Kurmanbek Bakiyev

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Kurmanbek Bakiyev
Курманбек Бакиев
Kurmanbek Bakiyev, August 2009.jpg
Bakiyev in 2009
2nd President of Kyrgyzstan
In office
25 March 2005 15 April 2010
Acting until 14 August 2005
Prime Minister Medetbek Kerimkulov
Felix Kulov
Azim Isabekov
Almazbek Atambayev
Iskenderbek Aidaraliyev
Igor Chudinov
Daniar Usenov
Preceded by Ishenbai Kadyrbekov (Acting)
Succeeded by Roza Otunbayeva
7th Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
In office
10 July 2005 15 August 2005
President Askar Akayev
Ishenbai Kadyrbekov (Acting)
Preceded by Medetbek Kerimkulov (Acting)
Succeeded by Felix Kulov
In office
25 March 2005 20 June 2005
Acting until 28 March 2005
President Askar Akayev
Preceded by Nikolai Tanayev
Succeeded by Medetbek Kerimkulov (Acting)
In office
21 December 2000 22 May 2002
President Askar Akayev
Preceded by Amangeldy Muraliyev
Succeeded by Nikolai Tanayev
Personal details
Born (1949-08-01) 1 August 1949 (age 70)
Masadan, Kyrgyz SSR, USSR
Political party Ak Jol
Spouse(s) Tatyana Bakiyeva
Children2
Residence Minsk, Belarus
Alma mater Kuybyshev Polytechnic Institute

Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev (Kyrgyz: Курманбек Салиевич (Сали уулу) Бакиев, Qurmanbek Saliyeviç (Sali Uulu) Baqiyev; born 1 August 1949) is a politician who served as the second President of Kyrgyzstan, from 2005 to 2010. Large opposition protests in April 2010 led to the takeover of government offices, forcing Bakiyev to flee the country.

Contents

Bakiyev was the leader of the People's Movement of Kyrgyzstan before his ascendance to the presidency. He received most of his popular support from the south of the country. The Legislative Assembly of Kyrgyzstan of the Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan appointed him acting President on 25 March 2005, following the ousting, during the Tulip Revolution, of President Askar Akayev. In October 2007, Bakiyev initiated the creation of Ak Jol party, but could not lead it due to his presidency. [1]

Early life and career

He was born on 1 August 1949 in the village of Masadan in the Jalal-Abad Region of the Kirghiz SSR. His father, Sali Bakiyev, was the chairman of a collective farm. In 1978, he graduated from the Kuibyshev Polytechnic Institute (now Samara State Technical University). In 1974, Bakiyev served in the ranks of the Soviet Army. In 1979, he moved to Jalal-Abad where, from 1979 to 1985, he worked at the plug-in connectors factory. Between 1990-91 he worked as the first secretary of the Kok-Yangak City Committee of the Communist Party of Kirghizia. Starting in 1995, he was the Governor of the Jalal-Abad Region, and Governor of the Chui Region. In December 2000, Bakiyev was appointed prime minister of Kyrgyzstan. [2]

Presidency

Following the events of the 2005 Tulip Revolution, Bakiyev won the 10 July ballot for the Presidential election with 89% of the vote with a 53% turnout. [3] [4]

Despite initial hopes, Bakiyev's term in office was marred by the murder of several prominent politicians, prison riots, economic ills and battles for control of lucrative businesses. [5] [6] [7] [8]

In 2006, Bakiyev faced a political crisis as thousands of people participated in a series of protests in Bishkek. He was accused of not following through with his promises to limit presidential power, give more authority to parliament and the prime minister, and eradicate corruption and crime. Bakiyev claimed the opposition was plotting a coup against him. [9]

In April 2007, the opposition held protests demanding Bakiyev's resignation, [10] with a large protest beginning on 11 April in Bishkek. Bakiyev signed constitutional amendments to reduce his own power on 10 April but the protest went ahead, with protesters saying that they would remain until he resigned. [11] Clashes broke out between protesters and police on 19 April, after which the protests ended. [12]

Medvedev (left) with Bakiyev in 2009 Dmitry Medvedev in Kyrgyzstan 1 August 2009-3.jpg
Medvedev (left) with Bakiyev in 2009

