Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
|Largest city||New York City|
|Official languages||English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish|
|Type|| Intergovernmental organization |
with no legal personality
|Membership|| 57 participating countries |
11 partners for co‑operation
• As the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe
|30 July – 1 August 1975|
|21 November 1990|
• Renamed OSCE
|1 January 1995|
|50,119,801 km2 (19,351,363 sq mi)|
• 2018 estimate
|25/km2 (64.7/sq mi)|
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria, and its institutions. It has its origins in the mid 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland.
The OSCE is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its 57 participating countries are located in Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America. The participating states cover much of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. It was created during the Cold War era as an East–West forum.
The Organization has its roots in the 1973 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE). Talks had been mooted about a European security grouping since the 1950s but the Cold War prevented any substantial progress until the talks at Dipoli in Espoo began in November 1972. These talks were held at the suggestion of the Soviet Union which wished to use the talks to maintain its control over the communist countries in Eastern Europe, and President of Finland Urho Kekkonen hosted them in order to bolster his policy of neutrality. Western Europe, however, saw these talks as a way to reduce the tension in the region, furthering economic cooperation and obtaining humanitarian improvements for the populations of the Communist bloc.
The recommendations of the talks, in the form of "The Blue Book", gave the practical foundations for a three-stage conference called the "Helsinki process". I only took five days to agree to follow the Blue Book. Stage II was the main working phase and was conducted in Geneva from 18 September 1973 until 21 July 1975. The result of Stage II was the Helsinki Final Act which was signed by the 35 participating states during Stage III, which took place in Finlandia Hall from 30 July – 1 August 1975. It was opened by Holy See's diplomat Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, who was chairman of the conference.The CSCE opened in Helsinki on 3 July 1973 with 35 states sending representatives. Stage
The concepts of improving relations and implementing the act were developed over a series of follow-up meetings, with major gatherings in Belgrade (4 October 1977 –8 March 1978), Madrid (11 November 1980 –9 September 1983) and Vienna (4 November 1986 –19 January 1989).
The fall of the Soviet Union required a change of role for the CSCE. The Charter of Paris for a New Europe, signed on 21 November 1990, marked the beginning of this change. With the changes capped by the renaming of the CSCE to the OSCE on 1 January 1995, in accord with the results of the conference held in Budapest, Hungary, in 1994. The OSCE now had a formal secretariat, Senior Council, Parliamentary Assembly, Conflict Prevention Centre, and Office for Free Elections (later becoming the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights).
In December 1996, the "Lisbon Declaration on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe for the Twenty-First Century" affirmed the universal and indivisible nature of security on the European continent.
In Istanbul on 19 November 1999, the OSCE ended a two-day summit by calling for a political settlement in Chechnya and adopting a Charter for European Security. According to then Minister of Foreign Affairs Igor Ivanov, this summit marked a turning point in Russian perception of the OSCE, from an organization that expressed Europe's collective will, to an organization that serves as a Western tool for "forced democratization".
Through its Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), the OSCE observes and assesses elections in its member states, in order to support fair and transparent democratic processes, in keeping with the mutual standards to which the organization is committed;between 1994 and 2004 the OSCE sent teams of observers to monitor more than 150 elections, typically focusing on elections in emerging democracies. In 2004, at the invitation of the United States Government, the ODIHR deployed an assessment mission, made up of participants from six OSCE member states, which observed that year's US presidential election and produced a report. It was the first time that a US presidential election was the subject of OSCE monitoring, although the organization had previously monitored state-level American elections in Florida and California, in 2002 and 2003. The 2004 assessment took place against the backdrop of the controversial recount effort in the 2000 US presidential election, and came about largely through the initiative of 13 Democratic members of the United States House of Representatives. That group, which included Barbara Lee, of California, and Eddie Bernice Johnson, of Texas, initially addressed a request for election observers to the United Nations, in a letter to Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary-General, but the request was declined. Subsequently, the administration of President George W. Bush, through the State Department, headed by Secretary of State Colin Powell, responded to the lawmakers' concerns by inviting the OSCE election-monitoring mission.
The six official languages of the OSCE are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Russian.
