1258

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1258 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1258
MCCLVIII
Ab urbe condita 2011
Armenian calendar 707
ԹՎ ՉԷ
Assyrian calendar 6008
Balinese saka calendar 1179–1180
Bengali calendar 665
Berber calendar 2208
English Regnal year 42  Hen. 3   43  Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1802
Burmese calendar 620
Byzantine calendar 6766–6767
Chinese calendar 丁巳(Fire  Snake)
3954 or 3894
     to 
戊午年 (Earth  Horse)
3955 or 3895
Coptic calendar 974–975
Discordian calendar 2424
Ethiopian calendar 1250–1251
Hebrew calendar 5018–5019
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1314–1315
 - Shaka Samvat 1179–1180
 - Kali Yuga 4358–4359
Holocene calendar 11258
Igbo calendar 258–259
Iranian calendar 636–637
Islamic calendar 655–656
Japanese calendar Shōka 2
(正嘉2年)
Javanese calendar 1167–1168
Julian calendar 1258
MCCLVIII
Korean calendar 3591
Minguo calendar 654 before ROC
民前654年
Nanakshahi calendar −210
Thai solar calendar 1800–1801
Tibetan calendar 阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
1384 or 1003 or 231
     to 
阳土马年
(male Earth-Horse)
1385 or 1004 or 232
Hulagu's army attacks Baghdad. Bagdad1258.jpg
Hulagu's army attacks Baghdad.

Year 1258 ( MCCLVIII ) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By area

Global

  • The observed effects of an eruption of the Indonesian volcano Mount Rinjani, in late 1257, include the following anecdotal accounts: dry fog in France; lunar eclipses in England; severe winter in Europe; a "harsh" spring in northern Iceland; famine in England, western Germany, France, and northern Italy; and pestilence in London, parts of France, Austria, Iraq, Syria, and southeast Turkey. [1]
Mount Rinjani

Mount Rinjani or Gunung Rinjani is an active volcano in Indonesia on the island of Lombok. Administratively the mountain is in the Regency of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. It rises to 3,726 metres (12,224 ft), making it the second highest volcano in Indonesia.

Year 1257 (MCCLVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Lunar eclipse when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are exactly or very closely aligned, with Earth between the other two. A lunar eclipse can occur only on the night of a full moon. The type and length of a lunar eclipse depend on the Moon's proximity to either node of its orbit.

Asia

February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 324 days remaining until the end of the year.

Siege of Baghdad (1258) investment, capture, and sacking of Baghdad in 1258

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan, brother of the khagan Möngke Khan, who had intended to further extend his rule into Mesopotamia but not to directly overthrow the Caliphate. Möngke, however, had instructed Hulagu to attack Baghdad if the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused Mongol demands for his continued submission to the khagan and the payment of tribute in the form of military support for Mongol forces in Iran.

Hulagu Khan Il-Khan emperor

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu, was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan.

Europe

May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 234 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Treaty of Corbeil was an agreement signed on 11 May 1258, in Corbeil between Louis IX of France and James I of Aragon.

James I of Aragon 13th-century King of Aragon

James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276. His long reign—the longest of any Iberian monarch—saw the expansion of the House of Aragon and House of Barcelona in three directions: Languedoc to the north, the Balearic Islands to the southeast, and Valencia to the south. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the County of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. He renounced northward expansion and taking back the once Catalan territories in Occitania and vassal counties loyal to the County of Barcelona, lands that were lost by his father Peter II of Aragon in the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian Crusade and annexed by the Kingdom of France, and then decided to turn south. His great part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. One of the main reasons for this formal renunciation of most of the once Catalan territories in Languedoc and Occitania and any expansion into them is the fact that he was raised by the Knights Templar crusaders, who had defeated his father fighting for the Pope alongside the French, so it was effectively forbidden for him to try to maintain the traditional influence of the Count of Barcelona that previously existed in Occitania and Languedoc.

By topic

Markets

  • In Genoa, the Republic starts imposing forced loans, known as luoghi, to its taxpayers; they are a common resource of medieval public finance. [2]
Republic of Genoa former state on the Apennine Peninsula between 1005–1797

The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

Religion

Medieval music Western music written during the Middle Ages

Medieval music consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D. to 1400. Medieval music was an era of Western music, including liturgical music used for the church, and secular music, non-religious music. Medieval music includes solely vocal music, such as Gregorian chant and choral music, solely instrumental music, and music that uses both voices and instruments. Gregorian chant was sung by monks during Catholic Mass. The Mass is a reenactment of Christ's Last Supper, intended to provide a spiritual connection between man and God. Part of this connection was established through music. This era begins with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century and ends sometime in the early fifteenth century. Establishing the end of the medieval era and the beginning of the Renaissance music era is difficult, since the trends started at different times in different regions. The date range in this article is the one usually adopted by musicologists.

Geisslerlieder

In medieval music, the Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs, were the songs of the wandering bands of flagellants, who overspread Europe during two periods of mass hysteria: the first during the middle of the 13th century, and the second during the Black Death in 1349. The music was simple, sung in the vernacular, often call-and-response, and closely related to folk song; indeed some of the flagellant songs survived into the 17th century as folk songs in Catholic parts of central Europe. Musically the Geisslerlied were related to the Laude spirituale: they were unaccompanied song, with instrumental accompaniment specifically forbidden.

Flagellant practitioners of an extreme form of self-mortification

Flagellants are practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by whipping it with various instruments. Most notably, Flagellantism was a 14th-century movement, consisting of radicals in the Catholic Church. It began as a militant pilgrimage and was later condemned by the Catholic Church as heretical. The followers were noted for including public flagellation in their rituals.

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

762 Year

Year 762 (DCCLXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 762 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

775 Year

Year 775 (DCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 775 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

813 Year

Year 813 (DCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1001 (MI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. It is the first year of the 11th century and the 2nd millennium.

836 Year

Year 836 (DCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

866 Year

Year 866 (DCCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

946 Year

Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The 1250s decade ran from January 1, 1250, to December 31, 1259.

Year 1225 (MCCXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1180 (MCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1256 (MCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1259 Year

Year 1259 (MCCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Dating year of the 1257 major volcanic anomaly, to be found in (polar) ice cores, supposed to be the Samalas eruption https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1257_Samalas_eruption

Abbasid Caliphate Third Islamic caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).

908 Year

Year 908 (CMVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

945 Year

Year 945 (CMXLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

938 Year

Year 938 (CMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Mongol invasions of Vietnam War

The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese War refer to the three times that the Mongol Empire and its chief khanate the Yuan dynasty invaded Đại Việt during the time of the Trần dynasty, along with Champa: in 1258, 1285, and 1287–88. The first invasion began in 1258 under the united Mongol Empire, as it looked for alternative paths to invade Song China. The Mongol high ranking commander Uriyangkhadai was successful in capturing the Dai Viet capital ; however, his army was weakened by the tropical climate and were later defeated. The second and third invasions occurred during the reign of Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty. By this point, the Mongolian Empire had fractured into 4 separate entities with Yuan Dynasty being the strongest and biggest empire. These invasions resulted in a disastrous land defeat for the Mongols in 1285 and the annihilation of the Mongol navy in 1288. However, both the Trần dynasty and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty and serve as tributary states in order to avoid further conflicts.

References

  1. Stothers, R.B. (2000) "Climatic and Demographic consequences of the Massive Volcanic Eruption of 1258". Climatic Change, 45, 361–374.
  2. Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.