National Endowment for Democracy

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National Endowment for Democracy
NED-logo.svg
FoundedNovember 18, 1983 (1983-11-18)
Type 501(c)(3) non-profit
NGO
52-1344831
Location
Origins U.S. Congress resolution H.R. 2915
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Carl Gershman (President)
Website www.ned.org
The President of the National Endowment for Democracy, Carl Gershman (pictured, second from the left), presents an award to a Tunisian leader of the Arab Spring in November 2011. Gershman.jpg
The President of the National Endowment for Democracy, Carl Gershman (pictured, second from the left), presents an award to a Tunisian leader of the Arab Spring in November 2011.

The National Endowment for Democracy (NED) is a U.S. quasi-autonomous non-governmental and non-profit organization founded in 1983 with the stated goal of promoting democracy abroad. [1] [2] [3] [4] It is funded primarily through an annual allocation from the U.S. Congress in the form of a grant awarded through the United States Information Agency (USIA). It was created by The Democracy Program as a bipartisan, private, non-profit corporation, and in turn acts as a grant-making foundation. [1] In addition to its grants program, NED also supports and houses the Journal of Democracy , the World Movement for Democracy, the International Forum for Democratic Studies, the Reagan–Fascell Fellowship Program, the Network of Democracy Research Institutes, and the Center for International Media Assistance.

Contents

History

Founding

A bill was introduced in April 1967 by Congressman Dante Fascell (D-FL) to create an institute of International Affairs. And although the bill did not pass it led to discussions on Capitol Hill to establish an institution in which democracy efforts abroad would benefit the U.S. as well as countries struggling for freedom and self- government.

In a 1982 speech at the Palace of Westminster, President Ronald Reagan proposed an initiative, before the British Parliament, "to foster the infrastructure of democracy—the system of a free press, unions, political parties, universities." The U.S. government, through USAID (United States Agency for International Development), contracted The American Political Foundation to study democracy promotion, which became known as "The Democracy Program." The Program recommended the creation of a bipartisan, private, non-profit corporation to be known as the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). NED, though non-governmental, would be funded primarily through annual appropriations from the U.S. government and subject to congressional oversight. [5] The State Department and United States Information Agency (USIA) proposed the Endowment to encourage and facilitate exchanges between democratic institutions through private sectors; promote nongovernmental participation in democratic training programs; strengthening democratic electoral processes abroad in cooperation with indigenous democratic forces; fostering cooperation between American private sector groups and those abroad "dedicated to the cultural values, institutions, and organizations of democratic pluralism.", and encouraging democratic development consistent with the interests of both the U.S and the other groups receiving assistance.

In 1983, the House Foreign Affairs Committee proposed legislation to provide initial funding of $31.3 million for NED as part of the State Department Authorization Act (H.R. 2915), because NED was in its beginning stages of development the appropriation was set at $18 million. Included in the legislation was $13.8 million for the Free Trade Union Institute, an affiliate of the AFL-CIO, $2.5 million for an affiliate of the National Chamber Foundation, and $5 million each for two party institutes, which was later eliminated by a vote of 267–136. The conference report on H.R. 2915 was adopted by the House on November 17, 1983 and the Senate the following day. On November 18, 1983, articles of incorporation were filed in the District of Columbia to establish the National Endowment for Democracy as a nonprofit organization. [5]

Overview

NED is a grant-making foundation, distributing funds to private non-governmental organizations for promoting democracy abroad. Half of NED's funding is allocated annually to four main U.S. organizations: the American Center for International Labor Solidarity (ACILS), the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), and the International Republican Institute (IRI), formerly known as the National Republican Institute for International Affairs. The other half of NED's funding is awarded annually to hundreds of non-governmental organizations based abroad which apply for support. [6]

Source of funding

The NED receives an annual appropriation from the U.S. budget (it is included in the chapter of the Department of State budget destined for the U.S. Agency for International Development-USAID) and is subject to congressional oversight even as a non-governmental organization. In the financial year to the end of September 2009 NED had an income of $135.5 million, nearly all of which came from U.S Government agencies. [7]

From 1984 to 1990 the NED received $15–18 million of congressional funding annually, and $25–$30m from 1991 to 1993. At the time the funding came via the United States Information Agency. In 1993 the NED nearly lost its congressional funding, after the House of Representatives initially voted to abolish its funding. The funding (of $35 million, a rise from $30 million the year before) was only retained after a vigorous campaign by NED supporters. [8]

The NED has received funding from foundations, such as the Smith Richardson Foundation, the John M. Olin Foundation, and others. The Bradley Foundation supported the Journal of Democracy with $1.5 million during 1990–2008. [9]