Helsinki Final Act
Charter of Paris
|Albania||19 June 1991||16 September 1991||17 September 1991|
|Andorra||25 April 1996||10 November 1999||17 February 1998|
|Armenia||30 January 1992||8 July 1992||17 April 1992|
|Austria||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Azerbaijan||30 January 1992||8 July 1992||20 December 1993|
|Belarus||30 January 1992||26 February 1992||8 April 1993|
|Belgium||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||30 April 1992||8 July 1992|
|Bulgaria||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Canada||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Croatia||24 March 1992||8 July 1992|
|Cyprus||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Czech Republic||1 January 1993|
|Denmark||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Estonia||10 September 1991||14 October 1991||6 December 1991|
|Finland||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|France||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Georgia||24 March 1992||8 July 1992||21 January 1994|
| Germany |
- as West Germany
- as East Germany
|25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Greece||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Holy See||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Hungary||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Iceland||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Ireland||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Italy||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Kazakhstan||30 January 1992||8 July 1992||23 September 1992|
|Kyrgyzstan||30 January 1992||8 July 1992||3 June 1994|
|Latvia||10 September 1991||14 October 1991||6 December 1991|
|Liechtenstein||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Lithuania||10 September 1991||14 October 1991||6 December 1991|
|Luxembourg||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Malta||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Moldova||30 January 1992||26 February 1992||29 January 1993|
|Monaco||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Mongolia||21 November 2012|
|Montenegro||22 June 2006||1 September 2006|
|Netherlands||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|North Macedonia||12 October 1995||8 July 1992|
|Norway||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Poland||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Portugal||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Romania||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Russia (as Soviet Union)||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|San Marino||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Serbia (as Yugoslavia)||10 November 2000||27 November 2000[ citation needed ]||27 November 2000[ citation needed ]|
|Slovakia||1 January 1993|
|Slovenia||24 March 1992||8 July 1992||8 March 1993|
|Spain||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Sweden||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Switzerland||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Tajikistan||30 January 1992||26 February 1992|
|Turkey||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Turkmenistan||30 January 1992||8 July 1992|
|Ukraine||30 January 1992||26 February 1992||16 June 1992|
|United Kingdom||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|United States||25 June 1973||1 August 1975||21 November 1990|
|Uzbekistan||30 January 1992||26 February 1992||27 October 1993|
A unique aspect of the OSCE is the non-binding status of its constitutive charter. Rather than being a formal treaty ratified by national legislatures, the Helsinki Final Act represents a political commitment by the heads of government of all signatories to build security and cooperation in Europe on the basis of its provisions. This allows the OSCE to remain a flexible process for the evolution of improved cooperation, which avoids disputes and/or sanctions over implementation. By agreeing to these commitments, signatories for the first time accepted that treatment of citizens within their borders was also a matter of legitimate international concern. This open process of the OSCE is often given credit for helping build democracy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, thus leading to the end of the Cold War[ citation needed ]. Unlike most international intergovernmental organizations, however, the OSCE does not have international legal personality on account of the lack of legal effect of its charter. As a result, its headquarters' host, Austria, had to confer legal personality on the organization in order to be able to sign a legal agreement regarding its presence in Vienna.
Political direction to the organization is given by heads of state or government during summits. Summits are not regular or scheduled but held as needed. The last summit took place in Astana (Kazakhstan), on 1 and 2 December 2010. The high-level decision-making body of the organization is the Ministerial Council, which meets at the end of every year. At ambassadorial level the Permanent Council convenes weekly in Vienna and serves as the regular negotiating and decision-making body. The chairperson of the Permanent Council is the ambassador to the Organization of the participating State which holds the chairmanship.
In addition to the Ministerial Council and Permanent Council, the Forum for Security Co-operation is also an OSCE decision-making body. It deals predominantly with matters of military co-operation, such as modalities for inspections according to the Vienna Document of 1999.
The OSCE's Secretariat is located in Vienna, Austria. The organization also has offices in Copenhagen, Geneva, The Hague, Prague and Warsaw.
As of March 2016 [update] , the OSCE employed 3,462 staff, including 513 in its secretariat and institutions and 2,949 in its 17 field operations.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe is made up of 323 parliamentarians from 57 member states. The Parliamentary Assembly performs its functions mainly via the Standing Committee, the Bureau, and 3 General Committees (Committee on Political Affairs and Security, Committee on Economic Affairs, Science, Technology and Environment, and Committee on Democracy, Human Rights and Humanitarian Questions).The Parliamentary Assembly passes resolutions on matters such as political and security affairs, economic and environmental issues, and democracy and human rights. Representing the collective voice of OSCE parliamentarians, these resolutions and recommendations are meant to ensure that all participating states live up to their OSCE commitments. The Parliamentary Assembly also engages in parliamentary diplomacy, and has an extensive election observation program.
The oldest OSCE institution is the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), established in 1991 following a decision made at the 1990 Summit of Paris. It is based in Warsaw, Poland, and is active throughout the OSCE area in the fields of election observation, democratic development, human rights, tolerance and non-discrimination, rule of law, and Roma and Sinti issues. The ODIHR has observed over 300 elections and referendums since 1995, sending more than 50,000 observers. It has operated outside its own area twice, sending a team that offered technical support to the 9 October 2004 presidential elections in Afghanistan, an OSCE Partner for Co-operation, and an election support team to assist with parliamentary and provincial council elections on 18 September 2005. ODIHR is headed by Matteo Mecacci, Italy.
The Office of the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, established in December 1997, acts as a watchdog to provide early warning on violations of freedom of expression in OSCE participating States. The representative also assists participating States by advocating and promoting full compliance with OSCE norms, principles and commitments regarding freedom of expression and free media. As of 2020, the current representative is Teresa Ribeiro, Portugal.
The High Commissioner on National Minorities was created on 8 July 1992 by the Helsinki Summit Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is charged with identifying and seeking early resolution of ethnic tension that might endanger peace, stability or friendly relations between participating states. The first non-European served as the high commissioner in 2020.
Each year the OSCE holds an OSCE Asian Conference with partner nations (currently Australia, Thailand, South Korea, Japan and Afghanistan).
Almost all field operations of OSCE have been conducted in countries of former Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.
The OSCE chairmanship is assumed at yearly intervals by one participating State, which then plays the central role in managing the organization's work and in its external representation. The foreign minister of the country holding the chair holds the OSCE's most senior position as "Chairperson-in-Office (CiO)."
The responsibilities of the Chairperson-in-Office (CiO) include
CiO nominates Personal Representatives - experts in fields of priority for the CiO.
OSCE Chair for 2021 is Sweden,represented by Ann Linde as Chairperson-in-Office.
