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and largest agglomeration
| Brussels |
|Official languages||Dutch and French|
|Other official languages|
of contracting states
|German, Luxembourgish, West Frisian, English, Papiamento|
|Type||Politico ‑ economic union|
• Customs union treaty signed
|5 September 1944|
• Customs union in effect
|1 January 1948|
• Renewal signed
|17 June 2008|
• Renewal in effect
|1 January 2010|
|74,657 km2 (28,825 sq mi)|
|29.3 million (2018)|
|390.5/km2 (1,011.4/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
The Benelux Union (Dutch : Benelux Unie; French : Union Benelux; Luxembourgish : Benelux-Unioun), also known as simply Benelux, is a politico-economic union of three neighboring states in western Europe: Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states. The process of creating such a state out of smaller states is called unification . Unification of states that used to be together and are reuniting is referred to as reunification. Unlike a personal union or real union, the individual states share a central government and the union is recognized internationally as a single political entity. A political union may also be called a legislative union or state union.
The name Benelux is formed from joining the first two or three letters of each country's name – Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg – and was first used to name the customs agreement that initiated the union (signed in 1944).It is now used more generally to refer to the geographic, economic and cultural grouping of the three countries.
In 1951, West Germany, France, and Italy joined these countries to form the European Coal and Steel Community, a predecessor of the European Economic Community (EEC) and today's European Union (EU).
West Germany was the informal name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 to 1990, a period referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, an era when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its capital was the city of Bonn.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.
The main institutions of the Union are the Committee of Ministers, the Council of the Union, the General Secretariat, the Interparliamentary Consultative Council and the Benelux Court of Justice while the Benelux Office for Intellectual Property cover the same territory but are not part of the Benelux Union.
The Benelux Office for Intellectual Property (BOIP) is the registration office for trademarks and designs in the Benelux. The BOIP is the legal successor of the Benelux Trademarks Office and the Benelux Designs Office. The BOIP is based at The Hague, Netherlands.
The Benelux General Secretariat is located in Brussels. It is the central administrative pillar of the Benelux Union. It handles the secretariat of the Committee of Ministers, the Council of Economic Union and the various committees and working parties.
Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.
A Benelux Parliament (originally referred to as an "Interparliamentary Consultative Council") was created in 1955. This parliamentary assembly is composed of 21 members of the Dutch parliament, 21 members of the Belgian national and regional parliaments, and 7 members of the Luxembourg parliament.
The Benelux Interparliamentary Consultative Council is one of the institutions of the Benelux economic union. The Parliament was established by an agreement signed by Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on 5 November 1955, which means it had already existed for three years when the Benelux Union was signed on 3 February 1958. The Benelux Parliament provides the governments with advice on economic and cross-frontier cooperation. Its recommendations may also concern other matters if common interests or current events so dictate. The parliament also keeps the three governments informed about the opinions that move in the parliamentary assemblies from which its members originate.
An international parliament or supranational legislature is a branch of an intergovernmental organization tasked with legislative powers and thus establishing a hybrid system of not only intergovernmentalism, but also supranationalism. It could be based on a predecessor inter-parliamentary institution or a newly established organization-level legislature.
In 1944, exiled representatives of the three countries signed the London Customs Convention, the treaty that established the Benelux Customs Union. Ratified in 1947, the treaty was in force from 1948 until it was superseded by the Benelux Economic Union. The treaty establishing the Benelux Economic Union (Benelux Economische Unie/Union Économique Benelux) was signed on 3 February 1958 in The Hague and came into force on 1 November 1960 to promote the free movement of workers, capital, services, and goods in the region. Under the Treaty the Union implies the co-operation of economic, financial and social policies.
In 2017 the members of the Benelux, the Baltic Assembly, and three members of the Nordic Council (Sweden, Denmark and Finland), all EU-member states, sought intensifying cooperation in the Digital Single Market, as well as discussing social matters, the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, the European migrant crisis and defence cooperation. Relations with Russia, Turkey and the United Kingdom was also on the agenda.
The Benelux Union involves an intergovernmental co-operation.
The unification of the law of the three Benelux countries is mainly achieved by regulations of its Committee of Ministers, that only bind the three states, but are not directly applicable in their internal legal orders.[ clarification needed ] They only become legally valid after having been incorporated into national law, with the exception of Belgium. The Belgian Court of Cassation decided in 1971 that any self-executing treaties have priority over laws by the Belgian parliament.
The Treaty establishing the Benelux Union has provided the Committee of Ministers with the following legal instruments: decisions, conventions, recommendations and directives.
The Committee of Ministers can promulgate decisions in the fields for which it has competence - those fields are explicitly set down in the Union Treaty or the additional conventions. When the Committee of Ministers adopts a decision, it immediately becomes binding on the three governments. For a decision to be also applicable to the citizen, it must be transposed into national law.
