21st century

Last updated

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century of the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 2100. [1] It is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 2000s which began on January 1, 2000 and will end on December 31, 2099. [2]

A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

In contemporary history, the third millennium is the current millennium spanning the years AD 2001 to 3000. It differs from the millennium of the 2000s, which spans the years AD 2000 to 2999.

Contents

The first years of the 21st century have thus far been marked by the rise of a global economy and Third World consumerism, mistrust in government, deepening global concern over terrorism and an increase in the power of private enterprise. [3] [4] [5] The Arab Spring of the early 2010s led to mixed outcomes in the Arab world. [6] The Third Industrial Revolution which began around the 1980s also continues into the present, and is expected to transition into Industry 4.0 and the Fourth Industrial Revolution by as early as 2030. [7] Sequencing cost continues to fall exponentially: the first human genome cost three billion dollars. [8] Today, sequencing only one human genome only costs about a thousand. [9] Millennials and Generation Z come of age and rise to prominence in this century. [10] In 2016, the United Kingdom decided to leave the European Union, causing Brexit. [11]

Third World A term coined during the Cold War and for a while used to denote developing countries in general

During the Cold War, the term Third World referred to the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the nations not aligned with either the First World or the Second World. This usage has become relatively rare due to the ending of the Cold War.

Consumerism social and economic order that encourages the purchase of goods and services in ever-greater amounts

Consumerism is a social and economic order that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. With the industrial revolution, but particularly in the 20th century, mass production led to an economic crisis: there was overproduction—the supply of goods would grow beyond consumer demand, and so manufacturers turned to planned obsolescence and advertising to manipulate consumer spending. In 1899, a book on consumerism published by Thorstein Veblen, called The Theory of the Leisure Class, examined the widespread values and economic institutions emerging along with the widespread "leisure time" in the beginning of the 20th century. In it Veblen "views the activities and spending habits of this leisure class in terms of conspicuous and vicarious consumption and waste. Both are related to the display of status and not to functionality or usefulness."

A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

Transitions and changes

Shanghai has become a symbol of the recent economic boom of China. Shanghai Skyline, Dec2014.jpg
Shanghai has become a symbol of the recent economic boom of China.

Technology and society

Advances in technology such as ultrasound, prenatal genetic testing and genetic engineering is changing the demographics and has the potential to change the genetic makeup of the human population. Because of sex selective abortion, fewer girls have been born in the 21st century (and since the eary 1980s) compared to in past centuries, mostly because of son preference in East and South Asia. In 2014 only 47 percent of Indian births were of girls. [12] This has led to an increase in bachelors in countries such as China and India. The first genetically modified children were born in November 2018 in China, beginning a new biological era for the human species and raising great controversy.

Ultrasound vibrations with frequencies above the human hearing range

Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is not different from "normal" (audible) sound in its physical properties, except that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz in healthy young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.

Genetic engineering Direct manipulation of an organisms genome using biotechnology

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.

The Lulu and Nana controversy revolves around twin Chinese girls born in October 2018, who have been given the pseudonyms Lulu and Nana. According to the researcher, He Jiankui, the twins are the world's first germline genetically edited babies. He Jiankui has reported that the girls were born healthy. The girls' parents were participants in a clinical project run by He, in which he offered standard in vitro fertilization services and in addition, used CRISPR-Cas9, a technology that can modify DNA, to modify the CCR5 gene in the embryos that were generated, to attempt to confer genetic resistance to the HIV virus. The clinical project was conducted secretly until November 2018.

Anxiety [13] and depression [14] rates are rising in the United States and many other parts of the world. However, suicide rates have fallen in Europe and most of the rest of the world so far this century, declining 29% globally between 2000 and 2018, despite rising 18% in the United States in the same period. The decline in suicide has been most notable among Chinese and Indian women, the elderly and middle-aged Russian men. [15] [16]

Anxiety emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety involves the expectation of future threat. Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. It is often accompanied by muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue and problems in concentration. Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.