During Bakiyev's presidency, the relationship between China and Kyrgyzstan strengthened, with increasing numbers of Chinese students in Kyrgyzstan. [13] In February 2009, while in Moscow, Bakiyev announced the eviction of the US Air Base from Kyrgyzstan, following a meeting with Russian President Dmitri Medvedev, during which Russia promised a $2 billion investment. [14]

Bakiyev was re-elected in the 2009 presidential election. [15] After his re-election, he was presumed to deal with political and economic reform. [16]

The Eurasia Daily Monitor wrote on 10 September 2009 that his style resembled other leaders such as Vladimir Putin and Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kyrgyz people were anxious about the risk of renewed power shortages and blackouts like in the winter 2008–2009. [16] During the winter of 2010, the country suffered from rolling blackouts and cutoffs occurring regularly while energy prices have risen. [17]

In January 2010, Kyrgyzstan sent a delegation to China to discuss improved economic relations. [18]

Kyrgyzstan's national electric company, Natsionalnaya electricheskaya syet, and the Chinese Tebian Electric signed a $342 million contract to build the Datka-Kemin 500 kv power transmission lines. This would have reduced Kyrgyzstan's dependence on the Central Asian power system. The delegation was led by Bakiyev's son. [18]

In February 2010 Kyrgyzstan had to raise energy tariffs. Heating costs were reportedly going to rise 400 percent and electricity by 170 percent. [19]

Russia backed his government until March 2010. The Eurasian Daily Monitor reported on 1 April that, for two weeks, the Kremlin had used the Russian mass media to run a negative campaign against Bakiyev. [20] Russia controls much of the media in Kyrgyzstan. [20] The sudden campaign coincided with Bakiyev's failure to carry out Russia's various demands related to things such as military bases. [20]

On 1 April 2010, Russia also imposed duties on energy exports to Kyrgyzstan. It influenced fuel and transport prices immediately, and reportedly led to a massive protest in Talas on 6 April. [21]

2010 revolution

Bakiyev in April 2010 Bakiyev.jpg
Bakiyev in April 2010

In April 2010, after bloody riots in the capital overturned the government, Bakiyev reportedly fled to the southern city of Osh. The head of the new provisional government, Roza Otunbayeva, declared that Bakiyev had not resigned and was trying to rally support. [22]

On 13 April 2010, Bakiyev stated he would be willing to resign the presidency if his security was guaranteed. [23] On 15 April 2010, at 19:00, Bakiyev left Kyrgyzstan for Kazakhstan, having signed a resignation letter. [24] [25] Otunbayeva said she would press ahead to bring Bakiyev to trial. [26]

On 20 April, the Belarusian president, Alexander Lukashenko told his parliament that "Bakiyev and his family, four people in all, have been in Minsk since Monday evening, as guests...Today they are here under the protection of our state, and personally of the president." [27] [28]

On 21 April, Bakiyev held a press conference in Minsk and stated "I, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, am the legally elected president of Kyrgyzstan and recognised by the international community. I do not recognise my resignation. Nine months ago the people of Kyrgyzstan elected me their president and there is no power that can stop me. Only death can stop me", and called Otunbayeva's administration an "illegitimate gang". [29]

Parliamentary elections of 2010

Ata-Zhurt, a party campaigning for bringing Kurmanbek Bakiyev back to power, won 28 out of 120 seats in Kyrgyzstan's parliamentary elections of 2010, securing a narrow plurality over the other parties. [30] [31]

Exile in Minsk

In Kyrgyzstan, Bakiev was sentenced in absentia to life in prison for involvement in the killing of protesters during the 2010 uprising. [32] The Kyrgyz government has since demanded Bakiyev's extradition, but Belarus has refused, which has been the cause of many conflicts in Kyrgyz-Belarusian relations. [33] He was accompanied by his wife Tatyana, his 2 sons and his Kyrgyz mistress Nazgul Tolomusheva. [34] In February 2012, it was being reported that Bakiyev was granted Belarusian citizenship in 2010. [35] In a 2017 interview with the Belarusian service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Bakiyev claimed that Medvedev and Putin, as well as US President Barack Obama were involved in the coordination of his safe departure to Minsk. [32]

In February 2019, the United States Treasury announced the return of over $4 million stolen by Bakiyev to the Kyrgyzstani Government. [36] On 6 August 2019, Bakiyev met with President Alexander Lukashenko in the Independence Palace to mark Bakiyev's 70th birthday, which he had marked several days earlier. [37] Lukashenko presented Bakiyev with traditional flowers and symbolic gifts before meeting with him in his office where they discussed relevant issues. [38] [39] The meeting angered the Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry, which stated the next day that it did not "fundamentally does not meet the principles of friendship and cooperation between the two countries". [40] [41]

