13th century

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Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan' death Genghis Khan empire-en.svg
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan' death
Double silver dirham of Ghazan Khan made after the intervention of Imam Ibn Taymiyyah.
Obv: Legend in Arabic: llh l llh mHmd rswl llh Sl~ llh `lyh wslm/ Drb tbryz/ fy sn@ sb` ...r La ilaha illa llaha Muhammadun rasulu llahi salla llahu `alayhi wa-sallam / duriba Tabriz / fi sanati sab`in ...: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is His Prophet, Peace be upon him/ Minted in Tabriz in the year ...7"
Rev: Legend in Mongolian script (except for "Ghazan Mahmud" in Arabic): Tengri-yin Kuchundur. Ghazan Mahmud. Ghasanu Deledkegulugsen: "By the strength of the Heaven/ Ghazan Mahmud/ Coin struck for Ghazan".
Tabriz mint. 4.0 gr (0.26 g). Silver. GhazanCoin.jpg
Double silver dirham of Ghazan Khan made after the intervention of Imam Ibn Taymiyyah.
Obv: Legend in Arabic: لاإله إلا الله محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم/ ضرب تبريز/ في سنة سبع ...ر Lā ilāha illa llāha Muḥammadun rasūlu llāhi ṣalla llāhu ʽalayhi wa-sallam / ḍuriba Tabrīz / fī sanati sabʽin ...: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is His Prophet, Peace be upon him/ Minted in Tabriz in the year ...7"
Rev: Legend in Mongolian script (except for "Ghazan Mahmud" in Arabic): Tengri-yin Küchündür. Ghazan Mahmud. Ghasanu Deledkegülügsen: "By the strength of the Heaven/ Ghazan Mahmud/ Coin struck for Ghazan".
Tabriz mint. 4.0 gr (0.26 g). Silver.
The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century. Ibn al-nafis page.jpg
The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar.

Contents

The Mongol empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. Conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the Siege of Baghdad (1258), the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums, which according to historians caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of Western Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.

Events

A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals. Liber abbaci magliab f124r.jpg
A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals.

1200s

1210s

1220s

1230s

1240s

1250s

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate. Alai Gate and Qutub Minar.jpg
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.

1260s

Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty. Chinesischer Maler von 1238 001.jpg
Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.
Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king. Hommage d Edouard Ier a Philippe le Bel.jpg
Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.

1270s

1280s

1290s

Significant people

Frescoes from the 13th-century Boyana Church Kalojan desislava.jpg
Frescoes from the 13th-century Boyana Church
Queen Tamar Vepkhistkaosani zichy.jpg
Queen Tamar
Persian Islamic scholar Mawlana Kwaja Moinuddin Chishti Bichitr. Shaykh Mu'in al-Din Chishti Holding a Globe, detail of miniature from Minto Album, c. 1610-18, India, Chester Beatty Library, Dublin.jpg
Persian Islamic scholar Mawlana Kwaja Moinuddin Chishti

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

See also

Related Research Articles

14th century Century

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12th century Century

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The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.

The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.

Mongol Empire 13th and 14th century empire originating in Mongolia

The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the largest contiguous land empire and second-largest empire in history, behind only the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northward into parts of the Arctic; eastward and southward into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westward as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

Ilkhanate breakaway khanate of the Mongol Empire

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, known to the Mongols as Hülegü Ulus was a khanate established from the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. Hulagu Khan, the son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, inherited the Middle Eastern part of the Mongol Empire after his brother Möngke Khan died in 1260. Its core territory lies in what is now part of the countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, and Turkey. At its greatest extent, the Ilkhanate also included parts of modern Iraq, Armenia, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, part of modern Dagestan, part of modern Tajikistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam. In the 1330s, the Ilkhanate was ravaged by the Black Death. Its last khan Abu Sa'id died in 1335, after which the khanate disintegrated.

Khwarazmian dynasty Turkic dynasty

The Khwarazmian dynasty was a Persianate Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and the Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. It's estimated that the dynasty spanned over an area from 2.3 to 3.6 million square kilometers.