Board

NED's long-serving president (since April 30, 1984 [10] ) is Carl Gershman, former Senior Counselor to the United States Representative to the United Nations and former Executive Director of Social Democrats USA. [11]

Activities

Funding of election monitors and democratic advocacy

NED does not directly fund any political party, as this is forbidden by law. According to NED, it funds election monitoring and also civic education about voting, such as student-led "get-out-the-vote" campaigns. [12]

Western Europe

NED also funded political groups in the democracies of Western Europe in the 1980s. The French newspaper Libération published a report which claimed that the U.S. funded the National Inter-University Union. [13]

Ukraine

In their 2012 report, NED indicated that it spent US $3,381,824 on programs in the Ukraine, encompassing the areas NGO Strengthening, Political Processes, Human Rights, Accountability, Developing Market Economy, Freedom of Information, Democratic Ideas and Values, Promoting Freedom of Assembly, Strengthening Political Institutions, and Monitoring Electoral Processes. [14]

Democracy Award

NED's Board of Directors annually gives a Democracy Award to recognize "the courageous and creative work of individuals and organizations that have advanced the cause of human rights and democracy around the world." The trophy is a small-scale replica of the Goddess of Democracy that was constructed during the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. [15]

Notable recipients include: Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, former President of Mexico Vicente Fox, and journalist Veton Surroi. [16] [17] Past speakers at the award's ceremony have included U.S. Senator John McCain, Speaker of the House Paul Ryan and House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi. [18] [19] [20]

Recipients

YearThemeRecipientNationalityNotes
2020Working to strengthen civil society in Sudan Regional Centre for Development and Training Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Group, trained hundreds of youth across of the country on democracy, activism, and local engagement [21]
Nuba Women for Education and Development Association Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Group, trained local women activists to engage in peace processes and activism on local issues and respect for women’s rights [21]
Darfur Bar Association Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Group, supported marginalized people to advocate for their rights and provided legal assistance to vulnerable activists before and during the protests [21]
2019Defenders of human and religious rights in China World Uyghur Congress Kokbayraq flag.svg  East Turkestan Group, represented by Dolkun Isa, advocating for democracy, human rights, and freedom for the Uyghur people and the use of peaceful, nonviolent, and democratic means to help Uyghurs achieve self-determination [22]
Tibet Action Institute Flag of Tibet.svg  Tibet Group, represented by Lhadon Tethong, uses digital communication tools with strategic nonviolent action to strengthen the capacity and effectiveness of the Tibet movement in a digital era [22]
ChinaAid Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Group, represented by Bob Fu, international non-profit Christian human rights organization committed to promoting religious freedom and the rule of law in China [22]
2018Movement for human rights and democracy in North KoreaCitizens' Alliance for North Korean Human RightsFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Seoul-based group advocating for human rights in North Korea. [23]
Now Action & Unity for Human RightsFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Group, led by Ji Seong-ho, advocating for human rights in North Korea and Korean reunification. [24]
Transitional Justice Working Group (TJWG)Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Seoul-based non-profit that documents evidence of crimes against humanity in North Korea. [25]
Unification Media Group (UMG)Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Seoul-based multimedia consortium that includes Daily NK , Radio Free Chosun, and Open North Korea Radio. [26]
2017Anti-corruption activistsCynthia GabrielFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Human rights advocate and anti-corruption leader in Malaysia. [27]
Khalil ParsaFlag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan Founder and executive director of Supporting Organization for Afghanistan Civil Society (SOACS); survivor of assassination attempt in 2016. [28]
Claudia EscobarFlag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Legal scholar, former magistrate of the Court of Appeals of Guatemala, and rule of law advocate; fled the country in 2015 after becoming a whistleblower in a corruption cases involving illegal political interference in the Guatemalan judiciary. [29]
Rafael Marques de Morais Flag of Angola.svg  Angola Angolan journalist and human rights activist focused on investigating government corruption, impunity, and abuses in the diamond industry. [30]
Denys BihusFlag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Investigative journalist focused on corruption and anti-corruption. [31]
2015Political prisoners of Venezuela Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Mitzy Capriles de Ledezma, Lilian Tintori and Tamara Sujú accepted the award on behalf of "imprisoned political leaders, human rights defenders, labor unionists, and student activists." [32]
2014 Chinese dissidents Liu Xiaobo Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2010 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, human rights and political reform activist known for role in launching of Charter 08. [33]
Xu Zhiyong Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Legal scholar, co-founder of Open Constitution Initiative in China. [33]
2013Youth pro-democracy activists Gulalai Ismail Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Human rights activist that established Aware Girls at the age of 16. [34]
Harold CeperoFlag of Cuba.svg  Cuba One of the authors of Varela Project in Cuba. Award given posthumously. [34]
Vera KichanovaFlag of Russia.svg  Russia Reporter for the independent newspaper Novaya Gazeta , civic activist, municipal deputy in Yuzhnoye Tushino District, Moscow. [34]
Glanis ChangachirereFlag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe Founder of Institute for Young Women's Development. [34]
2012Burmese democracy movement
Min Ko Naing Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Founding member of the 88 Generation Students Group. [35]
Hkun Htun Oo Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Politician and chairman of the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy. [35]
Kyaw Thu Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Actor and founder of the Free Funeral Service Society. [35]
Aung DinFlag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Former political prisoner and leader in the 1988 pro-democracy movement. [35]
Cynthia Maung Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Ethnic Karen physician and medical clinic worker. [35]
2002Women activists in the Muslim world Mehrangiz Kar Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Human rights lawyer and activist. [36]
Muborak TashpulatovaFlag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Civics education activist, Tashkent Public Education Center director. [36]
Nadjet BoudaFlag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Human rights activist focusing on the "disappeared" of the Algerian Civil War. [36]
Mariam Hussein MohamedFlag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Mogadishu-based human rights activist, founder and director of the Dr. Ismail Jumale Human Rights Organization. [36]

