13th century

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Mongol Emperor Genghis Khan whose conquests created the largest contiguous empire in history YuanEmperorAlbumGenghisPortrait.jpg
Mongol Emperor Genghis Khan whose conquests created the largest contiguous empire in history

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar.


The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. The conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the Siege of Baghdad (1258), the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums which, according to historians, caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline through the conquest led by Bakhtiyar Khilji.

The Southern Song dynasty would begin the century as a prosperous kingdom but would eventually be invaded and annexed into the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols. The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan would be invaded by the Mongols. Goryeo resisted an invasion by the Mongols but eventually sued for peace and would eventually be a client state of the Yuan dynasty. [1]

One of the earliest Islamic states in Southeast Asia would form during this century, most notably the Samudera Pasai. [2] The Kingdoms of Sukhothai and Hanthawaddy would emerge and go on to dominate their surrounding territories. [3]

In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. In North America, according to some population estimates, the population of Cahokia grew to being equal to or larger than the population of 13th-century London. [4] In Peru, the Kingdom of Cuzco begins. The Kanem Empire in what is now Chad reaches its apex. The Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia and the Zimbabwe Kingdom are founded. In the history of Maya civilizations, the 13th century marks the beginning of the Late Postclassic period. In the periodization of Precolumbian Peru, the 13th century is part of the Late Intermediate Period.


Eastern Hemisphere in 1200 AD East-Hem 1200ad.jpg
Eastern Hemisphere in 1200 AD



A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals. Liber abbaci magliab f124r.jpg
A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals.



Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty. Chinesischer Maler von 1238 001.jpg
Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.





The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century. Ibn al-nafis page.jpg
The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.



Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king. Hommage d Edouard Ier a Philippe le Bel.jpg
Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate. Alai Gate and Qutub Minar.jpg
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.

See also

Related Research Articles

Year 1250 (MCCL) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mongol Empire</span> 13th- and 14th-century empire originating in Mongolia

The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in present-day Mongolia in East Asia, the Mongol Empire at its height stretched from the Sea of Japan to parts of Eastern Europe, extending northward into parts of the Arctic; eastward and southward into parts of the Indian subcontinent, attempted invasions of Southeast Asia and conquered the Iranian Plateau; and westward as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Ain Jalut</span> 1260 battle between the Mamluk Sultanate and the Mongol Empire

The Battle of Ain Jalut, also spelled Ayn Jalut, was fought between the Bahri Mamluks of Egypt and the Mongol Empire on 3 September 1260 in southeastern Galilee in the Jezreel Valley near what is known today as the Spring of Harod. The battle marked the height of the extent of Mongol conquests, and was the first time a Mongol advance was permanently beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hulagu Khan</span> Western Asian Mongol ruler (c.1217-1265)

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu, was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ilkhanate</span> 1256–1335 breakaway khanate of the Mongol Empire

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, known to the Mongols as Hülegü Ulus, was a khanate established from the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanid realm, officially known as Iranzamin, was ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. Hulagu Khan, the son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, inherited the Middle Eastern part of the Mongol Empire after his brother Möngke Khan died in 1260. Its core territory lies in what is now part of the countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, and Turkey. At its greatest extent, the Ilkhanate also included parts of modern Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Georgia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, part of modern Dagestan, and part of modern Tajikistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam. In the 1330s, the Ilkhanate was ravaged by the Black Death. Its last khan Abu Sa'id died in 1335, after which the khanate disintegrated. The Ilkhanid rulers, although of non-Iranian origin, tried to advertise their authority by tying themselves to the Iranian past, and they recruited historians in order to present the Mongols as heirs to the Sasanians of pre-Islamic Iran.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Singhasari</span> Kingdom on the island of Java (1222–1292)

Singhasari was a Javanese Hindu kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. The kingdom succeeded the Kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java. The kingdom's name is cognate to Singosari district of Malang Regency, located several kilometres north of Malang city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bahri dynasty</span>

The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382. They followed the Ayyubid dynasty, and were succeeded by a second Mamluk dynasty, the Burji dynasty.