The CiO is assisted by the previous and incoming chairpersons-in-office; the three of them together constitute the OSCE Troika.The origin of the institution lies with the Charter of Paris for a New Europe (1990), the Helsinki Document 1992 formally institutionalized this function.
While the Chairperson-in-Office is the OSCE's most senior official, on a day-to-day basis the Secretary General is the OSCE's chief administrative officer and can, when requested by the Chairmanship, serve as a representative of the Chairperson-in-Office. Since the establishment of the office in 1992, Secretary Generals have been:
|I||30 July – 1 August 1975||Helsinki||Finland||Closing of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). Signing of the Final Act (Helsinki Act).|
|II||19–21 November 1990||Paris||France||(Second CSCE Summit). Signing of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe (Paris Charter), the Vienna Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBM) Document and the CFE Treaty.|
|III||9–10 July 1992||Helsinki||Finland||Final Document: The Challenges of Change. Creation of the High Commissioner on National Minorities, the Forum for Security Co-operation and the Economic Forum. Suspension of FR Yugoslavia from membership.|
|IV||5–6 December 1994||Budapest||Hungary||Final Document: Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Era. Approval of a multi-national peace-keeping force to Nagorno-Karabakh. Endorsement of the Code of Conduct on politico-military aspects of security.|
|V||2–3 December 1996||Lisbon||Portugal||(First OSCE Summit). Lisbon Declaration on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe for the Twenty-First Century. Adoption of a Framework for Arms Control.|
|VI||18–19 November 1999||Istanbul||Turkey||Signing of the Istanbul Document and the Charter for European Security.|
|VII||1–2 December 2010||Astana||Kazakhstan||Adoption of the Astana Commemorative Declaration, which reconfirms the Organization's comprehensive approach to security based on trust and transparency.|
|1st||19–20 June 1991||Berlin||Germany||Admission of Albania|
|2nd||30–31 January 1992||Prague||Czechoslovakia||Admission of ten former Soviet republics.|
|3rd||14–15 December 1992||Stockholm||Sweden||Creation of the post of Secretary General and appointment of Max van der Stoel as first High Commissioner on National Minorities.|
|4th||30 November – 1 December 1993||Rome||Italy||Establishment of the Mission to Tajikistan.|
|5th||7–8 December 1995||Budapest||Hungary||Establishment of the Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina to carry out the tasks assigned to the OSCE in the Dayton Peace Agreements.|
|6th||18–19 December 1997||Copenhagen||Denmark||Creation of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities and the Representative on Freedom of the Media.|
|7th||2–3 December 1998||Oslo||Norway|
|8th||27–28 November 2000||Vienna||Austria||Vienna Declaration on the OSCE's activities in South-Eastern Europe. Re-admission of FR Yugoslavia.Teija Egan Evans|
|9th||3–4 December 2001||Bucharest||Romania||Bucharest Declaration. Bucharest Plan of Action for Combating Terrorism. Creation of the Strategic Police Matters Unit and a Senior Police Adviser in the OSCE Secretariat.|
|10th||6–7 December 2002||Porto||Portugal||Porto Declaration: Responding to Change. OSCE Charter on Preventing and Combating Terrorism.|
|11th||1–2 December 2003||Maastricht||Netherlands||Strategy to Address Threats to Security and Stability in the Twenty-First Century. Strategy Document for the Economic and Environmental Dimension.|
|12th||6–7 December 2004||Sofia||Bulgaria|
|13th||5–6 December 2005||Ljubljana||Slovenia||Statement on the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Approval of the Border Security and Management Concept.|
|14th||4–5 December 2006||Brussels||Belgium||Brussels Declaration on Criminal Justice Systems. Ministerial Statement on Supporting and Promoting the International Legal Framework against Terrorism.|
|15th||29–30 November 2007||Madrid||Spain||Madrid Declaration on Environment and Security. Ministerial Statement on Supporting the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.|
|16th||4–5 December 2008||Helsinki||Finland|
|17th||1–2 December 2009||Athens||Greece||Ministerial Declarations on Non-Proliferation and on the OSCE Corfu Process.|
|16–17 July 2010||Almaty||Kazakhstan||Informal discussions on Corfu Process progress, the situation in Kyrgyzstan and the forthcoming OSCE summit.|
|18th||6–7 December 2011||Vilnius||Lithuania||Decisions on responses to conflicts and transnational threats; to enhance capabilities in early warning; early action; dialogue facilitation and mediation support; and post-conflict rehabilitation. Decisions to enhance engagement with OSCE Partners for Co-operation, Afghanistan in particular.|
|19th||6–7 December 2012||Dublin||Ireland||Helsinki+40 Process: clear path to the 2015 40th anniversary of the Helsinki Final Act, intent to reinforce and revitalize the OSCE; unanimous support for Transdniestrian settlement process: negotiated, comprehensive, just and viable solution to the conflict; strengthening good governance: deepening engagement in preventing and countering corruption, addressing transnational threats, and adding an anti-terrorism framework to earlier decisions on threats from information and communication technologies, drugs and chemical precursors and strategic policing; despite Ireland's hopes, a decision on human rights was not reached: greater, still, was concern for the council's trend of human rights decision-failures.|
|20th||5–6 December 2013||Kiev||Ukraine||Decision on the combating trafficking in human beings. Decision on the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. Ministerial Declaration on Strengthening the OSCE's Efforts to Address Transnational Threats. Decision on the Extension of the Mandate of the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. Decision on the time and place of the next meeting of the OSCE Ministerial Council. Decision on the improving the environmental footprint of energy-related activities in the OSCE region. Ministerial Declaration on the Update of the OSCE Principles Governing Non-Proliferation. Decision on the enhancing OSCE efforts to implement the Action Plan on Improving the Situation of Roma and Sinti Within the OSCE Area, With a Particular Focus on Roma and Sinti Women, Youth and Children. Ministerial Statement on the Work of the Permanent Conference on Political Issues in the Framework of the Negotiation Process for the Transdniestrian Settlement in the "5+2" Format. Decision on the appointment of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. Declaration on Furthering the Helsinki+40 Process. Decision on the small arms and light weapons and stockpiles of conventional ammunition. Decision on the protection of energy networks from natural and man-made disasters.|
