Tulip Revolution

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Tulip Revolution
Part of Colour revolution
National emblem of Kyrgyzstan 2016.svg
Date 22 March 2005 - 11 April 2005
Location Kyrgyzstan
Caused by
Goals
Resulted in
Parties to the civil conflict
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyz Opposition
Lead figures

The Tulip Revolution or First Kyrgyz Revolution led to President of Kyrgyzstan, Askar Akayev's fall from power. The revolution began after parliamentary elections on February 27 and March 13, 2005. The revolutionaries alleged corruption and authoritarianism by Akayev, his family and supporters. Akayev fled to Kazakhstan and then to Russia. On April 4, 2005, at the Kyrgyz embassy in Moscow, Akayev signed his resignation statement in the presence of a Kyrgyz parliamentary delegation. The resignation was ratified by the Kyrgyz interim parliament on April 11, 2005.

President of Kyrgyzstan political position

The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic. The president, according to the constitution, "is the symbol of the unity of people and state power, and is the guarantor of the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, and of an individual and citizen." The president is directly elected for no more than one six-year term by the Kyrgyz electorate. The office of president was established in 1990 replacing the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet that existed, in different forms, from 1927 whilst the country was known as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.

Askar Akayev President of Kyrgyzstan

Askar Akayevich Akayev is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until his overthrow in the March 2005 Tulip Revolution.

In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries. Political corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain. Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies, oligarchies, narco-states and mafia states.

Contents

Origins

In the early stages of the revolution, the media variously referred to the unrest as the "Pink," [1] "Lemon", [2] "Silk", or "Daffodil" revolution. It was Akayev himself who coined the term, "Tulip Revolution". In a speech of the time, he warned that no such "Color Revolution" should happen in Kyrgyzstan. [3] Using a color or floral term evoked similarity with the non-violent Rose Revolution in Georgia, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine (2004), the Czechoslovak Velvet Revolution (1989) and the Portuguese Carnation Revolution (1974).

Tulip genus of plants

Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes. The flowers are usually large, showy and brightly coloured, generally red, pink, yellow, or white. They often have a different coloured blotch at the base of the tepals, internally. Because of a degree of variability within the populations, and a long history of cultivation, classification has been complex and controversial. The tulip is a member of the Liliaceae (lily) family, along with 14 other genera, where it is most closely related to Amana, Erythronium and Gagea in the tribe Lilieae. There are about 75 species, and these are divided among four subgenera. The name "tulip" is thought to be derived from a Persian word for turban, which it may have been thought to resemble. Tulips originally were found in a band stretching from Southern Europe to Central Asia, but since the seventeenth century have become widely naturalised and cultivated. In their natural state they are adapted to steppes and mountainous areas with temperate climates. Flowering in the spring, they become dormant in the summer once the flowers and leaves die back, emerging above ground as a shoot from the underground bulb in early spring.

Colour revolution Political term associated with democratization

Colour revolution is a term that was widely used by worldwide media to describe various related movements that developed in several countries of the former Soviet Union and the Balkans during the early 2000s. The term has also been applied to a number of revolutions elsewhere, including in the Middle East. Some observers have called the events a revolutionary wave, the origins of which can be traced back to the 1986 People Power Revolution in the Philippines.

Kyrgyzstan Sovereign state in Central Asia

Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and also known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain. It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

Givi Targamadze, a former member of the Liberty Institute of Georgia and the chair of Georgian Parliamentary Committee on Defense and Security, consulted Ukrainian opposition leaders on the technique of nonviolent struggle. He later advised leaders of the Kyrgyz opposition during the Tulip Revolution. [4]

Givi Targamadze is a Georgian politician in the United National Movement. An ally of Mikhail Saakashvili, Targamadze was one of the leaders of the United National Movement and the 2003 Rose Revolution. He served as Defense and Security Committee Chairman of the Georgian Parliament from 2004 to 2010, a period marked by tensions with Russia and a brief 2008 war over the breakaway province of South Ossetia.

Liberty Institute is a Georgian research and advocacy organization affiliated with Ilia Chavchavadze State University.

Georgia (country) Country in the Caucasus region

Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

Post-election violence

Pro-Akayev candidates performed well at the February 27, 2005 parliamentary election. However, the result was criticized by foreign observers. [5] The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) was critical of the Kyrgyzstan government. Protests began, especially in the western and southern cities including Jalal-Abad, Osh, and Uzgen. On March 3, 2005, a bomb exploded in opposition leader Roza Otunbayeva's apartment. The Akayev government denied responsibility.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe security-oriented intergovernmental organization

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria and its institutions. It has its origins in the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland.

