1264

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1264 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1264
MCCLXIV
Ab urbe condita 2017
Armenian calendar 713
ԹՎ ՉԺԳ
Assyrian calendar 6014
Balinese saka calendar 1185–1186
Bengali calendar 671
Berber calendar 2214
English Regnal year 48  Hen. 3   49  Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1808
Burmese calendar 626
Byzantine calendar 6772–6773
Chinese calendar 癸亥年 (Water  Pig)
3960 or 3900
     to 
甲子年 (Wood  Rat)
3961 or 3901
Coptic calendar 980–981
Discordian calendar 2430
Ethiopian calendar 1256–1257
Hebrew calendar 5024–5025
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1320–1321
 - Shaka Samvat 1185–1186
 - Kali Yuga 4364–4365
Holocene calendar 11264
Igbo calendar 264–265
Iranian calendar 642–643
Islamic calendar 662–663
Japanese calendar Kōchō 4 / Bun'ei 1
(文永元年)
Javanese calendar 1174–1175
Julian calendar 1264
MCCLXIV
Korean calendar 3597
Minguo calendar 648 before ROC
民前648年
Nanakshahi calendar −204
Thai solar calendar 1806–1807
Tibetan calendar 阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1390 or 1009 or 237
     to 
阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1391 or 1010 or 238
Monument of the Battle of Lewes LewesBattle Big.jpg
Monument of the Battle of Lewes

Year 1264 ( MCCLXIV ) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

  • Spring Battle of Makryplagi: Constantine Palaiologos, half-brother of Emperor Michael III (Palaiologos), resumes operations against the Principality of Achaea. He advances up in northern Elis, and sets up his camp at a location called "St. Nicholas of Mesiskli". Prince William II of Villehardouin with his own troops march to meet him and arrays his men ready for battle. The Byzantine vanguard under Michael Kantakouzenos, ride forth from the Byzantine lines, but the force is ambushed and Michael is killed by the Achaeans. Constantine retreats and goes on to lay siege to the fortress of Nikli. There, Turkish mercenaries (some 1,000 horsemen), confront him and demand that he pay them their arrears of 6 months. Constantine refuses, whereupon the Turkish troops desert to William. He decides to raise the siege and departs for Constantinople. He leaves Alexios Philes with a force and marches towards Messenia, where he occupies the passes, situated near Gardiki Castle. William, reinforced by the Turkish contingent, marches to Messenia to attack the Byzantines, despite their holding strong positions on the high ground. The first two attacks are beaten off, but during the third attack, the Byzantines flee in panic. Alexios, along with many Greek nobles, are captured. [1]

Europe

British Isles

  • April 5 Battle of Northampton: English forces under Roger Mortimer, advance over the water meadows south of Northampton to attack its main gate with engines. Meanwhile, another party rides clockwise along the built-up area's western perimeter, looking for an easier entrance. While the townsmen entrust to hold up the initial attack, the outflanking detachment founds a breach in the garden wall of St. Andrew's Priory, at the north of the town. Simon de Montfort (the Younger), son of Simon de Montfort, reacts to the break-in – riding upon his horse with his squire, and some followers to contest the breach. But Simon is captured and throws the defenders into disarray. Simon de Montfort mounts a rearguard to relieve his son, but on April 6 the castle falls. [11]
  • April 17 19 English rebels under Simon de Montfort beset Rochester from two directions in a pincer movement from north and south. The garrison sortie to burn the suburbs to deprive the rebels of cover. Initial assaults on the bridge the next morning are repulsed by Roger de Leybourne. In the evening, however, supported by archers shooting across the river, Simon launches an amphibious assault, wind and current carrying his fireship across to set fire to the bridge defenses. The rebels capture the castle's outer bailey and the garrison retires inside the keep on April 19. Meanwhile, rebels under Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) occupy the cathedral. The siege then bogged down, Simon receives reports of a relief force and orders to withdraw on April 26. [12]
  • April Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) leads a massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, during the outbreak of the Second Barons' War. [13] In the meantime, another of de Montfort's followers, John FitzJohn, leads a massacre against the Jews in London. [14] The Jewish communities of Northampton, Winchester, Cambridge, and Lincoln are looted. The archæ (official chest of records) is destroyed or deposited at the headquarters of de Montfort's supporters at Ely. [15]
  • May 14 Battle of Lewes: English rebels led by Simon de Montfort defeat Henry III and Prince Edward (the Lord Edward), at Lewes. Henry leaves the safety of Lewes Castle and St. Pancras Priory, to engage the rebels. Edward routes part of the rebel army (some 5,000 men) with a cavalry charge, but during the battle de Montfort's forces capture both Henry and Edward, making Simon the "uncrowned king of England" for 15 months. [16]
  • May Simon de Montfort marches on London but the drawbridge on London Bridge has been raised by the Lord Mayor. Simon has the support of the Londoners, who manage to lower the bridge allowing him into the city. Henry III is forced to pardon the rebel nobles and reinstates the Provisions of Oxford. With Henry's power diminished, Simon announces that all debts owed to the Jews would be canceled. [17]
  • June Simon de Montfort summons Parliament in London to confirm new constitutional arrangements. Two knights are summoned for each county, and are allowed to comment on general matters of state – the first time this has occurred. In France, Queen Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III, makes plans for an invasion of England with the support of Louis IX (the Saint). [18]
  • June Edward (the Lord Edward) is held captive at Wallingford Castle, but after an escape attempt he is moved to Kenilworth Castle.
  • June 18 The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitely known meeting of this Irish legislature.
  • December 24 The title Baron de Ros, the oldest held peerage title, is created by writ of summons during the reign of Henry III.

