1190

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1190 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1190
MCXC
Ab urbe condita 1943
Armenian calendar 639
ԹՎ ՈԼԹ
Assyrian calendar 5940
Balinese saka calendar 1111–1112
Bengali calendar 597
Berber calendar 2140
English Regnal year 1  Ric. 1   2  Ric. 1
Buddhist calendar 1734
Burmese calendar 552
Byzantine calendar 6698–6699
Chinese calendar 己酉(Earth  Rooster)
3886 or 3826
     to 
庚戌年 (Metal  Dog)
3887 or 3827
Coptic calendar 906–907
Discordian calendar 2356
Ethiopian calendar 1182–1183
Hebrew calendar 4950–4951
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1246–1247
 - Shaka Samvat 1111–1112
 - Kali Yuga 4290–4291
Holocene calendar 11190
Igbo calendar 190–191
Iranian calendar 568–569
Islamic calendar 585–586
Japanese calendar Bunji 6 / Kenkyū 1
(建久元年)
Javanese calendar 1097–1098
Julian calendar 1190
MCXC
Korean calendar 3523
Minguo calendar 722 before ROC
民前722年
Nanakshahi calendar −278
Seleucid era 1501/1502 AG
Thai solar calendar 1732–1733
Tibetan calendar 阴土鸡年
(female Earth-Rooster)
1316 or 935 or 163
     to 
阳金狗年
(male Iron-Dog)
1317 or 936 or 164

Year 1190 ( MCXC ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013 and 2019 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Asia

June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 204 days remaining until the end of the year.

Third Crusade attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin

The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187. It was largely successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor German Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick I, also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years later, the term sacrum ("holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning.

Europe

February is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days, and the only month to have a length of fewer than 30 days, with the other seven months having 31 days. In 2019, February has 28 days.

Kingdom of England historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 290 days remaining until the end of the year.

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Arts

Fasl al-Maqal fi ma bayn al-Hikma wa al-Shariah min Ittisal is an Islamic philosophical treatise written by Andalusian Muslim polymath and philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126–1198), in which the author "critically examine[s] the alleged tension between philosophy and religion" and concludes that philosophy is not in opposition to—and in fact, works in tandem with—Islamic thought. In the work, Averroes argues that some Muslims have an obligation to study philosophy, and that the subject should be considered an Islamic science. The work also contains several other unique ideas, including Averroes' assertion that the Qur’an should sometimes be read in a non-literal way. According to William Theodore De Bary and Ainslie Embree, On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy represents a "classic attempt to reconcile religion and philosophy."

Averroes Medieval Arab scholar and philosopher

Ibn Rushd, often Latinized as Averroes, was a Muslim Spanish Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics. His philosophical works include numerous commentaries on Aristotle, for which he was known in the West as The Commentator. He also served as a judge and a court physician for the Almohad caliphate.

Speculum Virginum 12th-century didactic treatise on female monastic life

The Speculum Virginum is a 12th-century didactic treatise on female monastic life. The original text dates to the mid 12th century and was possibly composed at the Augustinian Abbey of Andernach, founded by Richard, abbot of Springiersbach, for his sister in 1128. Richard appointed one Conrad as spiritual advisor to his sister, and some scholars have suggested Conrad as the text's author.

Education

Emo of Friesland was a Frisian scholar who probably came from the region of Groningen, and the earliest foreign student studying at Oxford University whose name has survived. He began his studies at Oxford in 1190. He also studied at the University of Paris and Orléans.

University of Oxford Collegiate research university in Oxford, England

The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two 'ancient universities' are frequently jointly referred to as 'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Religion

Cartmel Priory Grade I listed priory in South Lakeland, United Kingdom

Cartmel Priory church serves as the parish church of Cartmel, Cumbria.

Stefan Nemanja

Stefan Nemanja was the Grand Prince of the Serbian Grand Principality from 1166 to 1196. A member of the Vukanović dynasty, Nemanja founded the Nemanjić dynasty, and is remembered for his contributions to Serbian culture and history, founding what would evolve into the Serbian Empire, as well as the national church. According to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Nemanja is also among the most remarkable Serbs for his literary contributions and altruistic attributes.

Serbia Republic in Southeastern Europe

Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest. The country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million. Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in Europe.

Births

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Related Research Articles

Aimery of Cyprus King of Jerusalem

Aimery of Lusignan, erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus, reigning from 1196 to his death. He also reigned as King of Jerusalem from his marriage to Isabella I in 1197 to his death. He was the younger son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan, a nobleman in Poitou. After participating in a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, he went to the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

12th century Century

The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians. In Song dynasty China an invasion by Jurchens caused a political schism of north and south. The Khmer Empire of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the Fatimids of Egypt were overtaken by the Ayyubid dynasty.

The 1180s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1180, and ended on December 31, 1189.

The 1190s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1190, and ended on December 31, 1199.

Year 1189 (MCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. In English law, 1189 - specifically the beginning of the reign of Richard I - is considered the end of time immemorial.

Year 1205 (MCCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1165 (MCLXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1272 (MCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1194 (MCXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1193 Year

Year 1193 (MCXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1191 (MCXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1177 (MCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Henry I, Duke of Brabant Duke of Brabant (from 1183) and Duke of Lower Lotharingia (from 1190)

Henry I of Brabant, named "The Courageous", was a member of the House of Reginar and first Duke of Brabant from 1183/84 until his death.

Philip of Swabia was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated.

Maria of Montferrat Queen Regnant of Jerusalem

Maria of Montferrat (1192–1212) was Queen of Jerusalem, the daughter of Isabella I of Jerusalem and Conrad of Montferrat. She was known in her youth as The Marquise, because of her father's title.

Alice of Champagne was the Queen consort of Cyprus from 1210 to 1218, regent of Cyprus from 1218 to 1223, and of Jerusalem from 1243 to 1246. She was the eldest daughter of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem and Count Henry II of Champagne. In 1210, Alice married her step-brother King Hugh I of Cyprus, receiving the County of Jaffa as dowry. After her husband's death in 1218, she assumed the regency for their infant son, King Henry I. In time, she began seeking contacts within her father's counties in France to bolster her claim to Champagne and Brie against her cousin, Theobald IV. However, the kings of France never acknowledged her claim.

Isabella of England 13th-century English princess and Holy Roman Empress

Isabella of England was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, and queen consort of Sicily.

Crusade of 1197

The Crusade of 1197, also known as the Crusade of Henry VI or the German Crusade was a crusade launched by the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI in response to the aborted attempt of his father, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade in 1189–90. Thus the military campaign is also known as the "Emperor's Crusade".

The Diet of Mainz was a meeting of the Estates General of the Holy Roman Empire held in Mainz in 1188. It led to the Third Crusade.

References

  1. Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.