|21st||4–5 December 2014||Basel||Switzerland||Declaration on further steps in the Helsinki+40 Process. Ministerial statement on the negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2"format. Declaration on youth. Declaration on the Transfer of Ownership to the Parties to the Agreement on Sub-regional Arms Control, Annex 1B, Article IV of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Declaration on the OSCE role in countering the phenomenon of foreign terrorist fighters in the context of the implementation of UN Security Council resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014). Declaration on the OSCE role in countering kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by terrorist groups in the context of the implementation of the UN Security Council resolution 2133 (2014). Decision on the prevention of corruption. Decision on enhancing disaster risk reductionDecision on preventing and combating violence against women. Decision on an addendum to the 2004 OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality. Ministerial commemorative declaration on the seventieth anniversary of the end of the Second World War. Declaration on enhancing efforts to combat anti-Semitism. Declaration on co-operation with the Mediterranean Partners. Ministerial declaration on co-operation with the Asian Partners. Decision on small arms and light weapons and stockpiles of conventional ammunition. Commemorative Declaration on the Occasion of the Twentieth Anniversary of the OSCE Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security.|
|22nd||3–4 December 2015||Belgrade||Serbia||Ministerial Declaration on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalization that lead to Terrorism. Declaration on the OSCE Activities in Support of Global Efforts in Tackling the World Drug Problem. Ministerial Declaration on Reinforcing OSCE Efforts to Counter Terrorism in the Wake of Recent Terrorist Attacks. Declaration on Youth and Security. Ministerial Statement on the Negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2" Format.|
|23st||8–9 December 2016||Hamburg||Germany||Decision on the OSCE's role in the governance of large movements of migrants and refugees. Decision on strengthening good governance and promoting connectivity. Decision on OSCE efforts related to reducing the risks of conflict stemming from the use of information and communication technologies. Declaration on strengthening OSCE efforts to prevent and counter terrorism. Decision on enhancing the use of Advance Passenger Information. Ministerial statement on the negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2"format.|
|24th||7–8 December 2017||Vienna||Austria||Decision on enhancing OSCE efforts to reduce the risk of conflict stemming from the use of information and communication technologies. Decision on strengthening efforts to prevent trafficking in human beings. Decision on strengthening efforts to combat all forms of child trafficking, including for sexual exploitation, as well as other forms of sexual exploitation of children. Decision on promoting economic participation in the OSCE area. Decision on small arms and light weapons and stockpiles of conventional ammunition. Ministerial Statement on the negotiations on the Transdniestrian settlement process in the "5+2" format. Decisions on the appointment of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, the Representative on Freedom of the Media, the Director of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, and the Secretary General.|
|25th||6–7 December 2018||Milan||Italy||Decision on the OSCE Chairmanship in the Year 2020. Decision on the Time and Place of the Next Meeting of the OSCE Ministerial Council. Decision on Safety of Journalists. Decision on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women. Decision on Human Capital Development in the Digital Era. Ministerial Statement on the Negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2" Format. Declaration on the Digital Economy a Driver for Promoting Co-operation, Security and Growth. Declaration on the Role of Youth in Contribution to Peace and Security Efforts. Declaration on Security and Co-operation in the Mediterranean. Declaration on OSCE Efforts in the Field of Norms and Best Practices on Small Arms and Light Weapons and Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition.|
|26th||5–6 December 2019||Bratislava||Slovakia||Decision on the OSCE Chairmanship in the Years 2021 and 2022. Decision on Renaming the Contact Group with the Asian Partners for Co-operation and the Contact Group with the Mediterranean Partners for Co-operation. Decision on Time and Place of the Next Meeting of the OSCE Ministerial Council. Commemorative Declaration on the Occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the OSCE Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security. Ministerial Statement on the Negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2" Format. Document No.2, Commemorative. Declaration on the Occasion of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the OSCE Principles Governing Non-Proliferation and Fifteenth Anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540.|
|27th||3–4 December 2020||Tirana||Albania||Decision on the appointment of the OSCE Secretary General. Decision on the appointment of the Director of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Decision on the appointment of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. Decision on the appointment of the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. Decision on the OSCE Chairmanship in the year 2023. Decision on Preventing and Combating Corruption through Digitalization and Increased Transparency. Decision on Prevention and Eradication of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Decision on the Time and Place of the Next Meeting of the OSCE Ministerial Council. Declaration on Strengthening Co-operation in Countering Transnational Organized Crime. Declaration on Co-operation With the OSCE Asian Partners. Ministerial Statement on the Negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2" Format.|
|28th||2–3 December 2021||Stockholm||Sweden|
Chairmanship of the OSCE is held by a member state on a calendar-year basis, with the minister for foreign affairs of that state performing the function of Chairperson-in-Office. The table below shows the holders since 1991.