Depression (mood) state of low mood and aversion to activity

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity. It can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, motivation, feelings, and sense of well-being. It may feature sadness, difficulty in thinking and concentration and a significant increase/decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, and people experiencing depression may have feelings of dejection, hopelessness and, sometimes, suicidal thoughts. It can either be short term or long term. Depressed mood is a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia; it is a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one; and it is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Knowledge and information

The entire written works of mankind, from the beginning of recorded history to 2003, in all known languages, is estimated to be at five exabytes of data. [17] [18] Since 2003, with the birth of social media and "user-generated content", the same amount of data is created every two days. [19] The advancement of the sum total of human knowledge and information continues to grow at an exponential rate; humans now collect and archive more data in one day than in the previous 10 years. [20]

Writing Representation of language in a textual medium

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a language, but a tool used to make languages readable. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar, and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. The result of writing is called text, and the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication, storytelling, correspondence, record keeping and diary. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems.

Recorded history historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication

Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication. It contrasts with other narratives of the past, such as mythological, oral or archeological traditions. For broader world history, recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC, and coincides with the invention of writing. For some geographic regions or cultures, written history is limited to a relatively recent period in human history because of the limited use of written records. Moreover, human cultures do not always record all of the information relevant to later historians, such as the full impact of natural disasters or the names of individuals. Recorded history for particular types of information is therefore limited based on the types of records kept. Because of this, recorded history in different contexts may refer to different periods of time depending on the topic.

Language Capacity to communicate using signs, such as words or gestures

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; a language is any specific example of such a system.

Telecommunications in the early 21st century are much more advanced and universal than they were in the late 20th century. Only a few percent of the world's population were Internet users and cellular phone owners in the late 1990s; as of 2018 55% of the world's population is online and as of 2019 an estimated 67% own a cell phone. [21] In the 2010s, artificial intelligence, mostly in the form of deep learning and machine learning became more prevalent, and is prominently used in Gmail and Google's search engine, as well as in banking, the military and other niches. In 2017, 14% of the world's population still lacked access to electricity. [22]

Internet Global system of connected computer networks

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines/computers that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

Deep learning branch of machine learning

Deep learning is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks. Learning can be supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised.

India's Prayag Kumbh Mela is regarded as the world's largest religious festival. Triptychon Maha Kumbh Mela.jpg
India's Prayag Kumbh Mela is regarded as the world's largest religious festival.

In 2001, Dennis Tito became the first space tourist, beginning the era of commercial spaceflight. Entrepreneurs such as Elon Musk and Richard Branson are working towards commercial space exploration, colonization and tourism, and China and India have made substantial strides in their space program. On January 3, 2019, China landed a robotic spacecraft on the far side of the Moon, being the first to do so. [23]

Culture and politics

War and most kinds of crime and violence have declined considerably compared to the 20th century; such a period of "relative peace" between major powers has not been documented in human history since the Roman Empire.[ citation needed ] Malnourishment and poverty are still widespread globally, but fewer people live in the most extreme forms of poverty, relative to recorded history. In 1990 one-in-four people were malnourished, nearly 36% of the world's population lived in extreme poverty; in 2015 this percentage dropped to one-in-eight and 10%, respectively. If current trends hold, the United Nations projects the eradication of famine and extreme poverty by the end of this century.

The Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data scandal draws international attention to the possible negative effects of social media on influencing citizen's views, particularly in regards to the 2016 United States presidential election.

