1218

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1218 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1218
MCCXVIII
Ab urbe condita 1971
Armenian calendar 667
ԹՎ ՈԿԷ
Assyrian calendar 5968
Balinese saka calendar 1139–1140
Bengali calendar 625
Berber calendar 2168
English Regnal year 2  Hen. 3   3  Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1762
Burmese calendar 580
Byzantine calendar 6726–6727
Chinese calendar 丁丑(Fire  Ox)
3914 or 3854
     to 
戊寅年 (Earth  Tiger)
3915 or 3855
Coptic calendar 934–935
Discordian calendar 2384
Ethiopian calendar 1210–1211
Hebrew calendar 4978–4979
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1274–1275
 - Shaka Samvat 1139–1140
 - Kali Yuga 4318–4319
Holocene calendar 11218
Igbo calendar 218–219
Iranian calendar 596–597
Islamic calendar 614–615
Japanese calendar Kenpō 6
(建保6年)
Javanese calendar 1126–1127
Julian calendar 1218
MCCXVIII
Korean calendar 3551
Minguo calendar 694 before ROC
民前694年
Nanakshahi calendar −250
Thai solar calendar 1760–1761
Tibetan calendar 阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1344 or 963 or 191
     to 
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1345 or 964 or 192

Year 1218 ( MCCXVIII ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013, 2019, and 2030 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC/BCE), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC/BCE), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Africa

August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 122 days remain until the end of the year.

Al-Kamil Sultan of Egypt

Al-Kamil was a Muslim ruler and the fourth Ayyubid sultan of Egypt. During his tenure as sultan, the Ayyubids defeated the Fifth Crusade. He was known to the Frankish crusaders as Meledin, a name by which he is still referred to in some older western sources. As a result of the Sixth Crusade, he ceded Jerusalem to the Christians and is known to have met with Saint Francis.

Sultan of Egypt

Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Though the extent of the Egyptian Sultanate ebbed and flowed, it generally included Sham and Hejaz, with the consequence that the Ayyubid and later Mamluk sultans were also regarded as the Sultans of Syria. From 1914, the title was once again used by the heads of the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, later being replaced by the title of King of Egypt and Sudan in 1922.

Asia

May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 221 days remain until the end of the year.

Fifth Crusade Crusade from 1217 to 1221 that attempted to recapture Jerusalem through Egypt

The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined. Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Europe

March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the meteorological beginning of spring occurs on the first day of March. The March equinox on the 20 or 21 marks the astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where September is the seasonal equivalent of the Northern Hemisphere's March. Birthday Number the letter "M".

Llywelyn the Great Prince of Gwynedd and de facto Prince of Wales

Llywelyn the Great, full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, was a King of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually ruler of all Wales. By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for 45 years.

South Wales Region of Wales

South Wales is a loosely defined region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south. It has a population of around 2.2 million, almost three-quarters of the whole of Wales, including 400,000 in Cardiff, 250,000 in Swansea and 150,000 in Newport. Generally considered to include the historic counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire, South Wales extends westwards to include Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people would probably recognise that they lived in both south Wales and west Wales. The Brecon Beacons National Park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest British mountain south of Cadair Idris in Snowdonia.

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Education

Alfonso IX of León King of León and Galicia

Alfonso IX was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death.

University of Salamanca Spanish university

The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest university in the Spanish-speaking world and the third oldest university in the entire world still in operation. The formal title of "University" was granted by King Alfonso X in 1254 and recognized by Pope Alexander IV in 1255.

Markets

  • The northern French city of Rheims emits the first recorded public life annuity in medieval Europe. Theretofore, this type of instrument had been mostly issued by religious institutions. The emission by Rheims is the first evidence of a consolidation of public debt that is to become common in the Langue d'Oïl, the Low Countries and Germany. [3]

A life annuity is an annuity, or series of payments at fixed intervals, paid while the purchaser is alive. A life annuity is an insurance product typically sold or issued by life insurance companies.

Low Countries Historical coastal landscape in north western Europe

The Low Countries, the Low Lands, or historically also the Netherlands, is a coastal lowland region in northwestern Europe, forming the lower basin of the Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt rivers, divided in the Middle Ages into numerous semi-independent principalities that consolidated in the countries of Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, as well as today's French Flanders.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

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Related Research Articles

13th century Century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar. After its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe, while the Muslim Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.

Year 1224 (MCCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1232 (MCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1221 (MCCXXI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1225 (MCCXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1214 (MCCXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.

The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.

The 1230s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1230, and ended on December 31, 1239.

The 1240s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1240, and ended on December 31, 1249.

Year 1291 (MCCXCI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1217 (MCCXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1210 (MCCX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1279 A.D (MCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1285 (MCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Mongol invasions of the Levant Wikimedia list article

Starting in the 1240s, the Mongols made repeated invasions of Syria or attempts thereof. Most failed, but they did have some success in 1260 and 1300, capturing Aleppo and Damascus and destroying the Ayyubid dynasty. The Mongols were forced to retreat within months each time by other forces in the area, primarily the Egyptian Mamluks. Since 1260, it had been described as the Mamluk-Ilkhanid War.

Öljaitü Il-Khan emperor

Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit, also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh, was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran. His name "Ölziit" means "blessed" in the Mongolian language.

Franco-Mongol alliance Attempts at an alliance between the Mongols and the French during the 13th-century

Several attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Islamic caliphates, their common enemy, were made by various leaders among the Frankish Crusaders and the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. Such an alliance might have seemed an obvious choice: the Mongols were already sympathetic to Christianity, given the presence of many influential Nestorian Christians in the Mongol court. The Franks were open to the idea of support from the East, in part owing to the long-running legend of the mythical Prester John, an Eastern king in an Eastern kingdom who many believed would one day come to the assistance of the Crusaders in the Holy Land. The Franks and Mongols also shared a common enemy in the Muslims. However, despite many messages, gifts, and emissaries over the course of several decades, the often-proposed alliance never came to fruition.

References

  1. "BBC Wales History". Archived from the original on November 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  2. Linehan, Peter (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In David Abulafia (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–671. ISBN   0-521-36289-X.
  3. Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden; Boston: Brill. ISBN   978-9-00417565-5.