|1991||Germany||Hans-Dietrich Genscher (from June)|
|1992||Czechoslovakia||Jiří Dienstbier (until 2 July); Jozef Moravčík (from 3 July)|
|1993||Sweden||Margaretha af Ugglas|
|1994||Italy||Beniamino Andreatta (until 11 May); Antonio Martino (from 12 May)|
|1997||Denmark||Niels Helveg Petersen|
|2000||Austria||Wolfgang Schüssel (until 4 February); Benita Ferrero-Waldner (from 5 February)|
|2002||Portugal||Jaime Gama (until 6 April); António Martins da Cruz (from 7 April)|
|2003||Netherlands||Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (until 3 December); Bernard Bot (from 4 December)|
|2006||Belgium||Karel De Gucht|
|2007||Spain||Miguel Ángel Moratinos|
|2008||Finland||Ilkka Kanerva (until 4 April); Alexander Stubb (from 5 April)|
|2009||Greece||Dora Bakoyannis (until 5 October); George Papandreou (from 6 October)|
|2017||Austria||Sebastian Kurz (until 18 December); Karin Kneissl (from 18 December)|
|2018||Italy||Angelino Alfano (until 1 June); Enzo Moavero Milanesi (from 1 June)|
Since 1993, the OSCE's budget by year (in millions of euro,) has been:
The OSCE considers itself a regional organization in the sense of Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charterand is an observer in the United Nations General Assembly. The Chairperson-in-Office gives routine briefings to the United Nations Security Council.
The OSCE takes a comprehensive approach to the politico-military dimension of security, which includes a number of commitments by participating States and mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution. The organization also seeks to enhance military security by promoting greater openness, transparency and co-operation.
The end of the Cold War resulted in a huge amount of surplus weapons becoming available in what is known as the international grey market for weapons. The OSCE helps to stop the - often illegal - spread of such weapons and offers assistance with their destruction. The OSCE hosts the annual exchange of information under the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty. The OSCE has also implemented two additional exchanges of information, the Vienna Document and the Global Exchange of Military Information. The Open Skies Consultative Commission, the implementing body for the Treaty on Open Skies, meets monthly at its Vienna headquarters.
The actions taken by the OSCE in border monitoring range from conflict prevention to post-conflict management, capacity building and institutional support.
With its expertise in conflict prevention, crisis management and early warning, the OSCE contributes to worldwide efforts in combating terrorism.
The OSCE works to prevent conflicts from arising and to facilitate lasting comprehensive political settlements for existing conflicts. It also helps with the process of rehabilitation in post-conflict areas.
The OSCE's Forum for Security Co-operation provides a framework for political dialogue on military reform, while practical activities are conducted by field operations, as well as the Conflict Prevention Centre.
OSCE police operations are an integral part of the organization's efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict rehabilitation.
The OSCE was a rather small organization until selection by the international community to provide electoral organization to post war Bosnia and Herzegovina in early 1996. Ambassador Frowick was the first OSCE representative to initiate national election in September 1996, human rights issues and rule of law specifically designed to provide a foundation for judicial organization within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The OSCE had regional offices and field offices, to include the office in Brcko in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina which remained in limbo until the Brcko Arbitration Agreement could be decided, finalized and implemented.
Brcko become a "special district" and remains so today.
The OSCE essentially took the place of the United Nations in Bosnia and Herzegovina in part because the Bosnian leadership felt deep contempt for the UN efforts to stop the war which began in 1991 and ended in 1995. During the time the United Nations were attempting a political solution, thousands of UN troops were posted in and around Bosnia and Herzegovina with special emphasis on Sarajevo. From 1991 to 1995, over 200,000 Bosnians were killed and over one million displaced and another million as refugees.[ citation needed ]
The OSCE continues to have a presence and a number of initiatives to bring a sustained peace to the region.
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Activities in the economic and environmental dimension include the monitoring of developments related to economic and environmental security in OSCE participating States, with the aim of alerting them to any threat of conflict; assisting States in the creation of economic and environmental policies, legislation and institutions to promote security in the OSCE region.
Among the economic activities of the OSCE feature activities related to migration management, transport and energy security. Most activities are implemented in co-operation with partner organizations.
The OSCE has developed a range of activities in the environmental sphere aimed at addressing ecologic threats to security in its participating States. Among the activities feature projects in the area of hazardous waste, water management and access to information under the Aarhus Convention.
The commitments made by OSCE participating States in the human dimension aim to ensure full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; to abide by the rule of law; to promote the principles of democracy by building, strengthening and protecting democratic institutions; and to promote tolerance throughout the OSCE region.
Since 2003 the OSCEhas had an established mechanism for combating trafficking in human beings, as defined by Article 3 of the Palermo Protocol, which is aimed at raising public awareness of the problem and building the political will within participating states to tackle it effectively.
The OSCE actions against trafficking in human beings are coordinated by the Office of the Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings.Maria Grazia Giammarinaro, a judge in the Criminal Court of Rome, took Office as the Special Representative in March 2010. From 2006 to 2009 this Office was held by Eva Biaudet, a former Finnish Minister of Health and Social Services. Biaudet currently serves as Finnish Ombudsman for Minorities. Her predecessor was former Austrian Minister Helga Konrad, who served as the first OSCE Special Representative for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings.
