Tickhill Castle

Last updated

Part of the castle Tickhill Castle - geograph.org.uk - 297181 cropped.jpg
Part of the castle

Tickhill Castle was a castle in Tickhill, on the Nottingham/Yorkshire West Riding border, England and a prominent stronghold during the reign of King John.

Contents

Early history

The gatehouse range, seen from the bailey Tickhill Castle.JPG
The gatehouse range, seen from the bailey

The castle started as an 11th-century motte-and-bailey earthwork named Blythe Castle, built by Roger de Busli, a major landholder in the Domesday Book holding 174 estates in Nottinghamshire, on land granted to him by William the Norman. The castle was deliberately built on the Nottingham/Yorkshire border, as Roger held authority in both. After a siege in 1102 Robert Bloet added a curtain wall to the rampart around the bailey; the first part of the castle to be built of stone. [1]

From 1151 to 1153, the castle was held by Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester before his death after being poisoned. In 1180 construction began on an 11-sided or circular [2] keep on top of the motte by Henry II of England; it was completed in 1192 along with a stone bridge and a chapel constructed by Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Possession by John of England

In 1189, the land around Tickhill was granted to John of England by his brother Richard I of England, although the castle was withheld by Richard, along with Launceston, Rougemont Castle, Exeter, Gloucester and Nottingham, as Richard did not trust John's loyalty while he participated in the Third Crusade. His fears proved well founded after John seized the kingdom in 1191 from William Longchamp, Richard's chosen regent. Along with Windsor Castle, Tickhill was John's main stronghold to protect against a suspected invasion by Philip II of France.

Tickhill and Nottingham became John's last strongholds under the command of Robert de la Mare, [3] and was besieged by Hugh de Puiset in 1194, with defenders holding out until they heard of the return of Richard to England. After gaining permission from Hugh they sent two knights to find out directly if Richard was indeed returned, and the knights immediately offered to restore the castle to Richard. Richard refused, saying he would only accept an unconditional surrender, which the knights negotiated upon their return, surrendering the castle to Hugh de Puiset in exchange for the defenders' lives. [4]

In 1321, the castle was unsuccessfully laid siege by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster during a rebellion against Edward II.

In 1343 the exiled Joanna of Flanders, Duchess of Brittany was imprisoned, after being declared insane, at Tickhill, while she and her son were given asylum by Edward III. In 1372, the castle was granted to John of Gaunt by Edward III in exchange for the Earldom of Richmond, which was granted to Johanna's son, John IV, Duke of Brittany. It remains a property of the Duchy of Lancaster to this day.

English Civil War

By 1540, the castle was in poor repair; the lease was obtained in 1612 by Sir Ralph Hansby, who had the castle repaired and fortified. During the English Civil War the castle remained loyal to the crown, with Major Monckton set in charge of the castle after Sir Ralph's death in 1643. In 1644, John Lilburne and 200 dragoons from the Earl of Manchester's army marched to Tickhill, and accepted the castle's surrender on 26 July. The castle was razed in 1648 to prevent its use as a stronghold in the future. [1]

Present day

The house Tickhill Castle House.JPG
The house

After the Civil War, the Hansby family built a large house, which retains the fortified Norman gatehouse [5] and may incorporate parts of the old hall. The site of the bailey is now part of the gardens. [6] The castle is now a private residence and the monument is maintained by the Duchy of Lancaster, and opened to the public one day a year. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

Caerlaverock Castle A moated triangular castle first built in the 13th century

Caerlaverock Castle is a moated triangular castle first built in the 13th century. It is located on the southern coast of Scotland, eleven kilometres south of Dumfries, on the edge of the Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve. Caerlaverock was a stronghold of the Maxwell family from the 13th century until the 17th century, when the castle was abandoned. It was besieged by the English during the Wars of Scottish Independence, and underwent several partial demolitions and reconstructions over the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 17th century, the Maxwells were created Earls of Nithsdale, and built a new lodging within the walls, described as among "the most ambitious early classical domestic architecture in Scotland". In 1640 the castle was besieged for the last time and was subsequently abandoned. Although demolished and rebuilt several times, the castle retains the distinctive triangular plan first laid out in the 13th century. Caerlaverock Castle was built to control trade in early times.

York Castle Castle in York, England

York Castle is a fortified complex in the city of York, England. It consists of a sequence of castles, prisons, law courts and other buildings, which were built over the last nine centuries on the south side of the River Foss. The now-ruined keep of the medieval Norman castle is commonly referred to as Clifford's Tower. Built originally on the orders of William I to dominate the former Viking city of Jórvík, the castle suffered a tumultuous early history before developing into a major fortification with extensive water defences. After a major explosion in 1684 rendered the remaining military defences uninhabitable, York Castle continued to be used as a jail and prison until 1929.

Tickhill Town and civil parish in South Yorkshire, England

Tickhill is a town and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster in South Yorkshire, England, on the border with Nottinghamshire. At the 2001 census it had a population of 5,301, reducing to 5,228 at the 2011 Census.

Beeston Castle Former Royal castle in Beeston, Cheshire, England

Beeston Castle is a former Royal castle in Beeston, Cheshire, England, perched on a rocky sandstone crag 350 feet (107 m) above the Cheshire Plain. It was built in the 1220s by Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester (1170–1232), on his return from the Crusades. In 1237, Henry III took over the ownership of Beeston, and it was kept in good repair until the 16th century, when it was considered to be of no further military use, although it was pressed into service again in 1643, during the English Civil War. The castle was slighted in 1646, in accordance with Cromwell's destruction order, to prevent its further use as a bastion. During the 18th century, parts of the site were used as a quarry.

