jefferson Station, the terminal is one block from the Market–Frankford Line's 11th Street station and various SEPTA bus routes. Major destinations served with one seat rides to/from the terminal include Allentown, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Harrisburg, Newark (New Jersey), New York, Pittsburgh, Reading, Scranton, Washington and Wilmington. In addition, six NJ Transit bus routes (313, 315, 316, 317, 318 and 551) originate and terminate from this terminal.

SEPTA serves Philadelphia International Airport with local bus service and with the Airport Line from Center City.

Criticism and recognition

SEPTA's 50-year history has often been a tumultuous one, a direct result of the agency being governed at the county level rather than the state one. [5] Railpace Newsmagazine contributor Gerry Williams observed that SEPTA regularly staggers from crisis to crisis, with little support or oversight originating at the state level in Harrisburg. [5] It has a long history of being at odds with the riding public and both county and state officials. [5] SEPTA has suffered more labor strikes than any other transit agency in the U.S., occurring in 1977, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1995, 1998, 2005, 2009, [55] 2014, [56] and 2016.

Williams commented that there is a notable lack of "any group... influential enough to bring shame on SEPTA," [5] adding that SEPTA's chronic ills "merely reflect the broader problems of local provincialism and petty political squabbles which are so rampant within the (Delaware Valley) region." [5] The five counties it serves regularly have various hidden agendas working in the background, often at cross purposes with one another than as a unified region, a problem that has resulted in many services being severed mid-route without regard to the affected counties. [5] This factor is regularly influenced by the changing political winds at the state capital in Harrisburg. [5]

SEPTA made strides in the 21st century that helped reverse the downward trend. $191 million of funds made available from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 were utilized to make over 30 major improvements to the system, including renovations of the Spring Garden and Girard Avenue subway stations and building the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) station at Fox Chase terminal in 2010. SEPTA also inaugurated a consolidated, multi-modal control center that helps manage all aspects of the system. [57]

SEPTA was voted the best large transit agency in North America by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) in July 2012. The award was criticized by Next City columnist Diana Lind, stating that despite some outward appearances of improvement, SEPTA still largely operates under a cloud of non-transparency and continues to lack a system-wide expansion program for the future. This is most notable in the regional rail division, which suffered severe cutbacks in the 1980s and whose affected routes have been converted into rail trails, preventing a restoration of those services for the foreseeable future. When asked to produce data pertaining to SEPTA's repeated attempts to consolidate bus stops, Lind observed "the report on the project barely elaborates on the information. SEPTA’s trials deserve public attention and input. The public deserves the data—show us the average times before and after the pilot. Give reader surveys. Tell us why you haven’t tried another pilot on another bus line." [57]

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Market–Frankford Line SEPTA rapid transit line in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The Market–Frankford Line (MFL), or the Blue Line) is one of two rapid transit lines in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the two lines are operated by SEPTA. The Market-Frankford Line runs from the 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby, just outside of West Philadelphia, through Center City Philadelphia to the Frankford Transportation Center in Near Northeast Philadelphia. With more than 180,000 boardings on an average weekday, it is the busiest route in the SEPTA system. The line has both elevated and underground portions along its full length.

SEPTA Regional Rail commuter rail service

The SEPTA Regional Rail system is a commuter rail network owned by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority and serving the Philadelphia Metropolitan area. The system has 13 branches and more than 150 active stations in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, its suburbs and satellite towns and cities. It is the fifth-busiest commuter railroad in the United States, and the busiest outside of the New York and Chicago metropolitan areas. In 2016, the Regional Rail system had an average of 132,000 daily riders.

Transportation in Philadelphia

Transportation in Philadelphia involves the various modes of transport within the city and its required infrastructure. In addition to facilitating intracity travel, Philadelphia's transportation system connects Philadelphia to towns of its metropolitan area and cities of the Boston-Washington megalopolis.

SEPTA Routes 101 and 102 light rail lines in Delaware County, Pennsylvania

SEPTA Routes 101 and 102, also known as the Media–Sharon Hill Line, are light rail lines operated by the Suburban Transit Division of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, serving portions of Delaware County. The routes' eastern terminus is 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania. Route 101 runs to Media, while Route 102 goes to Sharon Hill. Altogether, the two lines operate on approximately 11.9 miles (19.2 km) of route. The lines were formerly interurbans.

69th Street Transportation Center Rapid transit station in Philadelphia

The 69th Street Transportation Center, also known as the 69th Street Terminal or 69th Street Station, is a SEPTA terminal in the Terminal Square section of Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, just outside the Philadelphia border. It is the other ground-level station on the Market Frankford Line besides Millbourne.