Jalal-Abad Place in Kyrgyzstan

Jalal-Abad is the administrative and economic centre of Jalal-Abad Region in southwestern Kyrgyzstan. Its area is 88 square kilometres (34 sq mi), and its resident population was 97,172 in 2009. It is situated at the north-eastern end of the Fergana valley along the Kögart River valley, in the foothills of the Babash Ata mountains, very close to Uzbekistan border.

Osh Place in Osh Region, Kyrgyzstan

Osh is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south". It is the oldest city in the country, and has served as the administrative center of Osh Region since 1939. The city has an ethnically mixed population of about 281,900 in 2017, comprising Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Russians, Tajiks, and other smaller ethnic groups. It is about 5 km away from the Uzbekistan border.

On March 10, 2005, the People's Movement of Kyrgyzstan leader, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, joined protestors outside the parliament building in Bishkek. Bakiyev and 22 opposition parliamentarians issued a symbolic vote of "no confidence" in the Akayev administration. On March 19, 2005, three thousand people in Bishkek and fifty thousand in Jalal-Abad joined public protests. On March 20, when protestors occupied government buildings, the Kyrgyz government deployed interior ministry troops in Jalal-Abad and Osh. On March 20, 2005, protestors took control of all the large cities in the southern part of the nation and demanded Akayev's resignation. The "KelKel" ("renaissance and shining of the good") youth movement was active in the protests. On March 22, 2005, Akayev refused to negotiate with protestors. Ten of seventy-one parliamentarians sided with the protestors.

People's Movement of Kyrgyzstan is an electoral alliance formed on September 22, 2004 in Kyrgyzstan. President Kurmanbek Bakiyev was chosen as the movement's Chairman at the alliance's November 5 founding congress. It was created to contest the February 2005 parliamentary elections.

Kurmanbek Bakiyev Kyrgyzstani politician

Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev is a politician who served as the second President of Kyrgyzstan, from 2005 to 2010. Large opposition protests in April 2010 led to the takeover of government offices, forcing Bakiyev to flee the country.

Bishkek City in Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek, formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Region. The province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan.

Potential leaders

Although the opposition claimed significant gains in control of the country, it suffered internal division and lacked an obvious leader. This is in contrast to the Ukrainian and Georgian revolutionary forces which demonstrated united fronts against the state.

Orange Revolution series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005

The Orange Revolution was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud. Kiev, the Ukrainian capital, was the focal point of the movement's campaign of civil resistance, with thousands of protesters demonstrating daily. Nationwide, the democratic revolution was highlighted by a series of acts of civil disobedience, sit-ins, and general strikes organized by the opposition movement.

Rose Revolution

The Revolution of Roses, often translated into English as the Rose Revolution, describes a pro-Western peaceful change of power in Georgia in November 2003. The revolution was brought about by widespread protests over the disputed parliamentary elections and culminated in the ousting of President Eduard Shevardnadze, which marked the end of the Soviet era of leadership in the country. The event derives its name from the climactic moment, when demonstrators led by Mikheil Saakashvili stormed the Parliament session with red roses in hand.

Roza Otunbayeva was a potential leader of the Kyrgyz opposition. In 1981, she was the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan's second secretary of the Lenin "raikom" (district council). Leading up to 2005, Otunbayeva's political beliefs had slowly westernised. Following the 2005 revolution, Otunbayeva served in the interim government as acting foreign minister and ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom.

Kurmanbek Bakiyev was another potential leader. In 2002, Bakiyev had resigned from his position of prime minister of Kyrgyzstan after police shot and killed five peaceful demonstrators in the southern town of Asky.

Anvar Artykov was a previous governor of Osh. He had the support of the "kurultai", a traditional Mongol and Turkic opposition council. Artykov said, "We will keep this authority (parallel administration) until all of our demands and problems are resolved. We are an interim power. We can talk about the fulfillment of our tasks when the current government has been replaced by a government that is trusted by the nation."

The opposition was at its most united at the Jalal-Abad protest on March 21, 2005. Otunbayeva said, "Policemen, including high-ranking officers, took off their uniforms, changed into civilian clothes and joined our ranks. So we have substantial support."

On March 22, 2005, the opposition leaders met in Bishkek and formed an interim government. The Kyrgyzstan Supreme Court ruled that that previous parliament was the legitimate and rightful ruling body but then on March 24, 2005, it recognised the interim government. Bakiyev was appointed acting prime minister and new elections were planned for July, 2005.