Sandal Castle

Sandal Castle is a ruined medieval castle in Sandal Magna, a suburb of the city of Wakefield in West Yorkshire, England, overlooking the River Calder. It was the site of royal intrigue and the setting for a scene in one of William Shakespeare's plays.

Hugh de Puiset was a medieval Bishop of Durham and Chief Justiciar of England under King Richard I. He was the nephew of King Stephen of England and Henry of Blois, who both assisted Hugh's ecclesiastical career. He held the office of treasurer of York for a number of years, which led him into conflict with Henry Murdac, Archbishop of York. In 1153, Hugh was elected bishop of Durham despite the opposition of Murdac.

Pleshey Human settlement in England

Pleshey is a historic village and civil parish in the Chelmsford district, in the county of Essex, England, 6 miles (10 km) north-west of Chelmsford. The Normans built a motte and bailey in the late 11th century; the motte is one of the largest of its kind in Great Britain. It was besieged several times during the Barons' Wars and rebellions in the 13th centuries.

Hertford Castle

Hertford Castle was built in Norman times by the River Lea in Hertford, the county town of Hertfordshire, England. Most of the internal buildings of the castle have been demolished. The main surviving section is the Tudor gatehouse, which is a Grade I listed building. Parts of the bailey walls on the east side of the castle also still stand, and are a Grade II* listed building.

Launceston Castle Norman castle in Cornwall, England

Launceston Castle is located in the town of Launceston, Cornwall, England. It was probably built by Robert the Count of Mortain after 1068, and initially comprised an earthwork and timber castle with a large motte in one corner. Launceston Castle formed the administrative centre of the new earldom of Cornwall, with a large community packed within the walls of its bailey. It was rebuilt in stone in the 12th century and then substantially redeveloped by Richard of Cornwall after 1227, including a high tower to enable visitors to view his surrounding lands. When Richard's son, Edmund, inherited the castle, he moved the earldom's administration to Lostwithiel, triggering the castle's decline. By 1337, the castle was increasingly ruinous and used primarily as a gaol and to host judicial assizes.

Skipton Castle Medieval castle in Skipton, North Yorkshire, England

Skipton Castle is a Grade I Listed medieval castle in Skipton, North Yorkshire, England. It was built in 1090 by Robert de Romille, a Norman baron, and has been preserved for over 931 years.

Halton Castle Castle ruins in Cheshire, England

Halton Castle is a castle in the village of Halton which is part of the town of Runcorn, Cheshire, England. The castle is situated on the top of Halton Hill, a sandstone prominence overlooking the village. A motte and bailey castle was built with construction starting in 1071, the original building was replaced with the current sandstone castle in the 13th Century. Building alterations continued until at least 1609 when the structure is recorded as in disrepair. The castle is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, and a scheduled ancient monument.

Tonbridge Castle

Tonbridge Castle is the 13th century castle that is situated in Tonbridge, Kent, England.

Events from the 1190s in England.

Pilsbury Castle

Pilsbury Castle was a Norman castle in Derbyshire near the present-day village of Pilsbury, overlooking the River Dove.

Castles in South Yorkshire

While there are many castles in South Yorkshire, the majority are manor houses and motte-and-bailey which were commonly found in England after the Norman Conquest.

Neath Castle

Neath Castle is a Norman castle located in the town centre of Neath, Wales. Its construction was begun by Robert, Earl of Gloucester, the nominal Lord of Glamorgan, at a date estimated between 1114 and 1130. It is also referred to as "Granville's Castle", after Richard I de Grenville, Lord of Neath, who has also been credited with its construction. The town of Neath takes its Welsh name, "Castell-nedd", from the castle.

The Honour of Richmond in north-west Yorkshire, England was granted to Count Alan Rufus by King William the Conqueror sometime during 1069 to 1071, although the date is uncertain. It was gifted as thanks for his services at the Conquest. The extensive district was previously held by Edwin, Earl of Mercia who died in 1071. The district is probably mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 but its limits are uncertain.

Richards Castle Village in Herefordshire and Shropshire, England

Richard's Castle is a village, castle and two civil parishes on the border of the counties of Herefordshire and Shropshire in England. The Herefordshire section of the parish had a population of 250 at the 2011 Census. The Shropshire section of the parish had a population of 424 at the 2011 Census.

Fotheringhay Castle Ruined castle in Fotheringhay, United Kingdom

Fotheringhay Castle, also known as Fotheringay Castle, was a High Middle Age Norman Motte-and-bailey castle in the village of Fotheringhay 3+12 miles (5.6 km) to the north of the market town of Oundle, Northamptonshire, England. It was probably founded around 1100 by Simon de Senlis, Earl of Northampton. In 1113, possession passed to Prince David of Scotland when he married Simon's widow. The castle then descended with the Scottish princes until the early 13th century, when it was confiscated by King John of England.

References

  1. 1 2 David Hey, Medieval South Yorkshire
  2. "Tickhill Castle". Gatehouse. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  3. White, William (1837). History, gazetteer, and directory, of the west-riding of Yorkshire, with the city of York and port of Hull.
  4. W. Stubbs, ed. Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houedene
  5. "Tickhill". The Sheela Na Gig Project. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  6. Chibnall, M., 1976, ‘Robert of Bellême and the castle of Tickhill' in Droit Privé et Institutions Régionales: Etudes Historiques Offertes à Jean Yver Tickhill Castle.
  7. "Tickhill Castle: See inside the Norman castle in Yorkshire that's only open for one day each year". Doncaster Free Press. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.

Coordinates: 53°25′45″N1°06′29″W / 53.4291°N 1.1081°W / 53.4291; -1.1081