Population and urbanization

The world population was about 6.1 billion at the start of the 21st century, and reached 7.7 billion by January 2019. It is estimated to reach about 8.6 billion by the year 2030, [24] and 9.8 billion by the year 2050. According to the United Nations World Urbanization prospects, 60% of the world's human population is projected to live in megacities and megalopolises by 2030, 70% by 2050, and 90% by 2080. By 2040, more than 5 times the current global gross domestic product is expected to be invested in urban infrastructure. [25]

Life expectancy is increasing as child mortality continues to decline. A baby born in 2016, for example, can on average (globally) expect to live 72 years—26 years longer than the global average of someone born in 1950. Ten million Britons (16% of the population of the United Kingdom) are expected to live to 100 or older. [26]

However, climate change remains an extremely serious concern; UN Chief António Guterres, for instance, has described it as an "existential threat" to humanity. [27] Furthermore, the Holocene extinction event, the sixth most significant extinction event in the history of the Earth, continues with the widespread degradation of highly biodiverse habitats as a byproduct of human activity. [28]

A map of uncontacted tribes, around the start of the 21st century Isolierte-Volker.png
A map of uncontacted tribes, around the start of the 21st century

Economics and education

Economically and politically the United States and Western Europe were dominant at the beginning of the century; by the 2010s, China became an emerging superpower and by some measures the world's largest economy. In terms of purchasing power parity India's economy became larger than that of Japan around the year 2011. [29]

The ongoing impact of technological unemployment due to automation and computerization on job employment is massive: the rate of jobs disappearing—due to machines replacing them—is expected to escalate. [30] Automation alters the number of jobs and their skills demands of industries. As of 2019, the manufacturing sectors of first world nations' production output was doubled when compared to 1984 output; but are now produced with one-third fewer workers and at significantly reduced operating costs. [31] Half of all jobs with requirements less than a bachelor's degree are currently in the process of being replaced with partial- or full-automation. [32]

According to the World Economic Forum, 65% of children entering primary school will end up in jobs or careers that currently do not yet exist. [33]

Pronunciation

There is a debate among experts and the general public on how to pronounce specific years of the 21st century in English. Regarding this, academics suggested that since former years such as 1805 and 1905 were commonly pronounced as "eighteen oh" or "nineteen oh" five, the year 2005 should naturally have been pronounced as "twenty oh-five". [34] A less common variation would have been "twenty nought-five". Generally, the early years of the 21st century were pronounced as "two-thousand (and) five", with a change taking place in 2010, where pronunciations often shift between the early-year standard of "two-thousand and ten" and the common approach used in the late 20th century of "twenty-ten".

The Vancouver Olympics, which took place in 2010, was being officially referred to by Vancouver 2010 as "the twenty-ten Olympics". The latest timeframes for change are usually placed at 2020. [34]

According to The Stanley Kubrick Archives, in the press release for his film 2001: A Space Odyssey , film director Stanley Kubrick included specific instructions for journalists to refer to the movie as "two thousand and one" instead of the commonplace pronunciation of "twenty-oh-one". Kubrick said he did this in the hope that if the film became popular, it would influence the pronunciation of that year. [35]

Events

Politics and wars

Despite a very large decline in conflict deaths compared to the 20th century, genocide still remains a problem in this century with the concern of the war in Darfur and the conflict in Sri Lanka which ended in 2009. Low estimates on the deaths in Darfur stand around 200,000 deaths with 2.5 million in displacement, there has been much outcry against the perpetrators, the Sudanese government, and the very weak international response. Also, controversies from past genocides remain commonplace in the minds of victims and average people alike.

Events

Russian President Vladimir Putin with George W. Bush and other Western leaders in Moscow, 9 May 2005 Victory Day Parade 2005-26.jpg
Russian President Vladimir Putin with George W. Bush and other Western leaders in Moscow, 9 May 2005
Protesters try to stop members of the G8 from attending the summit during the 27th G8 summit in Genoa, Italy by burning vehicles on the main route to the summit. Genova-G8 2001-Incidenti a Corso Torino.jpg
Protesters try to stop members of the G8 from attending the summit during the 27th G8 summit in Genoa, Italy by burning vehicles on the main route to the summit.

2000s

Barack Obama, the first African-American President of the United States, and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev after signing the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. Obama and Medvedev sign Prague Treaty 2010.jpeg
Barack Obama, the first African-American President of the United States, and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev after signing the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.