SEPTA subway–surface trolley lines

The SEPTA subway–surface trolley lines are a collection of five SEPTA trolley lines that operate on street-level tracks in West Philadelphia and Delaware County, Pennsylvania, and also underneath Market Street in Philadelphia's Center City. The lines, Routes 10, 11, 13, 34, and 36, collectively operate on about 39.6 miles (63.7 km) of route.

Wilmington/Newark Line SEPTA line between Newark, Delaware and Center City Philadelphia

The Wilmington/Newark Line is a route of the SEPTA Regional Rail commuter rail system in the Philadelphia area. The line serves southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware, with stations in Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, Wilmington, Delaware, and Newark, Delaware. It is the longest of the 13 SEPTA Regional Rail lines.

SEPTA Route 15 SEPTA trolley line in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

SEPTA's Route 15, the Girard Avenue Line, is a trolley line operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) along Girard Avenue through North and West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. As of 2007, it is the only surface trolley line in the City Transit Division that is not part of the Subway–Surface Trolley Lines. SEPTA PCC II vehicles are used on the line.

SEPTA Route 11 Philadelphia trolley line

Route 11, also known as the Woodland Avenue Line, is a trolley line operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) that connects the 13th Street station in downtown Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Darby Transportation Center in Darby, Pennsylvania. It is one of five lines that are part of the Subway-Surface Trolley system.

DART First State

The Delaware Transit Corporation, operating as DART First State, is the only public transportation system that operates throughout the U.S. state of Delaware. DART First State provides local and inter-county bus service throughout the state and also subsidizes commuter rail service along SEPTA Regional Rail's Wilmington/Newark Line serving the northern part of the state. The agency also operates statewide paratransit service for people with disabilities. DART First State is a subsidiary of the Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT).

Arrott Transportation Center Rapid transit station in Philadelphia

Arrott Transportation Center is an elevated railway station on SEPTA's Market-Frankford Line, located above the intersection of Frankford and Oxford Avenues, in the Frankford neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Philadelphia Transportation Company US, 1940–1968

The Philadelphia Transportation Company (PTC) was the main public transit operator in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1940 to 1968. A private company, PTC was the successor to the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company (PRT), in operation since 1902, and was the immediate predecessor of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA).

SEPTA City Transit Division surface routes Wikimedia list article

The City Transit Division of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) operates almost all of Philadelphia's public transit, including all 6 trolley, 3 trackless trolley and 70 bus lines within city limits. Some of the bordering municipalities are served by the City Transit division, despite not being part of the city. For example, Cheltenham Township has 13 city division routes and no Suburban Division ones. The City Transit division also operates the 400 Series routes which are designed to serve students attending schools in the city of Philadelphia.

SEPTA Suburban Division bus routes Wikimedia list article

The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority operates or contracts operations of these routes serving points in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, and Montgomery counties, with a few routes operating into the city of Philadelphia. The Suburban Transit Division is broken down into three districts: Victory, Frontier, and Contract Operations.

SEPTA Route 75

Route 75 is a trackless trolley route operated by SEPTA in North and Northeast Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. It connects to the Market–Frankford Line at Arrott Transportation Center Station, and runs primarily along Wyoming Avenue. Route 75 connects to the Wyoming local line and goes to Wayne Junction in Nicetown.

SEPTA Route 79 is a former trackless trolley and current bus route, operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The line runs between the Point Breeze neighborhood and the vicinity of Pier 70 along the Delaware River. Trackless trolleys replaced buses in 1961 but were suspended in 2003, and the authority later decided against restoring trackless trolley service. Trolley cars had previously served Route 79 from 1912 until 1956.

West Trenton Line (SEPTA) SEPTA regional rail line

The West Trenton Line is a SEPTA Regional Rail line connecting Center City Philadelphia to the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey.

Chestnut Hill West Line SEPTA Regional Rail line

The Chestnut Hill West Line is a commuter rail line in the SEPTA Regional Rail network. It connects Northwest Philadelphia, including the eponymous neighborhood of Chestnut Hill, as well as West Mount Airy and Germantown, to Center City.

Trolleybuses in Philadelphia

The Philadelphia trolleybus system, or trackless trolley system as it is known by its operator, forms part of the public transportation network serving Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania, United States. It opened on October 14, 1923, and is now the second-longest-lived trolleybus system in the world. One of only five such systems currently operating in the U.S., it presently comprises three lines, and is operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), with a fleet of 38 trolleybuses. The three surviving routes serve North and Northeast Philadelphia and connect with SEPTA's Market–Frankford rapid transit line.

SEPTA Key

The SEPTA Key card is a smart card that is used for automated fare collection on the SEPTA public transportation network in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. It can be used throughout SEPTA's transit system, and is gradually being rolled out to Regional Rail.

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