Mongol Empire

Asia

  • February The Japanese era Kōchō ends and the Bun'ei era begins during the reign of the 14-year-old Emperor Kameyama (until 1275).

By topic

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Related Research Articles

The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar that began on 1 January 1300 and ended on 31 December 1309.

1215 Calendar year

Year 1215 (MCCXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

The 1250s decade ran from January 1, 1250, to December 31, 1259.

The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.

The 1230s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1230, and ended on December 31, 1239.

The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269.

The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.

1217 Calendar year

Year 1217 (MCCXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

1239 Calendar year

Year 1239 (MCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1243 Calendar year

Year 1243 (MCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1258 Calendar year

Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1261 Calendar year

Year 1261 (MCCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1263 Calendar year

Year 1263 (MCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1266 Calendar year

Year 1266 (MCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester 13th-century Anglo-Norman nobleman and rebel

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, later sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from his namesake relatives, was a nobleman of French origin and a member of the English peerage, who led the baronial opposition to the rule of King Henry III of England, culminating in the Second Barons' War. Following his initial victories over royal forces, he became de facto ruler of the country, and played a major role in the constitutional development of England.

Battle of Lewes 1264 battle of the Second Barons War reaulting in the Mise Of Lewes

The Battle of Lewes was one of two main battles of the conflict known as the Second Barons' War. It took place at Lewes in Sussex, on 14 May 1264. It marked the high point of the career of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and made him the "uncrowned King of England". Henry III left the safety of Lewes Castle and St. Pancras Priory to engage the barons in battle and was initially successful, his son Prince Edward routing part of the baronial army with a cavalry charge. However, Edward pursued his quarry off the battlefield and left Henry's men exposed. Henry was forced to launch an infantry attack up Offham Hill where he was defeated by the barons' men defending the hilltop. The royalists fled back to the castle and priory and the King was forced to sign the Mise of Lewes, ceding many of his powers to Montfort.

The Battle of Evesham was one of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and the rebellious barons by the future King Edward I, who led the forces of his father, King Henry III. It took place on 4 August 1265, near the town of Evesham, Worcestershire.

Second Barons War 1260s civil war in England

The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son, the future King Edward I. The barons sought to force the king to rule with a council of barons rather than through his favourites. The war also featured a series of massacres of Jews by de Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of baronial debts. To bolster the initial success of his baronial regime, de Montfort sought to broaden the social foundations of parliament by extending the franchise to the commons for the first time. However, after a rule of just over a year, de Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the king in the Battle of Evesham.

Events from the 1260s in England.

Mise of Lewes 1264 settlement between King Henry III of England and rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort

The Mise of Lewes was a settlement made on 14 May 1264 between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons, led by Simon de Montfort. The settlement was made on the day of the Battle of Lewes, one of the two major battles of the Second Barons' War. The conflict between king and magnates was caused by dissatisfaction with the influence of foreigners at court and Henry's high level and new methods of taxation. In 1258 Henry was forced to accept the Provisions of Oxford, which essentially left the royal government in the hands of a council of magnates, but this document went through a long series of revocations and reinstatements. In 1263, as the country was on the brink of civil war, the two parties agreed to submit the matter to arbitration by the French king Louis IX. Louis was a firm believer in the royal prerogative, and decided clearly in favour of Henry. The outcome was unacceptable for the rebellious barons, and war between the two parties broke out almost immediately.

References

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