2010s

Pope Francis in Poland Swiatowe Dni Mlodziezy - 28559360556.jpg
Pope Francis in Poland

New countries and territorial changes

Some territories have gained independence during the 21st century. This is a list of sovereign states that have gained independence in the 21st century and have been recognized by the UN.

Celebration of the Declaration of Independence of Kosovo Kosova independence Vienna 17-02-2008 b.jpg
Celebration of the Declaration of Independence of Kosovo

These territories have declared independence and secured relative autonomy but they have only been recognized by some UN member states:

These territories have declared independence and secured relative autonomy but they have been recognized by no one:

These territories were annexed from a sovereign country, the action has only been recognized by some UN member states:

Science and technology

Space exploration

NASA successfully lands the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. PIA16239 High-Resolution Self-Portrait by Curiosity Rover Arm Camera.jpg
NASA successfully lands the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars.
Artist's impression of New Horizons' close encounter with the Pluto-Charon system. 15-011a-NewHorizons-PlutoFlyby-ArtistConcept-14July2015-20150115.jpg
Artist's impression of New Horizons ' close encounter with the Pluto–Charon system.

Physics

Mathematics

Medicine

Telecommunications

The Digital Revolution continued into the early 21st century with mobile usage and Internet access growing massively, becoming available to more people and with more applications and faster speeds.

Social networking emerged in the late 2000s as a popular social communication, largely replacing much of the function of email, message boards and instant messaging services. Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and Snapchat are all major examples of social media to gain widespread popularity. The use of webcams and front-facing cameras on PCs and related devices, and services such as Skype and FaceTime, have made video calling and video conferencing widespread.

Civil unrest

Linguistic diversity

As of 2009, SIL Ethnologue catalogued 6,909 living human languages. [49] The exact number of known living languages will vary from 5,000 to 10,000, depending generally on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects.

Estimates vary depending on many factors but the general consensus is that there are between 6,000 and 7,000 languages currently spoken, and that between 50–90% of those will have become extinct by the year 2100. [50] The top 20 languages spoken by more than 50 million speakers each, are spoken by 50% of the world's population, whereas many of the other languages are spoken by small communities, most of them with fewer than 10,000 speakers. [50]

Disasters

Natural disasters

The tsunami striking Ao Nang in Thailand on December 26, 2004. 2004-tsunami.jpg
The tsunami striking Ao Nang in Thailand on December 26, 2004.
New Orleans, Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. KatrinaNewOrleansFlooded edit2.jpg
New Orleans, Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

2000s

2010s

The eye of Hurricane Irene as viewed from the International Space Station on August 24, 2011 Irene ISS028-E-031903 Aug 24 2011.jpg
The eye of Hurricane Irene as viewed from the International Space Station on August 24, 2011
Hurricane Maria destruction in Dominica in 2017. Hurricane Maria destruction along Roseau road.jpg
Hurricane Maria destruction in Dominica in 2017.

Man-made disasters

Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling unit in the Gulf of Mexico on fire in 2010 Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling unit on fire 2010.jpg
Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling unit in the Gulf of Mexico on fire in 2010

Economics and industry

Jeff Bezos became the richest man in the world in 2018. There were over 2,200 U.S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.1 trillion, up from US$7.67 trillion in 2017. Jeff Bezos' iconic laugh.jpg
Jeff Bezos became the richest man in the world in 2018. There were over 2,200 U.S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.1 trillion, up from US$7.67 trillion in 2017.

Sports

At the start of the 21st century sports are very popular. The IOC's Modern Olympic Games was the most viewed sporting event. Association football is the most popular sport worldwide with the FIFA World Cup the most viewed football event. Other sports such as rugby, cricket, baseball, basketball, ice hockey, tennis, and golf were popular globally. In cricket the emergence of the Twenty20 format as well as the creation of the Indian Premier League led to changes in the nature of the sport. American swimmer Michael Phelps won an Olympic record setting 8 Gold medals at the 2008 Summer Olympics.