Family and private life

Bakiyev's wife, Tatyana Vasilevna Petrova (Russian: Татьяна Васильевна Бакиева), a production engineer, is an ethnic Russian who was born in Samara and raised in what is present-day Moldova. [42] [43]

During his time as president, several Bakiyev family members had prominent positions in the government, with at least five close relatives working in the upper echelons of power. His brother Janysh was head of the presidential guard. Another brother Marat was Kyrgyzstan's ambassador to Germany. Another brother, Adyl, was an adviser to Kyrgyzstan's ambassador to China. [44]

Since the overthrow, Kurmanbek's younger son, Maksim, was charged with embezzlement and abuse of power by the interim government. It is suspected that he transferred about $35 million of a $300 million loan from Russia into his private bank accounts. [45]

When the revolt took place, Bakiyev was headed to the US for a series of meetings in Washington. [46] Apart from Kyrgyz, he speaks Russian and Uzbek. [47]

Related Research Articles

History of Kyrgyzstan Historical development of Kyrgyzstan

The history of the Kyrgyz people and the land now called Kyrgyzstan goes back more than 3,000 years. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous location, it had an important role as part of the historical Silk Road trade route. In between periods of self-government it was ruled by Göktürks, the Uyghur Empire, and the Khitan people, before being conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century; subsequently it regained independence but was invaded by Kalmyks, Manchus and Uzbeks. In 1876 it became part of the Russian Empire, remaining in the USSR as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic after the Russian Revolution. Following Mikhael Gorbachev's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate Askar Akayev was elected president of the SSR. On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from Moscow, and a democratic government was subsequently established.

Politics of Kyrgyzstan Political system of Kyrgyzstan

The Politics of Kyrgyzstan, officially known as the Kyrgyz Republic takes place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Kyrgyzstan a "hybrid regime" in 2019.

Kyrgyzstan Country in Central Asia

Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic and also known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain. It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

Osh Place in Osh Region, Kyrgyzstan

Osh is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south". It is the oldest city in the country, and has served as the administrative center of Osh Region since 1939. The city has an ethnically mixed population of about 281,900 in 2017, comprising Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Russians, Tajiks, and other smaller ethnic groups. It is about 5 km from the Uzbekistan border.

Tulip Revolution 2005 revolution in Kyrgyzstan

The Tulip Revolution or First Kyrgyz Revolution led to President of Kyrgyzstan, Askar Akayev's fall from power. The revolution began after parliamentary elections on February 27 and March 13, 2005. The revolutionaries alleged corruption and authoritarianism by Akayev, his family and supporters. Akayev fled to Kazakhstan and then to Russia. On April 4, 2005, at the Kyrgyz embassy in Moscow, Akayev signed his resignation statement in the presence of a Kyrgyz parliamentary delegation. The resignation was ratified by the Kyrgyz interim parliament on April 11, 2005.

President of Kyrgyzstan political position

The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic. The president, according to the constitution, "is the symbol of the unity of people and state power, and is the guarantor of the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, and of an individual and citizen." The president is directly elected for no more than one six-year term by the Kyrgyz electorate. The office of president was established in 1990 replacing the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet that existed, in different forms, from 1927 whilst the country was known as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.

Roza Otunbayeva President of Kyrgyzstan

Roza Isakovna Otunbayeva is a Kyrgyz diplomat and politician who served as the President of Kyrgyzstan from 7 April 2010 until 1 December 2011. She was sworn in on July 3, 2010, after acting as interim leader following the 2010 April revolution which led to the ousting of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev. She previously served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and as head of the parliamentary caucus for the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan.

2005 Kyrgyz presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Kyrgyzstan on 10 July 2005. The result was a landslide victory for acting President Kurmanbek Bakiev, marking the end of his interim government formed after the previous president, Askar Akayev, was overthrown in the revolution in March 2005.

Alikbek Jeshenkulov is the former Foreign Minister of Kyrgyzstan (2005–2007) and now the leader of the oppositional party "Za spravedlivost".

