|1191 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1191 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||1944|
|Balinese saka calendar||1112–1113|
|English Regnal year||2 Ric. 1 – 3 Ric. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 庚戌年 (Metal Dog)|
3887 or 3827
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
3888 or 3828
|- Vikram Samvat||1247–1248|
|- Shaka Samvat||1112–1113|
|- Kali Yuga||4291–4292|
|Japanese calendar|| Kenkyū 2|
|Minguo calendar||721 before ROC |
|Seleucid era||1502/1503 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1733–1734|
1317 or 936 or 164
— to —
1318 or 937 or 165
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1191 .|
Year 1191 ( MCXCI ) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:
A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.
July 12 is the 193rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 172 days remaining until the end of the year.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin, was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity, Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz, Yemen and other parts of North Africa.
Conrad of Montferrat was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade. He was the de facto King of Jerusalem by marriage from 24 November 1190, but officially elected only in 1192, days before his death. He was also the eighth Marquess of Montferrat from 1191.
April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 258 days remaining until the end of the year.
Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.
The Commune of Rome was established in 1144 after a rebellion led by Giordano Pierleoni. Pierleoni led a people's revolt due to the increasing powers of the Pope and the entrenched powers of the nobility. The goal of the rebellion was to organize the government of Rome in a similar fashion to that of the previous Roman Republic. Pierleoni was named the "first Patrician of the Roman Commune", but was deposed in 1145.
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills usually were used to mill grain (gristmills), pump water (windpumps), or both. The majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. Windmills first appeared in Persia in the 9th century AD, and were later independently invented in Europe.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense.
April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 261 days remaining until the end of the year.
Pope Celestine III, born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope. He was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, and nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran.
Pope Clement III, born PaulinoScolari, reigned from 19 December 1187 to his death.
February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 326 days remaining until the end of the year.
Yaroslav II, Christian name Theodor (Феодо́р) was the Grand Prince of Vladimir (1238–1246) who helped to restore his country and capital after the Mongol invasion of Russia.
Year 1246 (MCCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
The 1160s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1160, and ended on December 31, 1169.
The 1200s began on January 1, 1200, and ended on December 31, 1209.
The 1170s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1170, and ended on December 31, 1179.
The 1140s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1140, and ended on December 31, 1149.
Year 1147 (MCXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1152 (MCLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1187 (MCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1202 (MCCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
The 1180s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1180, and ended on December 31, 1189.
The 1190s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1190, and ended on December 31, 1199.
Year 1055 (MLV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1205 (MCCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1180 (MCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1164 (MCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1161 (MCLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1190 (MCXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
1169 starting on Thursday not Wednesday
Year 1160 (MCLX) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1137 (MCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1184 (MCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.