The Beijing Bird's Nest Stadium during the 2008 Summer Olympics. Beijing Birds Nest Olympics track .jpg
The Beijing Bird's Nest Stadium during the 2008 Summer Olympics.

International tournaments

Modern Olympic Games

Association football

Portugal vs Morocco match during the 2018 World Cup in Russia Portugal-Marocco 2.jpg
Portugal vs Morocco match during the 2018 World Cup in Russia

Athletics

Aquatics

Cricket

Cycling

Rugby Union

Tennis (Men)

Tennis (Women)

Motorsport

The start of a race during the 2016 Supercars Championship in Australia Sydney SuperSprint 2016 Race 18 Start.jpg
The start of a race during the 2016 Supercars Championship in Australia

Golf

Boxing

Arts and entertainment

Arts

Film

Computer-animated films became popular in the early 21st century, with DreamWorks Animation and Pixar films being the most notable, such as Madagascar , Over the Hedge , Bee Movie , the Kung Fu Panda , Rise of the Guardians , The Croods , Mr. Peabody and Sherman , Trolls , The Boss Baby and Finding Nemo , The Incredibles , Cars , Ratatouille , WALL-E , Inside Out respectively, as well as other popular computer-animated films such as, the Ice Age series , Robots , Happy Feet , Surf's Up , Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs , Monster House , Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius and A Christmas Carol .

Comic book adaptations, especially from Marvel and DC, became extremely successful, such as the X-Men series, the Spider-Man trilogy, Daredevil , Catwoman , the Dark Knight trilogy, Green Lantern , Man of Steel , and The Avengers .

Music

A. R. Rahman, an Indian composer, became the first ever from the sub-continent to have won double Oscars for his original score and soundtrack in 2009. A.R.Rahman at 57th FF Awards.jpg
A. R. Rahman, an Indian composer, became the first ever from the sub-continent to have won double Oscars for his original score and soundtrack in 2009.

The most popular styles of music in the 21st century have been hip hop and electronic dance music, although rock music is still popular and other genres such as jazz and classical music still have active scenes and continue to evolve.

Issues and concerns

There are several points-of-view pertaining to the following items, all of which should be considered accordingly.

Issues that have been frequently discussed and debated so far in this century include:

Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2006. Almost 97% of future population growth will occur in developing countries. Dhaka street crowds.jpg
Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2006. Almost 97% of future population growth will occur in developing countries.

Astronomical events

List of the long central solar eclipses

Other phenomena

See also

Related Research Articles

FIFA World Cup association football competition for mens national teams

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is France, which won its second title at the 2018 tournament in Russia.

Haiti Unitary republic in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

Russia transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

1960s decade of the 60s

The 1960s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on 1 January 1960, and ended on 31 December 1969.

1980s decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1980

The 1980s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1980, and ended on December 31, 1989.

2011 (MMXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2011th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 11th year of the 3rd millennium, the 11th year of the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2010s decade.

The 2010s is the current decade in the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2010, and will end on December 31, 2019.

1936 Summer Olympics games of the XI Olympiad, celebrated in Berlin in 1936

The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona. It marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.

2010 (MMX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2010th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 10th year of the 3rd millennium, the 10th year of the 21st century, and the 1st year of the 2010s decade.

2008 Summer Olympics Games of the XXIX Olympiad, held in Beijing in 2008

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.

1972 Summer Olympics Games of the XX Olympiad, held in Munich in 1972

The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972.

FIFA is the international governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer. It is one of the world's oldest and largest NGOs, being founded on 21 May 1904. It has since expanded to include 209 member associations.

Protests against the war in Afghanistan (2001–14)

The war in Afghanistan prompted large protests around the world, with the first large-scale demonstrations beginning in the days leading up to the war's official launch on October 7, 2001.