Regime change

After protests on March 19 and 20, 2005, Akayev ordered the Central Election Committee and the Kyrgyzstan Supreme Court to investigate claims of election fraud put forward by the opposition. Akayev asked these bodies to "pay particular attention to those districts where election results provoked extreme public reaction ... and tell people openly who is right and who is wrong."

On March 22, Akayev dismissed Bakirdin Subanbekov, the minister for the interior and Myktybek Abdyldayev, the general prosecutor. On March 23, 2005, Akayev deployed riot police and thirty people were arrested. The Uzbekistan Foreign Ministry representative stated, "The people of Uzbekistan, which is a close neighbour of Kyrgyzstan, are concerned about the events happening in Kyrgyzstan, especially in its southern regions". [6]

On March 24, 2005, Akayev fled with his family. He went first to Kazakhstan and then to Russia where the Russian President, Vladimir Putin offered him exile. On April 3, 2005, Akayev gave his resignation. It was accepted by the interim administration on April 11, 2005.

When Akayev fled, Prime Minister Nikolai Tanayev resigned. The opposition took control of key state services such as the television broadcaster. Police melted away or joined the protesters. Imprisoned opposition leaders, including Felix Kulov, were released. The Kyrgyzstan Supreme Court declared the election results invalid.

Kurmanbek Bakiyev was made acting prime minister and acting president by the interim administration. He named an interim cabinet. Mobs were looting stores and automatic teller machines in Bishkek and buildings were set on fire. Three people had died in the unrest. Bakiyev appointed Felix Kulov acting minister for the interior. Kulov appeared on television and appealed for calm. On March 26, 2005, armed supporters of Akayev made an abortive attempt to enter Bishkek under Kenesh Dushebaev and Temirbek Akmataliev. On March 29, Akmataliev announced he would participate in upcoming elections. By March 28, 2005 a gradual political stabilisation had occurred.

The interim administration announced presidential elections for July 10, 2005. However, media entities accused Bakiyev of lack of transparency, failure to restore order and discrimination against Russian minorities. [7] The appointment of Adakhan Madumarov to the fourth deputy prime minister position was unpopular because it was seen, since he was a presidential candidate, as a conflict of interest. [7] Bakiyev was also criticised for re-employing some of Akeyev's cabinet in the interim government.

On May 13, 2005, Bakiyev and Kulov united to contest the July 10, 2005 presidential election. The agreement was that if Bakiyev retained the presidency, Kulov would be made prime minister. The alliance lasted until January 2007. It united the northern and southern parts of the nation; made the election of other candidates more difficult; and helped to stabilise Uzbekistan. [7]

Problems for the interim government

Land rights

The interim government was faced with the challenge of peasant land rights claims in Bishkek. Police had been unable to stop forced seizures of land by armed peasants. In a related matter, Usan Kudaibergenov, a leader of Bishkek civilian patrols, was murdered. [7]

Alleged Akayev corruption

On March 24, 2005, Akayev's diaries were produced as evidence of corruption. A commission of citizens, public servants, bankers and non-government organisation representatives was empanelled to investigate corruption by the Akayev administration. On April 21, 2005, the commission published the details of forty-two enterprises controlled by the Akayev family during Akayev's presidency. [7] The interim government also alleged that through violence and arrests, Akayev had disrupted peaceful political protest against his administration. [7] It was alleged that on March 24, 2005, Akeyev's men, dressed in civilian clothing, had assaulted protesters.

Andijan refugees

On May 13, 2005 a massacre occurred in Andijan, Uzbekistan when government security agents fired shots into gathered protesters. Up to six thousand Uzbek refugees entered Kyrgyzstan. Refugees were unable to return to Uzbekistan due to harsh Uzbek government actions. [7] Initially, Bakiyev supported the Uzbek government's stance despite calls for compassion from human rights activists. Later, with assistance from the international community, the Kyrgyz interim administration gave legal status to Andijan refugees. International NGOs were able to provide shelter, food, water, and other necessities to the refugees. On June 9, 2005, however, four Uzbekistan refugees were returned to their homeland. Kulov said these four were accused or guilty of rape or murder and therefore deported [7]

Akayev took legal action against the chair of the Bakiyev anti-corruption commission. He also sued a Kyrgyz newspaper journalist for defamation, on the grounds that the accusations of corruption made against him were inaccurate. Bermet Akayeva, Akayev's daughter, took legal action against the Kyrgyzstan Central Election Commission for defamation and for preventing her election to parliament. Some of Akayev's personal possessions which had been seized in the revolution were returned to him. [7]