The Union Treaty is not exhaustive. For this reason, Article 19 of the Treaty provides that the Committee of Ministers may conclude additional conventions. These therefore constitute extensions of the Union Treaty. They are submitted to the national parliaments for approval in keeping with the ratification procedure applied in each of the Member States. Thus there are a large number of Benelux conventions in a wide range of subject matters.
In 1965, the treaty establishing a Benelux Court of Justice was signed. It entered into force in 1974.The Court, composed of judges from the highest courts of the three States, has to guarantee the uniform interpretation of common legal rules. This international judicial institution is located in Brussels.
The Benelux is particularly active in the field of intellectual property. The three countries established a Benelux Trademarks Office and a Benelux Designs Office, both situated in The Hague. In 2005, they concluded a treaty establishing a Benelux Organisation for Intellectual Property which replaced both offices upon its entry into force on 1 September 2006. This Organisation is the official body for the registration of trademarks and designs in the Benelux. In addition, it offers the possibility to formally record the existence of ideas, concepts, designs, prototypes and the like.
|Kingdom of Belgium||Kingdom of the Netherlands||Grand Duchy of Luxembourg|
|Coat of arms|
|Official local name||Koninkrijk België |
Royaume de Belgique
|Koninkrijk der Nederlanden||Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg |
Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
| Population |
|Area||30,528 km2||41,543 km2||2,586.4 km2|
|Capital city||Brussels||Amsterdam||Luxembourg City|
|Largest urban areas|| Brussels : 2,120,000|
Antwerp : 1,200,000
Liège : 749,110
Ghent : 594,582
Charleroi : 522,522
| Amsterdam : 2,431,000|
Rotterdam : 1,181,284
The Hague : 1,054,793
Utrecht : 656,342
Haarlem : 424.601
| Luxembourg City : 180,000|
Esch-sur-Alzette : 33,939
Differdange : 24,805
Dudelange : 20,003
Ettelbruck : 8,544
|Form of government||Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Current heads of state and government|| Philippe (Monarch)|
Charles Michel (Prime Minister)
| Willem-Alexander (Monarch)|
Mark Rutte (Prime Minister)
| Henri (Monarch)|
Xavier Bettel (Prime Minister)
|Official languages||Dutch, French, German|| Dutch |
Regional: West Frisian, Papiamento, English
|Luxembourgish, French, German|
|Main religions||58% Roman Catholic |
16% Other Christian
2% Other religion
|49.2% Non-Religious |
24.4% Roman Catholic
|68% Roman Catholic |
3% Other Christian
|GDP (nominal)||$454.687 billion||$738.419 billion||$57.423 billion|
|GDP (nominal) per capita||$40,107||$43,603||$101,994|
|GDP (PPP)||$494.121 billion||$832.623 billion||$55.730 billion|
|GDP (PPP) per capita||$43,585||$49,166||$98,987|
|Real GDP growth rate||1.30 %||1.80 %||4.40 %|
|Currency||Euro|| Euro |
|Coat of arms|
|Official local name||Aruba||Land Curaçao/ Pais Kòrsou||Sint Maarten|
| Population |
|Area||180 km2||444 km2||34 km2|
|Form of government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Current heads of state and government|| Willem-Alexander (Monarch) |
Evelyn Wever-Croes (Prime Minister)
| Willem-Alexander (Monarch) |
Eugene Rhuggenaath (Prime Minister)
| Willem-Alexander (Monarch) |
Leona Marlin-Romeo (Prime Minister)
|Official languages||Dutch, Papiamento||Dutch, Papiamento, English||Dutch, English|
|Main religions||75.3% Roman Catholic |
1.7% Jehovah's Witness
1.2% Other Religion
|72.8%, Roman Catholic |
|41.9% Protestant |
33.1% Roman Catholic
4.1% Other Christian
|GDP (nominal)||$2.664 billion||$3.159 billion||$1.059 billion|
|GDP (nominal) per capita||$25,751||$18,360||$18,360|
|GDP (PPP)||$2.516 billion||$3.128 billion||$0.3658 billion|
|GDP (PPP) per capita||$36,015||$15,000||$36,327|
|Real GDP growth rate||2.40 %||3.60 %||3.60 %|
|Currency|| Aruban florin |
|Netherlands Antillean guilder||Netherlands Antillean guilder|
The Treaty between the Benelux countries establishing the Benelux Economic Union was limited to a period of 50 years. During the following years, and even more so after the creation of the European Union, the Benelux cooperation focused on developing other fields of activity within a constantly changing international context.