Bill Neely journalist

Bill Neely is a Northern Irish journalist. He is the Chief Global Correspondent for NBC News, since 2014. He has been a broadcaster since 1981. Neely spent 25 years at ITN's ITV News before his current NBC posting. More recently, he has reported from Russia, Syria and North Korea.

Politics and sports or sports diplomacy describes the use of sport as a means to influence diplomatic, social, and political relations. Sports diplomacy may transcend cultural differences and bring people together.

Events in the year 2014 in China.

2014 FIFA World Cup preparations

The costs of the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament in Brazil were estimated to be the highest in the history of the FIFA World Cup up till then.

The following lists events from 1996 in China.

This is a timeline of the 21st century.

References

  1. "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium". aa.usno.navy.mil. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  2. "When is the beginning of the new millennium? Some say it is January 1, 2000 and others January 1, 2001? Who is correct?" . Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  3. "Majority of Americans distrust the government". Reuters. April 19, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  4. David A. Lake. "Rational Extremism: Understanding Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century" (PDF). quote.ucsd.edu. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  5. "Working with Private Industry | Research Pages | The Stimson Center | Pragmatic Steps for Global Security". www.stimson.org. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  6. Fisher, Marc (December 15, 2011). "Arab Spring yields different outcomes in Bahrain, Egypt and Libya". The Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  7. Satell, Greg. "Why The Digital Revolution Is Really Just Getting Started" . Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  8. https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/Sequencing-Human-Genome-cost
  9. https://www.wired.com/story/whole-genome-sequencing-cost-200-dollars/
  10. "Contrasting Generation Y and Z". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  11. Kesbeh, Dina (November 25, 2018). "European Union Leaders Approve Brexit Plan". National Public Radio. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  12. Bansal, Samarth (November 30, 2016). "Sex ratio at birth on the decline" via www.thehindu.com.
  13. "Is anxiety increasing in the United States?". Medical News Today.
  14. "Depression". www.who.int.
  15. Stack, Steven. "Why is suicide on the rise in the US – but falling in most of Europe?". The Conversation.
  16. "Why the global suicide rate is falling". November 30, 2018 via The Economist.
  17. Carlson, Benjamin (July 3, 2010). "Quote of the Day: Google CEO Compares Data Across Millennia". The Atlantic.
  18. "Eric Schmidt: Every 2 Days We Create As Much Information As We Did Up To 2003".
  19. https://i.imgur.com/gpXRWoq.png
  20. "Big data, anyone? Pecan Street hits petabyte territory". Pecan Street Inc. October 4, 2018.
  21. "Number of mobile phone users worldwide 2015-2020". Statista.
  22. "Database". www.iea.org.
  23. Pruitt, Sarah. "China Makes Historic Landing on 'Dark Side' of the Moon". HISTORY.
  24. "By 2030, world will have 8.6bn people, 1.5bn of them in India". June 23, 2017 via The Economic Times.
  25. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/publications/files/wup2014-highlights.pdf
  26. "10 million Brits alive today will live to see their 100th birthday". uk.news.yahoo.com.
  27. "Climate change: An 'existential threat' to humanity, UN chief warns global summit". UN News. May 15, 2018.
  28. Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R. (June 8, 2018). "The misunderstood sixth mass extinction". Science . 360 (6393): 1080–1081. doi:10.1126/science.aau0191. OCLC   7673137938. PMID   29880679.
  29. Reporter, B. S. (April 30, 2014). "India larger than Japan in PPP terms, says WB" via Business Standard.
  30. https://danielmiessler.com/images/mfg1.jpg
  31. "Google Image Result". www.google.com.
  32. https://i1.wp.com/www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/fig7-automation-education.jpg?w=768&crop=0%2C0px%2C100%2C9999px&ssl=1
  33. CEO, Stephane Kasriel, Upwork (October 31, 2018). "The future of work won't be about degrees, it will be about skills". www.cnbc.com.
  34. 1 2 "Login".
  35. TASCHEN. "The Stanley Kubrick Archives" . Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  36. "Estimated casualties in Iraq" . Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  37. O'Neil, John; Onishi, Norimitsu (October 15, 2006). "US confirms nuclear claim". New York Times.
