1257

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1257 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1257
MCCLVII
Ab urbe condita 2010
Armenian calendar 706
ԹՎ ՉԶ
Assyrian calendar 6007
Balinese saka calendar 1178–1179
Bengali calendar 664
Berber calendar 2207
English Regnal year 41  Hen. 3   42  Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1801
Burmese calendar 619
Byzantine calendar 6765–6766
Chinese calendar 丙辰(Fire  Dragon)
3953 or 3893
     to 
丁巳年 (Fire  Snake)
3954 or 3894
Coptic calendar 973–974
Discordian calendar 2423
Ethiopian calendar 1249–1250
Hebrew calendar 5017–5018
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1313–1314
 - Shaka Samvat 1178–1179
 - Kali Yuga 4357–4358
Holocene calendar 11257
Igbo calendar 257–258
Iranian calendar 635–636
Islamic calendar 654–655
Japanese calendar Kōgen 2 / Shōka 1
(正嘉元年)
Javanese calendar 1166–1167
Julian calendar 1257
MCCLVII
Korean calendar 3590
Minguo calendar 655 before ROC
民前655年
Nanakshahi calendar −211
Thai solar calendar 1799–1800
Tibetan calendar 阳火龙年
(male Fire-Dragon)
1383 or 1002 or 230
     to 
阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
1384 or 1003 or 231

Year 1257 ( MCCLVII ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Contents

Events

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

13th century Century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar. The term is almost synonymous with "the 1200s", the century between January 1, 1200, and December 31, 1299.

Year 1282 (MCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1284 (MCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1220 (MCCXX) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. This is commonly known as a limbo year.

946 Calendar year

Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The 1250s decade ran from January 1, 1250, to December 31, 1259.

Year 1227 (MCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.

The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.

Year 1274 (MCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1258 Calendar year

Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1266 Calendar year

Year 1266 (MCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

College of Sorbonne

The College of Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbon (1201–1274), after whom it was named.

A volcanic winter is a reduction in global temperatures caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid and water obscuring the Sun and raising Earth's albedo after a large, particularly explosive volcanic eruption. Long-term cooling effects are primarily dependent upon injection of sulfur gases into the stratosphere where they undergo a series of reactions to create sulfuric acid which can nucleate and form aerosols. Volcanic stratospheric aerosols cool the surface by reflecting solar radiation and warm the stratosphere by absorbing terrestrial radiation. The variations in atmospheric warming and cooling result in changes in tropospheric and stratospheric circulation.

Mount Rinjani volcano in Lombok

Mount Rinjani is an active volcano in Indonesia on the island of Lombok. Administratively the mountain is in the Regency of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. It rises to 3,726 metres (12,224 ft), making it the second highest volcano in Indonesia. It is also the highest point in Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara

Bolesław II the Horned, known also as Bolesław II the Bald, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was High Duke of Poland briefly in 1241 and Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1241 until 1248, when the duchy was divided between him and his brothers. After the partition, he ruled the Silesian Duchy of Legnica until his death. The second Mongol raid against Poland, led by Nogai Khan, occurred during his reign.

Lake Segara Anak

Segara Anak is a crater lake in the caldera that formed during the explosive volcanic eruption of Mount Samalas in 1257. The caldera is next to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island in Indonesia. "Segara Anak" means "child of the sea" and refers to the blue lake's resemblance to the sea. The volcanic cone Gunung Barujari is at the eastern end of the lake and is responsible for its crescent shape. The lake temperature is 20–22 °C (68–72 °F), which is 5-7 °C higher than normal for a lake at its altitude. Hot magma below the lake is responsible for this anomaly. Gas bubbles escape from the lake floor, helping the lake to have a pH of 7-8.

Events from the 1250s in England.

1257 Samalas eruption Major eruption of the Samalas volcano in Indonesia

In 1257, a catastrophic eruption occurred at the Samalas volcano on the Indonesian island of Lombok. The event had a probable Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7, making it one of the largest volcanic eruptions during the current Holocene epoch. It created eruption columns reaching tens of kilometres into the atmosphere and pyroclastic flows that buried much of Lombok and crossed the sea to reach the neighbouring island of Sumbawa. The flows destroyed human habitations, including the city of Pamatan, which was the capital of a kingdom on Lombok. Ash from the eruption fell as far as 340 kilometres (210 mi) away in Java; the volcano deposited more than 10 cubic kilometres (2.4 cu mi) of rocks and ash.

Pamatan is the name of an undiscovered city on Lombok Island in Indonesia and the capital of the Lombok kingdom. The city was destroyed by the 1257 Samalas eruption and while the royal family and its king reportedly survived the city disappeared from history; if it were to be rediscovered it might become a "Pompeii of the East" and offer clues on how societies respond to volcanic catastrophes.

References

  1. Amos, Jonathan (September 30, 2013). "Mystery 13th Century eruption traced to Lombok, Indonesia". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
  2. Alberge, Dalya (August 4, 2012). "Mass grave in London reveals how volcano caused global catastrophe". The Guardian . London.
  3. "La fondation de la Sorbonne au Moyen Âge par le théologien Robert de Sorbon". La Chancellerie des Universités de Paris. Retrieved March 4, 2021.