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|1291 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1291 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2044|
|Balinese saka calendar||1212–1213|
|English Regnal year||19 Edw. 1 – 20 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)|
3987 or 3927
— to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
3988 or 3928
|- Vikram Samvat||1347–1348|
|- Shaka Samvat||1212–1213|
|- Kali Yuga||4391–4392|
|Japanese calendar|| Shōō 4|
|Minguo calendar||621 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||1833–1834|
1417 or 1036 or 264
— to —
1418 or 1037 or 265
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1291 .|
Year 1291 ( MCCXCI ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:
A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013, 2019, and 2030 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC), by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek mathematicians and Greek astronomers such as Sosigenes of Alexandria.
Vandino and Ugolino Vivaldi were two brothers and Genoese explorers and merchants. They were connected with the first known expedition in search of an ocean way from Europe to India. Ugolino, with his brother Guido or Vandino Vivaldo, was in command of this expedition of two galleys, which he had organized in conjunction with Tedisio Doria, and which left Genoa in May 1291 with the purpose of going to India "by the Ocean Sea" and bringing back useful things for trade. Planned primarily for commerce, the enterprise also aimed at proselytism. Two Franciscan friars accompanied Ugolino. The galleys were well armed and sailed down the Morocco coast to a place called Gozora, in 28º 47' N., after which nothing more was heard of them. The expedition of the Vivaldi brothers was one of the first recorded voyages that sailed out from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic since the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 227 days remain until the end of the year.
Al-Ashraf Salāh ad-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn was the eighth Mamluk sultan between November 1290 until his assassination in December 1293. He was well known for conquering the last of the Crusader states in Palestine in the capture of Acre in 1291.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem, also known as the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks. Its history is divided into two distinct periods. The First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, and lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for the two decades after Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem, placing it back in Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade. This second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of French origin.
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1581 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. The territory of the County of Holland corresponds roughly with the current provinces of North Holland and South Holland in the Netherlands.
Dordrecht, historically known in English as Dort, is a city and municipality in the Western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fifth-largest city of the province after Rotterdam, The Hague, Zoetermeer and Leiden, with a population of 118,450. The municipality covers the entire Dordrecht Island, also often called Het Eiland van Dordt, bordered by the rivers Oude Maas, Beneden Merwede, Nieuwe Merwede, Hollands Diep, and Dordtsche Kil. Dordrecht is the largest and most important city in the Drechtsteden and is also part of the Randstad, the main conurbation in the Netherlands. Dordrecht is the oldest city in Holland and has a rich history and culture.
Haarlem is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the northern edge of the Randstad, one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. Haarlem had a population of 159,556 in 2017.
February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 326 days remain until the end of the year.
Afonso IV, called the Brave, was King of Portugal from 1325 until his death. He was the only legitimate son of King Denis of Portugal by his wife Elizabeth of Aragon.
Year 1357 (MCCCLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 296 days remain until the end of the year.
Arghun Khan a.k.a. Argon was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291. He was the son of Abaqa Khan, and like his father, was a devout Buddhist. He was known for sending several embassies to Europe in an unsuccessful attempt to form a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims in the Holy Land. It was also Arghun who requested a new bride from his great-uncle Kublai Khan. The mission to escort the young Kökötchin across Asia to Arghun was reportedly taken by Marco Polo. Arghun died before Kökötchin arrived, so she instead married Arghun's son, Ghazan.
May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 225 days remain until the end of the year.
The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar. After its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe, while the Muslim Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.
Year 1282 (MCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1300, and ended on December 31, 1309.
Year 1215 (MCCXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
The 1350s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1350, and ended on December 31, 1359.
The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.
The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.
The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.
The 1290s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1290, and ended on December 31, 1299.
Year 1356 (MCCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1304 (MCCCIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1292 (MCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1218 (MCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1210 (MCCX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1249 (MCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1254 (MCCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1264 (MCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1266 (MCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.