  38. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) PNM lose to Peoples Partnership in Trinidad elections 2010]. ttgapers.com 24 May 2010.
  39. Skard, Torild (2014) "Kamla Persad-Bissessar" in Women of power – half a century of female presidents and prime ministers worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press ISBN   978-1-44731-578-0, pp. 271–3
  40. "Catalonia declares independence from Spain as political crisis deepens". CNN. October 27, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  41. "Catalans declare independence as Madrid imposes direct rule". BBC. October 27, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  42. Grolier- the new book of knowledge, section "E"
  43. "NASA News Conference: Evidence of Liquid Water on Today's Mars". NASA . September 28, 2015.
  44. Greicius, Tony (March 13, 2015). "Juno Overview" . Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  45. Moss, Trefor (January 3, 2019). "China Lands Probe on the 'Dark Side' of the Moon". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  46. Ryan, Jackson (February 13, 2019). "NASA's history-making Mars rover Opportunity declared dead". CNET. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  47. Grossman, Lisa; Conover, Emily (April 10, 2019). "The first picture of a black hole opens a new era of astrophysics". Science News. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  48. "Higgs boson-like particle discovery claimed at LHC". BBC News. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  49. "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition". Retrieved June 28, 2007, ISBN   1-55671-159-X
  50. 1 2 Roell, Craig. Battle of Coleto. Handbook of Texas.
  51. Bodeen, Christopher (August 8, 2010). "Asia flooding plunges millions into misery". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 4, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  52. Masood, Salman and Adam B. Ellick. Floods in Pakistan Kill at Least 700. NYTimes.
  53. "UN voices Pakistan flood fears as death toll soars". BBC. July 31, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  54. Khan, Ismail (July 30, 2010). "400 Killed in Flooding in Pakistan, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  55. "Thousands trapped by Pakistan floods; 900 dead". Archived from the original on August 12, 2010. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  56. "Deaths From Pakistan Floods May Reach 3,000, Rescue Service Official Says". Bloomberg. July 31, 2010. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  57. CNN Report: Superstorm Sandy. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  58. Cleveland News Superstorm Sandy. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  59. Telegraph.co.uk News Report. October 30, 2012.
  60. "BP Will Pay For Gulf Oil Spill Disaster, CEO Says". NPR. May 3, 2010. Archived from the original on May 4, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  61. "Choppy Seas Hinder Effort To Contain Oil Spill", National Public Radio, April 30, 2010
  62. "Oil spill full of methane, adding new concerns". msnbc. June 18, 2010. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
  63. "Document Shows BP Estimates Spill up to 100,000 Bpd". ABC News. June 20, 2010. Archived from the original on June 24, 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
  64. "Seafloor Exit" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2010. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  65. Kroll, Luisa (March 6, 2018). "Forbes Billionaires 2018: Meet The Richest People On The Planet". Forbes.
  66. Oreskes, Naomi (2004). "The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change". Science. 306 (5702): 1686. doi:10.1126/science.1103618. PMID   15576594 . Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  67. "What the World Would Look Like if All the Ice Melted". September 1, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  68. Partington, Richard (August 13, 2018). "Is free trade always the answer?" via www.theguardian.com.
  69. World population projected to reach 7 billion in 2011 Archived April 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine ". CNN. August 12, 2009.
  70. "World population projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050, and 11.2 billion in 2100". UN DESA - United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. June 21, 2017.
  71. "Global HIV and AIDS statistics". AVERT. July 16, 2015.
  72. Sanger-Katz, Margot (August 16, 2016). "Is Terrorism Getting Worse? In the West, Yes. In the World, No" via NYTimes.com.
  73. https://www.du.edu/korbel/hrhw/researchdigest/china/WomenChina.pdf
  74. Jean Meeus, Mathematical Astronomy Morsels Ch.50 ; Willmann-Bell 1997.

Notes