Reaction

Praise and criticism

Writing in Slate in 2004, Brendan I. Koerner wrote that, "Depending on whom you ask, the NED is either a nonprofit champion of liberty or an ideologically driven meddler in world affairs." [37]

In a 2004 article for the Washington Post Michael McFaul argues that the NED is not an instrument of U.S. foreign policy; as an example of this, he states that the NED was willing to fund pro-democratic organizations even when the U.S. government was supportive of non-democratic governments in the region. [38]

Throughout the course of a 2010 investigation by ProPublica, Paul Steiger, the then editor in chief of the publication said that "those who spearheaded creation of NED have long acknowledged it was part of an effort to move from covert to overt efforts to foster democracy" and cited as evidence a 1991 interview of then-NED president Allen Weinstein by David Ignatius, in which Weinstein said that "A lot of what we do today was done covertly 25 years ago by the CIA." [39]

Within Congress, early opposition to NED focused on four issues: the organization's structure, its independence, its mission, and purported redundancy to other U.S. activities. [1] The NED itself has responded to the various criticisms that have been leveled against it: [1]

Reaction from foreign governments

Russian government officials and state media have frequently vilified NED. [41] The Russian state news agency RIA Novosti claimed in 2015 that NED grants were to blame for the Euromaidan mass protests that forced Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych from power. [41] In July 2015, the Russian government declared NED to be an "undesirable" NGO, making the endowment the first organization banned under the Russian undesirable organizations law signed two months earlier by Russian President Vladimir Putin. [41]

In 2019, the government of the People's Republic of China sanctioned the NED in response to the passage by the U.S. Congress of the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act. [42] The Chinese government asserted, without evidence, that the NED and CIA worked in tandem to covertly foment the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, [43] [42] and that NED acted as a U.S. intelligence front. [42] [44] NED was one of several U.S.-based NGOs sanctioned by the Chinese government; others included the Human Rights Watch, Freedom House, the National Democratic Institute, and the International Republican Institute. [45] [46] China also already tightly restricted the activities of foreign NGOs in China, particularly since 2016, and the NGOs sanctioned by China typically do not have offices on the mainland; as a result, the sanctions were regarded as mostly symbolic. [45] NED grant recipients in Hong Kong included labor advocacy and human rights groups such as the Solidarity Center and Justice Centre Hong Kong. [43] The Chinese government claimed that the sanctioned organizations were "anti-China" forces that "incite separatist activities for Hong Kong independence; [44] a U.S. State Department official said that "false accusations of foreign interference" against U.S.-based NGOs were "intended to distract from the legitimate concerns of Hongkongers." [46] [47] Michael Pillsbury, a Hudson Institute foreign policy analyst and former Reagan administration official, stated that the Chinese accusation was "not totally false." [48] [47]

Other governments that have objected to NED activity include Venezuela and Egypt. [42]

Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA)

In 2006, CIMA was founded as an initiative of the National Endowment for Democracy with encouragement from Congress and a grant from the State Department's Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. [49]

CIMA works to improve the development of independent media worldwide while working to strengthen the support for such development. [50]

See also

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Further reading