Singhasari Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Java

Singhasari was an Indianized Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. The kingdom succeeded the Kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java. The kingdom's name is cognate to Singosari district of Malang Regency, located several kilometres north of Malang city.

Mongol invasions and conquests series of expeditionary wars, invasions and conquests, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire

The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating the vast Mongol Empire which by 1300 covered large parts of Eurasia. Historians regard the Mongol devastation as one of the deadliest episodes in history. In addition, Mongol expeditions may have spread the bubonic plague across much of Eurasia, helping to spark the Black Death of the 14th century.

Mongol invasions of the Levant Wikimedia list article

Starting in the 1240s, the Mongols made repeated invasions of Syria or attempts thereof. Most failed, but they did have some success in 1260 and 1300, capturing Aleppo and Damascus and destroying the Ayyubid dynasty. The Mongols were forced to retreat within months each time by other forces in the area, primarily the Egyptian Mamluks. Since 1260, it had been described as the Mamluk-Ilkhanid War.

Raden Wijaya 13th-century Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire

Raden Wijaya or Raden Vijaya was a Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire. The history of his founding of Majapahit was written in several records, including Pararaton and Negarakertagama. His rule was marked by the victory against the army and the navy of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty, a division of the Mongol Empire.

Kertanegara of Singhasari King of Singhasari

Kertanegara of Singasari, Kritanagara, or Sivabuddha,, was the last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292. Under his rule Javanese trade and power developed considerably, reaching the far corners of the Indonesian archipelago.

The Mongol invasion of Java was a military effort made by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty, to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia. In 1293, he sent a large invasion fleet to Java with 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers. This was a punitive expedition against King Kertanegara of Singhasari, who had refused to pay tribute to the Yuan and maimed one of its ministers. However, it ended with failure for the Mongols and victory for Singhasari.

Aju (1227–1287) was a general and chancellor of the Mongol Empire and the Yuan Dynasty. He was from the Jarchud clan of the Mongol Uriankhai. His father was Yuan dynasty general Uriyangkhadai and his grandfather was Subutai, the honored general and Noyan of Genghis Khan.

Christianity in the 13th century Christianity-related events during the 13th century

The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) imperial church headed by Constantinople continued to assert its universal authority. By the 13th century this assertion was becoming increasingly irrelevant as the Eastern Roman Empire shrank and the Ottoman Turks took over most of what was left of the Byzantine Empire. The other Eastern European churches in communion with Constantinople were not part of its empire and were increasingly acting independently, achieving autocephalous status and only nominally acknowledging Constantinople's standing in the Church hierarchy. In Western Europe the Holy Roman Empire fragmented making it less of an empire as well.

Rajasa was the ruling dynasty of Singhasari kingdom and later Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th century eastern Java. The rulers of Singhasari and Majapahit trace their origins back to the mysterious figure of Ken Arok or Sri Ranggah Rajasa, who founded the Rajasa dynasty early in the 13th century. According to the Pararaton, Ken Arok was born in the Tumapel region. He was considered as the dynasty founder of both the Singhasari and Majapahit line of monarchs.

Jayakatwang was the king of short lived second Kingdom of Kediri of Java, after his overthrow of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari. He was eventually defeated by Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara's son-in-law using the troops of the Mongol Yuan dynasty that were invading Java. Raden Wijaya would later turn against the Mongols and found Majapahit, the greatest empire in Java.

Political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire

This article discusses the political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire. Through invasions and conquests the Mongols established a vast empire that included many political divisions, vassals and tributary states. It was the largest contiguous land empire in history. However, after the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War and subsequent wars had led to the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. By 1294, the empire had fractured into four autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire.

References

  1. For numismatic information: Coins of Ghazan Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine , Ilkhanid coin reading Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine .
  2. "Ken Angrok". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  3. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  4. Grousset, Rene (1988), Empire of steppes, Wars in Japan, Indochina and Java, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p.  288, ISBN   0-8135-1304-9 .
  5. page 243
  6. History of Aceh Archived August 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  7. Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis khan and the making of the modern world. New York: Random House. p. 239. ISBN   0-609-80964-4.