The activities around Combating Trafficking in Human Beings in the OSCE Region of the Office of the Special Representative include:
The OSCE claims to promote democracy and assist the participating states in building democratic institutions.
Education programmes are an integral part of the organization's efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict rehabilitation.
As part of its democratization activities, the OSCE carries out election assistance projects in the run-up to, during, and following elections. However, the effectiveness of such assistance is arguable—Kazakhstan, for example, despite being the former chair of the OSCE, is considered by many to be one of the least democratic countries in the world. Moreover, the recent democratic advances made in other Central Asian republics, notably Kyrgyzstan, have led to rumours of Soviet-style disruption of the Kyrgyz democratic process by, in particular, Kazakhstan and Russia. This may be in large part due to fears over the long-term stability of these countries' own quasi-dictatorships.
The equality of men and women is an integral part of sustainable democracy. The OSCE aims to provide equal opportunities for men and women and to integrate gender equality in policies and practices.
The OSCE's human rights activities focus on such priorities as freedom of movement and religion, preventing torture and trafficking in persons.
OSCE could grant consultive status to NGOs and INGOs in the form of "Researcher-in-residence programme" (run by the Prague Office of the OSCE Secretariat): accredited representatives of national and international NGOs are granted access to all records and to numerous topical compilations related to OSCE field activities.
The OSCE observes relevant media developments in its participating states with a view to addressing and providing early warning on violations of freedom of expression.
Ethnic conflict is one of the main sources of large-scale violence in Europe today. The OSCE's approach is to identify and to seek early resolution of ethnic tensions, and to set standards for the rights of persons belonging to minority groups and High Commissioner on National Minorities has been established.
The Democracy Defender Award honors a person or group for contributions to the promotion of democracy and the defense of human rights "in the spirit of Helsinki Final Act and other OSCE principles and commitments." The award was established in 2016 on the initiative of Ambassadors of 8 countries, and supported by the delegations of the 18 countries of the OSCE (22 countries in 2017).
|2020||Viasna Human Rights Centre||Belarus||Belarusian organisation established in 1996 which advocates for the rights of political prisoners in Belarus and against the government of Alexander Lukashenko.|
|2019||UIC||Armenia||Armenian organisation which intends to raise public awareness on important issues and reduce the impact of misinformation on decision-making.|
|2018||CRTA||Serbia||Serbian organisation established in 2002 to improve the democratic culture, the rule of law and the freedom of the Media|
|2017||Golos||Russia||Russian organisation established in 2000 to protect the electoral rights of citizens and to foster civil society|
|2016||Oleksandra Matviychuk||Ukraine||Ukrainian activist, coordinator of Euromaidan SOS and leader of Civil Rights Center|
Following an unprecedented period of activity in the 1990s and early 2000s (decade), the OSCE has in the past few years faced accusations from the CIS states (primarily[ citation needed ] Russia) of being a tool for the Western states to advance their own interests. For instance, the events in Ukraine in 2004 (the "Orange Revolution") led to allegations by Russia of OSCE involvement on behalf of the pro-Western Viktor Yushchenko. At the 2007 Munich Conference on Security Policy, Vladimir Putin made this position very clear:
Russia and its allies are advancing the concept of a comprehensive OSCE reform, which would make the Secretariat, institutions and field presences more centralized and accountable to collective consensus-based bodies and focus the work of the Organization on topical security issues (human trafficking, terrorism, non-proliferation, arms control, etc.), at the expense of the "Human Dimension", or human rights issues. The move to reduce the autonomy of the theoretically independent OSCE institutions, such as ODIHR, would effectively grant a Russian veto over any OSCE activity. Western participating States are opposing this process, which they see as an attempt to prevent the OSCE from carrying out its democratization agenda in post-Soviet countries.[ citation needed ]
Following the 2008 U.S. presidential election, OSCE's ODIHR was accused of having double standards by Russia's lawmaker Slutsky. The point was made that while numerous violations of the voting process were registered, its criticism came only from within the United States (media, human rights organizations, McCain's election staff), while the OSCE known for its bashing criticism of elections on the post-Soviet space remained silent.
In 2004, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly sent election observers to the U.S. presidential elections. The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly's president at the time was Democratic Congressman Alcee Hastings. Hastings had previously been impeached for corruption by the U.S. Congress. The OSCE faced criticism of partisanship and double standards due to Hastings's past and the fact that the OSCE's mandate was to promote democracy and the values of civil society.
In 2010, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe was criticized from within by the Latvian delegation for lacking transparency and democracy. Spencer Oliver (b. 1938) secretary general of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, who has held the post since the organization's inception in 1992, faced a challenge from the Latvian Artis Pabriks. According to the rules of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly the incumbent general secretary can only be replaced with a full consensus minus one. Pabriks called the rules "quite shocking from the perspective of an organization that's monitoring elections".
Before the U.S. presidential elections of November 2012, the OSCE announced its intention to send electoral observers to Texas and to other U.S. states. This prompted the Attorney General of Texas Greg Abbott to send letters to U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and to the OSCE,threatening to arrest OSCE officials if they should enter electoral premises in Texas and break Texas law. In reply, the U.S. Department of State stated that OSCE observers enjoyed immunities. In the event, no incidents between OSCE and Texas authorities were recorded during the elections.
On 21 March 2014, OSCE deployed its Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine on a request of Ukraine's government.