Pre-election unrest

On June 10, 2005, the parliamentarian, Jyrgalbek Surabaldiyev was shot dead in Bishkek. He may have been involved with the attacks on anti-Akayev protestors on March 24, 2005. On June 11, 2005, two government security guards were beaten and coerced to give information about Bakiyev's and Deputy Prime Minister Daniyar Usenov's travel itineraries. On June 13, 2005, six people were injured in violence between protesters and parliamentary security agents in Osh. In this incident, security agents had opened fire on protestors congregating outside the Alay Hotel. The parliamentarian, Bayaman Erkinbayev was implicated in the violence and accused of taking illegal ownership of state property. [7]

On June 17, 2005, protesters gathered in Bishkek in support of Urmat Baryktabasov, an old ally of Akayev. He had previously expressed an intent to be a presidential candidate but was denied the right to register because of his dual citizenship (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Given that Baryktabasov was not well known, the uprising was unusual when he might have addressed the issue by legal means. Some protestors admitted they had been paid to attend. [7]

New elections

On July 10, 2005, the promised elections took place. Bakiyev won ninety percent of the vote and the following day was made president. Kulov was appointed Prime Minister. He won 88.7 percent of the vote while his opponent won 4 percent. The conduct of the election was praised by Western observers but some irregularities were also noted.

In the months after the election, Bayaman Erkinbayev and Raatbek Sanatbayev were killed. Tynychbek Akmatbayev died during a prison riot orchestrated by the Chechnyen thief in law, Aziz Batukayev. Ryspek was shot dead leaving a mosque in May 2006. [8] [9]

The OSCE sent sixty observers to monitor the election runoffs. In its initial assessment the organisation found that the second round of voting showed "some technical improvements over the first round". It also emphasised "significant shortcomings".

Election observers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) disagreed. They hailed the runoff elections as well-organized, free, and fair. CIS observers also praised local authorities for showing restraint and competence in dealing with political unrest in several regions. This contradiction in the findings between OSCE and CIS observation teams formed the latest in a series of such contradictory findings (see CIS election observation missions ). Russia supported the CIS reports and rebuked the OSCE for its findings.

The New York Times , reported that American funding and support, from governmental and non-governmental sources, helped to pave the way for anti-Akayev demonstrations by providing the means for printing literature. [10]

Kofi Annan said, "The secretary general is opposed to the use of violence and intimidation to resolve electoral and political disputes." The United Nations website said, Annan "calls on all parties to apply restraint". [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Kyrgyzstan aspect of history

The history of the Kyrgyz people and the land now called Kyrgyzstan goes back more than 2,000 years. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous location, it had an important role as part of the historical Silk Road trade route. In between periods of self-government it was ruled by Göktürks, the Uyghur Empire, and the Khitan people, before being conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century; subsequently it regained independence but was invaded by Kalmyks, Manchus and Uzbeks. In 1876 it became part of the Russian Empire, remaining in the USSR as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic after the Russian Revolution. Following Mikhael Gorbachev's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate Askar Akayev was elected president of the SSR. On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from Moscow, and a democratic government was subsequently established.

Politics of Kyrgyzstan

The Politics of Kyrgyzstan, officially known as the Kyrgyz Republic takes place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Kyrgyzstan as "hybrid regime" in 2016.

2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Kyrgyzstan on 27 February and 13 March 2005. The belief that the elections had been rigged by the government led to widespread protests, culminating in the Tulip Revolution on 24 March in which President Askar Akayev was overthrown.

Roza Otunbayeva Soviet diplomat

Roza Isakovna Otunbayeva is a Kyrgyz diplomat and politician who served as the President of Kyrgyzstan from 7 April 2010 until 1 December 2011. She was sworn in on July 3, 2010, after acting as interim leader following the 2010 April revolution which led to the ousting of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev. She previously served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and as head of the parliamentary caucus for the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan.

Felix Kulov Kyrgyz politician and former Prime Minister

Felix Sharshenbayevich Kulov is a Kyrgyz politician who was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 2005 to 2007, following the Tulip Revolution. He first served from 1 September 2005 until he resigned on 19 December 2006. President Kurmanbek Bakiyev reappointed him acting Prime Minister the same day, but parliamentary opposition meant Bakiyev's attempts to renominate Kulov in January 2007 were unsuccessful and on 29 January the assembly's members approved a replacement. Kulov cofounded and leads Ar-Namys, a political party, and chairs the People's Congress, an electoral alliance to which Ar-Namys belongs.