At the end of the 50 years, the governments of the three Benelux countries decided to renew the agreement, taking into account the new aspects of the Benelux-cooperation – such as security – and the new federal government structure of Belgium. The original establishing treaty, set to expire in 2010, was replaced by a new legal framework (called the Treaty revising the Treaty establishing the Benelux Economic Union), which was signed on 17 June 2008.
The new treaty has no set time limit and the name of the Benelux Economic Union changed to Benelux Union to reflect the broad scope on the union.The main objectives of the treaty are the continuation and enlargement of the cooperation between the three member states within a larger European context. The renewed treaty explicitly foresees the possibility that the Benelux countries will cooperate with other European member States or with regional cooperation structures. The new Benelux cooperation focuses on three main topics: internal market and economic union, sustainability, justice and internal affairs. The number of structures in the renewed Treaty has been reduced and thus simplified. Five Benelux institutions remain: the Benelux Committee of Ministers, the Benelux Council, the Benelux Parliament, the Benelux Court of Justice, the Benelux Secretariat General. Beside these five institutions, the Benelux Organisation for Intellectual Property is also present in this Treaty.
The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world. Because imports and exports balance exactly when considering the whole world, this also equals the total global gross domestic product (GDP). According to the World Bank, the 2013 nominal GWP was approximately US$75.59 trillion. In 2014, according to the CIA's World Factbook, the GWP was around US$78.28 trillion in nominal terms and totaled approximately 107.5 trillion international dollars in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). The per capita PPP GWP in 2017 was approximately Int$17,300 according to the World Factbook.
The modern, private enterprise economy of Belgium has capitalised on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. The first country to undergo an industrial revolution on the continent of Europe in the early 19th century, Belgium developed an excellent transportation infrastructure of ports, canals, railways, and highways to integrate its industry with that of its neighbors. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flanders in the north, around Brussels and in the two biggest Walloon cities, Liège and Charleroi, along the sillon industriel. Belgium imports raw materials and semi-finished goods that are further processed and re-exported. Except for its coal, which is no longer economical to exploit, Belgium has few natural resources other than fertile soils. Nonetheless, most traditional industrial sectors are represented in the economy, including steel, textiles, refining, chemicals, food processing, pharmaceuticals, automobiles, electronics, and machinery fabrication. Despite the heavy industrial component, services account for 74.9% of GDP, while agriculture accounts for only 1% of GDP.
Belgium is a country in europe and member of major international organizations like the European Union and NATO which are both headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or more economically developed country (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the humans of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account. In some contexts, the two terms are distinct "international" or "global economy" being measured separately and distinguished from national economies while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements. Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use and exchange the definitions, representations, models and valuations of the world economy vary widely. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth.
The aim of this page is to act as a comparison between the sovereign states of Europe regarding economic, financial and social factors.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the European Union:
The G20 is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union. Founded in 1999 with the aim to discuss policy pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability, the G20 has expanded its agenda since 2008 and heads of government or heads of state, as well as finance ministers and foreign ministers, have periodically conferred at summits ever since. It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.
The Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union, abbreviated to BLEU or UEBL, is an economic union between Belgium and Luxembourg, two countries in the Benelux Union.
The economy of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) combines the economies of 57 member states. 53 are predominantly Muslim states. Those 57 OIC countries have a combined GDP of US$27,949billion. The richest country on the basis of GDP per capita at PPP is United Arab Emirates. On basis of per capita GDP, Qatar is richest country with incomes exceeding US$133,357 per capita. According to a report by Salam Standard, the GDP impact of the world’s Muslim tourism sector exceeded $138 billion in 2015, generating 4.3 million jobs and contributing more than $18 billion in tax revenue.
As a relatively small country, the Netherlands generally pursues its foreign policy interests within the framework of multilateral organizations. Treaties are always signed, negotiated or acceded by the Kingdom of the Netherlands, after which a depository declaration indicates validity for its European territory, Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and/or the Caribbean Netherlands.
Officially titled the Netherlands–Belgium–Luxembourg Customs Convention, the London Customs Convention was the treaty that established the Benelux Customs Union on 5 September 1944. The word "Benelux" comes from an acronym of the countries' names, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
This article is a comparison of the Benelux countries.
Article 38 : le français et le néerlandais sont les langues officielles des institutions de l'Union Benelux
Dit alles onder een nieuwe naam: de Benelux Unie.
Le 17 juin 2008, un nouveau Traité Benelux était signé. Désormais, la coopération va se concentrer sur trois thèmes-clés: le marché intérieur & l’union économique, le développement durable et la justice & les affaires intérieures et tout ceci sous un nouveau nom:l’Union Benelux.
D’Benelux-Unioun besteet aus dem Kinnekräich Belsch, dem hollännesche Kinnekräich an dem Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg.
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