On 27 April 2014, eight members of the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (OSCE SMM) were taken hostage by the Girkin group that took over the power in the city of Slovyansk (Slavyansk).The group appointed Vyacheslav Ponomarev a mayor of the city.
Both sides to the conflict have regularly accused the OSCE mission of bias towards the other side. During the War in Donbass, an OSCE observer allowed Russian separatists to use the organization's marked vehicle, which prompted allegations that the OSCE was biased in the war and not interested in carrying out its duties of mediating a ceasefire. The organization issued a statement regretting the incident.
The agreement called for a creation of a 40 km buffer zone, but upon Ukrainian forces withdrawing from their 20 km portion of the buffer, Russian separatists are said to have simply occupied the abandoned territory without withdrawing from their own 20 km buffer.[ citation needed ]
Moreover, the OSCE Observer Mission at Russian Checkpoints Gukovo and Donetsk (which is organizationally separate from the Special Monitoring Mission) also received criticism alleging that only 2 checkpoints on the Russian–Ukrainian border are currently being monitored, which has been described as "seriously inadequate" by Daniel Baer, the US ambassador to the OSCE at the time. [ citation needed ]
On the other hand, Ukraine has faced criticism following a BBC report showing an alleged violation of the Minsk agreement when Ukraine stationed tanks in the residential neighborhood Avdeevka.The mission has also been criticized for waiting months to deploy drones to help monitor the border as well as withdrawing them after only several weeks of use due to Russian electronic attacks. Drones have been reintroduced to observe the conflict only in 2018.
In 2014, an advisor to the Ukrainian Ministry of defence wrongly claimed that approximately 80% of the OSCE observers located near Mariupol were Russian citizens and many had ties to Russian security agencies such as the FSB and GRU. In reality, one observer out of 17 in Mariupol was a Russian citizen.In total, the mission reports the number of Russian citizens in its ranks as 39 out of 720 or 5,4%. The organization has also been accused of allegedly revealing the locations of Ukrainian troops to Russian forces during the conflict and that Russian OSCE observers may be directly coordinating separatist artillery strikes on Ukrainian positions.
On 1 December 2014, Ukrainian Media reported that an OSCE observer was injured by Ukrainian counter artillery fire while observing militants firing at Ukrainian forces. The OSCE team was accused of beeign located next to two pro-Russian mortar teams. The report stated that the OSCE team did not radio in or record the Russian mortar team firing on Ukrainian positions. The report critizised that this constituted unorthodox behavior and that the incident showed that the OSCE team was not acting in an impartial manner.The report provided by the OSCE on that day in contrast states that the mission was in the area to "facilitate a local ceasefire and monitor the repair works on a power station" that it "heard an exchange of artillery fire between unspecified parties" and that "artillery rounds were impacting at approximately 1km to the east of the SMM’s position; therefore the SMM left due to security concerns." Furthermore the report states that the "SMM team in the JCCC was in constant contact with the SMM team in Staromikhailivka". No mention of a wounded observer is made.
On 27 October 2015, a suspended OSCE monitor confirmed he was a former employee of Russia's Main Intelligence Directorate. The suspended SMM stated he had no trouble receiving the position and neither the OSCE nor Ukraine's Security Service thoroughly checked his background.Following the report the OSCE issued a comment stating the monitor has been fired due to violations of the organization's code of conduct. On 6 April 2016 photos of OSCE monitors attending the wedding of a Russian separatist were found. The wedding was hosted in June 2015. The OSCE expressed regret over the incident, issuing a statement saying "The unprofessional behavior displayed by the monitors in the picture is an individual incident that should not be abused to cast a shadow on the reputation of other mission members." The OSCE reported that the monitors were no longer with the OSCE special monitoring mission.
In April 2017, an OSCE vehicle struck a mine, killing one member and injuring two.Two armoured vehicles were on patrol was near Luhansk when one struck the mine. The dead man was an American paramedic, while the injured included a woman from Germany and a man from the Czech Republic.
On 18 July 2018, it was revealed that Russian intelligence services received inside information about the activities of the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine from a staff member of the OSCE. The insider information consisted of observer's preference to alcohol, women, their financial situation, and their contacts in Ukraine. The OSCE issued a statement expressing concern over the alleged security breach.
Russia, on the other hand, has accused members of the Mission to work for the Ukrainian SBU and to spy on the pro-Russian separatists.Furthermore, Russia has accused the mission of bias after it reported troop movements from separatist forces, accusing the mission of ignoring similar moves from Ukraine. Russias foreign minister also has claimed that the mission failed to pay sufficient attention to human and minority rights within the Government-controlled areas of Ukraine. Furthermore, he criticised that the mission did not clearly attribute ceasefire violations to either side.
In April 2017, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan criticized the OSCE for reporting that opposition "No" campaigners in the Turkish constitutional referendum had faced bans, police interventions and arrests. Erdoğan said: "Now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe says if the result is 'yes', that means there are a lot of problems. Who are you? First of all, you should know your place. This is not your duty."
Election monitoring involves the observation of an election by one or more independent parties, typically from another country or from a non-governmental organization (NGO). The monitoring parties aim primarily to assess the conduct of an election process on the basis of national legislation and of international election standards. There are national and international election observers. Monitors do not directly prevent electoral fraud, but rather record and report instances of suspicious practices. Election observation increasingly looks at the entire electoral process over a long period of time, rather than at election-day proceedings only. The legitimacy of an election can be affected by the criticism of monitors, unless they are themselves seen as unbiased. A notable individual is often appointed honorary leader of a monitoring organization in an effort to enhance legitimacy of the monitoring process.