Omurbek Chirkeshovich Tekebayev is a Kyrgyz politician. He was Speaker of the Kyrgyz Parliament from March 2005 to March 2006. Tekebaev is the leader of the Ata-Meken socialist party. Tekebayev is currently serving an eight-year jail sentence for corruption and fraud.

2005 Kyrgyz presidential election

Kyrgyzstan held a presidential election on 10 July 2005. It saw a landslide victory for acting President Kurmanbek Bakiev, marking the end of his interim government formed after the previous president, Askar Akayev, was overthrown in the revolution in March 2005.

Tursunbai Bakir Uulu is a Kyrgyz politician, former ombudsman and presidential candidate. He is leader of the political party Erkin Kyrgyzstan (ErK). A teacher by training, a historian, and a doctor of philosophy he is married with four children.

Alikbek Jeshenkulov is the former Foreign Minister of Kyrgyzstan (2005–2007) and now the leader of the oppositional party "Za spravedlivost".

1993 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan

The Constitution of Kyrgyzstan is the supreme law of the Kyrgyz Republic. The constitution in force until 2010 was passed by referendum on 21 October 2007 and it is based on the first post-Soviet constitution originally adopted on 5 May 1993, a year and a half after the country had gained independence from the former Soviet Union. The 1993 constitution had been amended several times: first on 10 February 1996, then on 2 February 2003, and finally twice in quick succession on 9 November 2006 and 15 January 2007 after the Tulip Revolution of March 2005. The last two amendments were adopted under pressure from protracted public protests in the capital Bishkek, but they were annulled in September 2007 by the Constitutional Court, which restored the 2003 constitution and paved the way for another constitutional referendum in October 2007. The description that follows is based on the text of the October 2007 constitution.

Azim Beishembayevich Isabekov born 4 April 1960) served as the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 29 January until 29 March 2007.

Bakyt Beshimov Kyrgyzstani politician and opposition leader

Bakyt Beshimov is a leader of parliamentary fraction and deputy chairman of Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan. Bakyt Beshimov is a prominent opposition leader, famous for his liberal views, and speaking out against Kurmanbek Bakiyev's and Askar Akayev's regimes.

2010 Kyrgyz constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Kyrgyzstan on 27 June 2010 to reduce presidential powers and strengthen democracy in the wake of the riots earlier in the year. Parliamentary elections followed on 10 October 2010.

Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 revolution

The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010, also known as the Second Kyrgyz Revolution, the April Events or officially as the People's April Revolution, began in April 2010 with the ousting of Kyrgyz president Kurmanbek Bakiyev in the capital Bishkek. It was followed by increased ethnic tension involving Kyrgyz people and Uzbeks in the south of the country, which escalated in June 2010. The violence ultimately led to the consolidation of a new parliamentary system in Kyrgyzstan.

The 2010 South Kyrgyzstan riots were clashes between ethnic Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in southern Kyrgyzstan, primarily in the cities of Osh and Jalal-Abad, in the aftermath of the ouster of former President Kurmanbek Bakiyev on 7 April. It is part of the larger Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010. Violence that started between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks on 19 May in Jalal-Abad escalated on 10 June in Osh.

The following lists events that happened during 2010 in Kyrgyzstan.

This article is a list of events in the year 2005 in Kyrgyzstan.

References

  1. Walsh N. P. Pink revolution rumbles on in blood and fury The Guardian March 27, 2005. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  2. Timesonline.co.uk Accessed July 31, 2015. (subscription required)
  3. Moscow and multipolarity The Hindu December 30, 2004. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  4. Georgian advisors stepping forward in Bishkek The Jamestown Foundation website. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  5. A tulip revolution The Economist issn 0013-0613 Accessed June 9, 2016.
  6. Pike J. Government and opposition concerned over Kyrgyz unrest Global Security.org March 2005. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Marat E. The Tulip Revolution: Kyrgyzstan one year after. The Jamestown Foundation, Washington DC.
  8. Kyrgyz MP shot dead in Bishkek BBC Accessed July 30, 2015.
  9. Protests force Kyrgyz poll review BBC Accessed July 30, 2015.
  10. U.S. Helped to prepare the way for Kyrgyzstan's Uprising The New York Times March 30, 2005. Accessed July 31, 2015.
  11. United Nations February 17, 2009.

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