1191

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1191 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1191
MCXCI
Ab urbe condita 1944
Armenian calendar 640
ԹՎ ՈԽ
Assyrian calendar 5941
Balinese saka calendar 1112–1113
Bengali calendar 598
Berber calendar 2141
English Regnal year 2  Ric. 1   3  Ric. 1
Buddhist calendar 1735
Burmese calendar 553
Byzantine calendar 6699–6700
Chinese calendar 庚戌(Metal  Dog)
3887 or 3827
     to 
辛亥年 (Metal  Pig)
3888 or 3828
Coptic calendar 907–908
Discordian calendar 2357
Ethiopian calendar 1183–1184
Hebrew calendar 4951–4952
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1247–1248
 - Shaka Samvat 1112–1113
 - Kali Yuga 4291–4292
Holocene calendar 11191
Igbo calendar 191–192
Iranian calendar 569–570
Islamic calendar 586–587
Japanese calendar Kenkyū 2
(建久2年)
Javanese calendar 1098–1099
Julian calendar 1191
MCXCI
Korean calendar 3524
Minguo calendar 721 before ROC
民前721年
Nanakshahi calendar −277
Seleucid era 1502/1503 AG
Thai solar calendar 1733–1734
Tibetan calendar 阳金狗年
(male Iron-Dog)
1317 or 936 or 164
     to 
阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
1318 or 937 or 165

Year 1191 ( MCXCI ) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Asia

July 12 is the 193rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 172 days remaining until the end of the year.

Saladin Kurdish leader. First Sultan of Egypt and Syria, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin, was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity, Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz, Yemen and other parts of North Africa.

Conrad of Montferrat King of Jerusalem

Conrad of Montferrat was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade. He was the de facto King of Jerusalem by marriage from 24 November 1190, but officially elected only in 1192, days before his death. He was also the eighth Marquess of Montferrat from 1191.

Europe

April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 258 days remaining until the end of the year.

Tusculum ancient Roman city and archeological site in the Alban Hills of Latium, Italy

Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.

Commune of Rome

The Commune of Rome was established in 1144 after a rebellion led by Giordano Pierleoni. Pierleoni led a people's revolt due to the increasing powers of the Pope and the entrenched powers of the nobility. The goal of the rebellion was to organize the government of Rome in a similar fashion to that of the previous Roman Republic. Pierleoni was named the "first Patrician of the Roman Commune", but was deposed in 1145.

By topic

Technology

  • The first reference to a windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, whose mills are supposedly in competition with the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds. This is probably an invention imported from interaction with the Muslim world, since the first windmills were most likely innovated from the Bana Musa brothers in the Islamic Middle East, during the middle 9th Century. The windmill will spread in the other direction, to be introduced to China by as early as 1219.
Windmill machine that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy

A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills usually were used to mill grain (gristmills), pump water (windpumps), or both. The majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. Windmills first appeared in Persia in the 9th century AD, and were later independently invented in Europe.

East Anglia region of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany.

Muslim world Muslim-majority countries, states, districts, or towns

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense.

Religion

April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 261 days remaining until the end of the year.

Pope Celestine III 12th-century Catholic pope

Pope Celestine III, born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope. He was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, and nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran.

Pope Clement III 12th-century Catholic pope

Pope Clement III, born PaulinoScolari, reigned from 19 December 1187 to his death.

Births

February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 326 days remaining until the end of the year.

Yaroslav II of Vladimir Grand Prince of Vladimir

Yaroslav II, Christian name Theodor (Феодо́р) was the Grand Prince of Vladimir (1238–1246) who helped to restore his country and capital after the Mongol invasion of Russia.

Year 1246 (MCCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

In fiction

Related Research Articles

The 1160s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1160, and ended on December 31, 1169.

The 1200s began on January 1, 1200, and ended on December 31, 1209.

The 1170s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1170, and ended on December 31, 1179.

The 1140s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1140, and ended on December 31, 1149.

Year 1147 (MCXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1152 (MCLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1187 (MCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1202 (MCCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

The 1180s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1180, and ended on December 31, 1189.

The 1190s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1190, and ended on December 31, 1199.

1055 Year

Year 1055 (MLV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1205 (MCCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1180 (MCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1164 (MCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1161 (MCLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1190 (MCXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1169 starting on Thursday not Wednesday

Year 1160 (MCLX) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1137 (MCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1184 (MCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

References

  1. King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 43
  2. Jean-Claude Maire Vigueur (2010) L'autre Rome. Une histoire des Romains à l'époque communale (XIIe-XIVe siècle). Paris: Tallandier. pp.316.
  3. Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  4. Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN   2-7068-1398-9.
  5. Georg Haggren; Petri Halinen; Mika Lavento; Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 380.
  6. Grandsen, Antonia (2001). "The Growth of Glastonbury Traditions and Legends in the Twelfth Century". In J. P. Carley. Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian tradition. Boydell & Brewer. p. 43. ISBN   0-85991-572-7.