Mongol ruler Ghazan Khan converted to Islam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mongol invasions and conquests</span> Series of Mongol invasions and conquests (1206–1308)

The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire: the Mongol Empire (1206-1368), which by 1300 covered large parts of Eurasia. Historians regard the Mongol devastation as one of the deadliest episodes in history. In addition, Mongol expeditions may have spread the bubonic plague across much of Eurasia, helping to spark the Black Death of the 14th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mongol invasions of the Levant</span> Mongol invasions of the Levant (1260-1323)

Starting in the 1240s, the Mongols made repeated invasions of Syria or attempts thereof. Most failed, but they did have some success in 1260 and 1300, capturing Aleppo and Damascus and destroying the Ayyubid dynasty. The Mongols were forced to retreat within months each time by other forces in the area, primarily the Egyptian Mamluks. Since 1260, it had been described as the Mamluk–Ilkhanid War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Raden Wijaya</span> 13th-century Javanese emperor, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire

Raden Wijaya or Raden Vijaya was a Javanese emperor, and the founder and first monarch of the Majapahit Empire. The history of his founding of Majapahit was written in several records, including Pararaton and Negarakertagama. His rule was marked by the victory against the army and the Mongol navy of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kertanegara of Singhasari</span> Sri Maharajadiraja

Sri Maharajadiraja Sri Kertanegara Wikrama Dharmatunggadewa, Kritanagara, or Sivabuddha, was the last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292. Under his rule Javanese trade and power developed considerably, reaching the far corners of the Indonesian archipelago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Franco-Mongol alliance</span> 13th century attempts at an alliance

Several attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Islamic caliphates, their common enemy, were made by various leaders among the Frankish Crusaders and the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. Such an alliance might have seemed an obvious choice: the Mongols were already sympathetic to Christianity, given the presence of many influential Nestorian Christians in the Mongol court. The Franks were open to the idea of support from the East, in part owing to the long-running legend of the mythical Prester John, an Eastern king in an Eastern kingdom who many believed would one day come to the assistance of the Crusaders in the Holy Land. The Franks and Mongols also shared a common enemy in the Muslims. However, despite many messages, gifts, and emissaries over the course of several decades, the often-proposed alliance never came to fruition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mongol invasion of Java</span> 13th-century military campaign

The Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan attempted in 1292 to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia, with 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers. This was intended as a punitive expedition against Kertanegara of Singhasari, who had refused to pay tribute to the Yuan and maimed one of their emissaries. However, in the intervening years between Kertanegara's refusal and the expedition's arrival on Java, Kertanegara had been killed and Singhasari had been usurped by Kediri. Thus, the Yuan expeditionary force was directed to obtain the submission of its successor state, Kediri, instead. After a fierce campaign, Kediri surrendered, but the Yuan forces were betrayed by their erstwhile ally, Majapahit, under Raden Wijaya. In the end, the invasion ended with Yuan failure and victory for the new state, Majapahit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mamluk Sultanate</span> State in Egypt, Hejaz and the Levant (1250–1517)

The Mamluk Sultanate, also known as MamlukEgypt or the Mamluk Empire, was a state that ruled Egypt, the Levant and the Hejaz from the mid-13th to early 16th centuries. It was ruled by a military caste of mamluks headed by the sultan. The Abbasid caliphs were the nominal sovereigns. The sultanate was established with the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt in 1250 and was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Mamluk history is generally divided into the Turkic or Bahri period (1250–1382) and the Circassian or Burji period (1382–1517), called after the predominant ethnicity or corps of the ruling Mamluks during these respective eras.

Jayakatwang was the king of short lived second Kingdom of Kediri of Java, after his overthrow of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari. He was eventually defeated by Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara's son-in-law using the troops of the Mongol Yuan dynasty that were invading Java. Raden Wijaya would later turn against the Mongols and found Majapahit, a great empire centered around in Java.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire</span>

This article discusses the political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire. Through invasions and conquests the Mongols established a vast empire that included many political divisions, vassals and tributary states. It was the largest contiguous land empire in history. However, after the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War and subsequent wars had led to the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. By 1294, the empire had fractured into four autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mongol Armenia</span>

Mongol Armenia or Ilkhanid Armenia refers to the period in which both Armenia and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia became tributary and vassal to the Mongol Empire in the 1230s. Armenia and Cilicia remained under Mongol influence until around 1335.


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