The 2008 Russian presidential election was held on 2 March 2008, and resulted in the election of Dmitry Medvedev as the third President of Russia. Medvedev was elected for a 4-year term, whose candidacy was supported by incumbent President Vladimir Putin and five political parties, received 71% of the vote, and defeated Gennady Zyuganov of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and Vladimir Zhirinovsky of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and.
Presidential elections were held in Belarus on 19 March 2006. The result was a victory for incumbent President Alexander Lukashenko, who received 84.4% of the vote. However, Western observers deemed the elections rigged. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) declared that the election "failed to meet OSCE commitments for democratic elections". In contrast, election observers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) described the vote as open and transparent.
Commonwealth of the Independent States - Election Monitoring Organization (CIS-EMO) — is an international non-governmental organization founded by the Commonwealth of Independent States. CIS-EMO conducts election observation missions and prepares reports of limited credibility that serve to counter the findings of more reputable organizations. It was founded in 2003 in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia and was led by Aleksey Kochetkov. As an NGO, it is different from other observers sent by the CIS.
Human rights in Ukraine is a highly contested topic and in 2018 Ukraine was labeled as "Partly Free" by organizations such as Freedom House.
The fairness of the 2008 Russian presidential election is disputed, with election monitoring groups giving conflicting reports. Most official reports accept that not all candidates had equal media coverage and that some election monitoring groups had restricted access to perform their role. Monitoring groups found a number of other irregularities, but made no official reports of fraud or ballot stuffing.
Presidential elections were held in Kazakhstan on 10 January 1999. Incumbent president Nursultan Nazarbayev won the election with over 80% of the vote, and was sworn into office on 20 January 1999. Most observers viewed the election as blatantly unfair, further confirming that Nazarbayev was not interested in promoting a democratic system of government. Voter turnout was reported to be 87.0%.
Heidi Tagliavini is a Swiss diplomat noted for her service with international aid and peacekeeping missions; a 2003 profile in the monthly magazine of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung called her "Switzerland's outstanding diplomat". She was charged with leading the European Union investigation into the causes of the 2008 Russo-Georgian war, and represented the OSCE in the 2015 negotiations about the Minsk II agreement concerning the war in Donbass.
The Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) is the principal institution of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) dealing with the "human dimension" of security. The Office, originally named Office for Free Elections, was created in 1990 by the Charter of Paris and established in 1991. The name of the office was changed in 1992 to reflect the broadened mandate it received at the 1992 Helsinki Summit.
Aleksey Vladimirovich Kochetkov. Aleksey Kochetkov is a former engineer and political analyst well known for his closeness to official Russian policy under President Putin. He has often written in support Russia's occupation of Georgia, and also in support of pro-Moscow conspiracy theories in his book Neo-nazis and Maidan.
Presidential elections were held in Azerbaijan on 9 October 2013. The result was a victory for incumbent President Ilham Aliyev, who received 84.5% of the vote, whilst leading opposition candidate Jamil Hasanli finished second with 5.5% of the vote.
During the ongoing war in Donbass between Ukrainian government forces and pro-Russian separatist insurgents in the Donbass region of Ukraine that began in April 2014, many international organisations and states noted a deteriorating humanitarian situation in the conflict zone.
The Protocol on the results of consultations of the Trilateral Contact Group, or commonly known as the Minsk Protocol, is an agreement to halt the war in the Donbass region of Ukraine, signed by representatives of that country, the Russian Federation, the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR), and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) on 5 September 2014. It was signed after extensive talks in Minsk, Belarus, under the auspices of the OSCE. The agreement, which followed multiple previous attempts to stop the fighting in the Donbass, implemented an immediate ceasefire. It failed to stop fighting in Donbass, and was thus followed with a new package of measures, called Minsk II, which was agreed to on 12 February 2015. This too failed to stop the fighting, but the Minsk agreements remain the basis for any future resolution to the conflict, as agreed at the Normandy Format meet.
Michael Georg Link is a German politician and Member of Parliament. He was the Director of the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) from July 2014 to June 2017. From January 2012 to December 2013, he served as First Deputy Foreign Minister in the government of Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Caviar diplomacy is the lobbying strategy of Azerbaijan, consisting of costly invitations of foreign politicians and employees of international organizations to Azerbaijan at the expense of the host country. Caviar Diplomacy also includes expensive gifts presented as "a tribute to the Eastern tradition."
Maria Isabel Coelho Santos is a Portuguese politician of the Socialist Party who has been a Member of the European Parliament since the 2019 elections.
Azerbaijan joined the CSCE on January 30, 1992. This was the first European organization for Azerbaijan to join.
Michael Scanlan is an American diplomat who is the Head of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Mission to Moldova. He was appointed to that position and as the OSCE mediator to the Transdniestrian settlement process in July 2014. His posts immediately prior were as Director of the Office of Eastern European Affairs in Washington, D.C., and Chargé d'Affaires to the U.S. Embassy in Minsk, Belarus.
The Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine is an international observer mission created under the auspices of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to facilitate a peaceful settlement of ongoing War in Donbass in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of eastern Ukraine.
Dame Audrey Glover DBE CMG is a British international lawyer, experienced election observer, former director of Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (1994-1997).
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