|1257 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1257 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2010|
|Balinese saka calendar||1178–1179|
|English Regnal year||41 Hen. 3 – 42 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar|| 丙辰年 (Fire Dragon)|
3953 or 3893
— to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
3954 or 3894
|- Vikram Samvat||1313–1314|
|- Shaka Samvat||1178–1179|
|- Kali Yuga||4357–4358|
|Japanese calendar|| Kōgen 2 / Shōka 1|
|Minguo calendar||655 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||1799–1800|
1383 or 1002 or 230
— to —
1384 or 1003 or 231
Year 1257 ( MCCLVII ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar. The term is almost synonymous with "the 1200s", the century between January 1, 1200, and December 31, 1299.
Year 1282 (MCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1284 (MCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1220 (MCCXX) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. This is commonly known as a limbo year.
Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
The 1250s decade ran from January 1, 1250, to December 31, 1259.
Year 1227 (MCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.
The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.
Year 1274 (MCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1266 (MCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
The College of Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbon (1201–1274), after whom it was named.
A volcanic winter is a reduction in global temperatures caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid and water obscuring the Sun and raising Earth's albedo after a large, particularly explosive volcanic eruption. Long-term cooling effects are primarily dependent upon injection of sulfur gases into the stratosphere where they undergo a series of reactions to create sulfuric acid which can nucleate and form aerosols. Volcanic stratospheric aerosols cool the surface by reflecting solar radiation and warm the stratosphere by absorbing terrestrial radiation. The variations in atmospheric warming and cooling result in changes in tropospheric and stratospheric circulation.
Mount Rinjani is an active volcano in Indonesia on the island of Lombok. Administratively the mountain is in the Regency of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. It rises to 3,726 metres (12,224 ft), making it the second highest volcano in Indonesia. It is also the highest point in Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara
Bolesław II the Horned, known also as Bolesław II the Bald, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was High Duke of Poland briefly in 1241 and Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1241 until 1248, when the duchy was divided between him and his brothers. After the partition, he ruled the Silesian Duchy of Legnica until his death. The second Mongol raid against Poland, led by Nogai Khan, occurred during his reign.
Segara Anak is a crater lake in the caldera that formed during the explosive volcanic eruption of Mount Samalas in 1257. The caldera is next to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island in Indonesia. "Segara Anak" means "child of the sea" and refers to the blue lake's resemblance to the sea. The volcanic cone Gunung Barujari is at the eastern end of the lake and is responsible for its crescent shape. The lake temperature is 20–22 °C (68–72 °F), which is 5-7 °C higher than normal for a lake at its altitude. Hot magma below the lake is responsible for this anomaly. Gas bubbles escape from the lake floor, helping the lake to have a pH of 7-8.
Events from the 1250s in England.
In 1257, a catastrophic eruption occurred at the Samalas volcano on the Indonesian island of Lombok. The event had a probable Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7, making it one of the largest volcanic eruptions during the current Holocene epoch. It created eruption columns reaching tens of kilometres into the atmosphere and pyroclastic flows that buried much of Lombok and crossed the sea to reach the neighbouring island of Sumbawa. The flows destroyed human habitations, including the city of Pamatan, which was the capital of a kingdom on Lombok. Ash from the eruption fell as far as 340 kilometres (210 mi) away in Java; the volcano deposited more than 10 cubic kilometres (2.4 cu mi) of rocks and ash.
Pamatan is the name of an undiscovered city on Lombok Island in Indonesia and the capital of the Lombok kingdom. The city was destroyed by the 1257 Samalas eruption and while the royal family and its king reportedly survived the city disappeared from history; if it were to be rediscovered it might become a "Pompeii of the East" and offer clues on how societies respond to volcanic catastrophes.