Edil Baisalov Kyrgyzstani politician

Edil Baisalov is a Kyrgyz politician, civil society activist who currently serves as the Kyrgyz Republic's Ambassador to the Court of St James's. He played prominent role in the Tulip Revolution of 2005 and following the 2010 Kyrgyzstani uprising on April 7, 2010 briefly served as Chief of Staff of the interim government led by Roza Otunbayeva. In 1999-2007 Baisalov led the 'Coalition for Civil Society and Democracy', the largest Kyrgyz advocacy and election monitoring network.

Almazbek Atambayev Kyrgyz politician

Almazbek Sharshenovich Atambayev is a Kyrgyz politician who served as the President of Kyrgyzstan from 1 December 2011 to 24 November 2017. He was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 17 December 2010 to 1 December 2011, and from 29 March 2007 to 28 November 2007. He served as Chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) from 30 July 1999 to 23 September 2011. Currently he is imprisoned, facing charges of corruption and manslaughter.

1993 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan

The Constitution of Kyrgyzstan is the supreme law of the Kyrgyz Republic. The constitution in force until 2010 was passed by referendum on 21 October 2007 and it is based on the first post-Soviet constitution originally adopted on 5 May 1993, a year and a half after the country had gained independence from the former Soviet Union. The 1993 constitution had been amended several times: first on 10 February 1996, then on 2 February 2003, and finally twice in quick succession on 9 November 2006 and 15 January 2007 after the Tulip Revolution of March 2005. The last two amendments were adopted under pressure from protracted public protests in the capital Bishkek, but they were annulled in September 2007 by the Constitutional Court, which restored the 2003 constitution and paved the way for another constitutional referendum in October 2007. The description that follows is based on the text of the October 2007 constitution.

Daniar Toktogulovich Usenov is a Kyrgyz banker and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from October 2009 to April 2010. He previously served as Mayor of Bishkek.

2009 Kyrgyz presidential election presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Kyrgyzstan on 23 July 2009. The date was set after the constitutional court ruled that the extension of the presidential term from four to five years did not apply until the next presidential election, calling for elections by 25 October 2009; in response, a parliament committee proposed the July election date, which was then passed by the incumbent president Kurmanbek Bakiyev's Ak Jol-dominated parliament. Bakiyev had previously announced his intention to run for reelection. Bakiyev was re-nominated on 1 May 2009.

2011 Kyrgyz presidential election

Early presidential elections were held in Kyrgyzstan on 30 October 2011 to replace Interim President Roza Otunbayeva. Former Prime Minister Almazbek Atambayev of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan won in the first round.

Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 revolution

The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010, also known as the Second Kyrgyz Revolution, the Melon Revolution, the April Events or officially as the People's April Revolution, began in April 2010 with the ousting of Kyrgyz president Kurmanbek Bakiyev in the capital Bishkek. It was followed by increased ethnic tension involving Kyrgyz people and Uzbeks in the south of the country, which escalated in June 2010. The violence ultimately led to the consolidation of a new parliamentary system in Kyrgyzstan.

Maxim Bakiyev Businessman and politician

Maksim Kurmanbekovich Bakiyev, is the youngest son of former president of Kyrgyzstan, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, from his marriage to Russian-born Tatyana Petrova. He is a resident of the UK having been granted political asylum.

Ata-Zhurt political party in Kyrgyzstan

Ata-Zhurt, sometimes Ata-Jurt,, or Fatherland, is a political party in Kyrgyzstan. Its political base is in the south of the country, but the party was headquartered in the capital Bishkek. The party was led by Kamchybek Tashiyev, and supported the ousted former President Kurmanbek Bakiyev.

The following lists events that happened during 2010 in Kyrgyzstan.

Tatyana Vasilevna Bakiyeva, née Petrova is a Kyrgyz public figure who is the wife of former Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev and the First Lady of Kyrgyzstan from March 2005 to April 2010.

References

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  14. Kyrgyz Eviction Warnings Intensify Over U.S. Air Base, rferl.org, 4 February 2009.
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Political offices
Preceded by
Amangeldy Muraliev
Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
2000–2002
Succeeded by
Nikolai Tanayev
Preceded by
Nikolai Tanayev
Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
2005
Succeeded by
Medetbek Kerimkulov
Acting
Preceded by
Medetbek Kerimkulov
Acting
Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
2005
Succeeded by
Felix Kulov
Preceded by
Ishenbai Kadyrbekov
Acting
President of Kyrgyzstan
2005–2010
Succeeded by
Roza Otunbayeva