1264

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1264 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1264
MCCLXIV
Ab urbe condita 2017
Armenian calendar 713
ԹՎ ՉԺԳ
Assyrian calendar 6014
Balinese saka calendar 1185–1186
Bengali calendar 671
Berber calendar 2214
English Regnal year 48  Hen. 3   49  Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar 1808
Burmese calendar 626
Byzantine calendar 6772–6773
Chinese calendar 癸亥(Water  Pig)
3960 or 3900
     to 
甲子年 (Wood  Rat)
3961 or 3901
Coptic calendar 980–981
Discordian calendar 2430
Ethiopian calendar 1256–1257
Hebrew calendar 5024–5025
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1320–1321
 - Shaka Samvat 1185–1186
 - Kali Yuga 4364–4365
Holocene calendar 11264
Igbo calendar 264–265
Iranian calendar 642–643
Islamic calendar 662–663
Japanese calendar Kōchō 4 / Bun'ei 1
(文永元年)
Javanese calendar 1174–1175
Julian calendar 1264
MCCLXIV
Korean calendar 3597
Minguo calendar 648 before ROC
民前648年
Nanakshahi calendar −204
Thai solar calendar 1806–1807
Tibetan calendar 阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1390 or 1009 or 237
     to 
阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1391 or 1010 or 238
A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons' War in England. LewesBattle Big.jpg
A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons' War in England.

Year 1264 ( MCCLXIV ) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year starting on Tuesday is any year with 366 days that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Wednesday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are FE, such as the years 1884, 1924, 1952, 1980, 2008, 2036, 2064, 2092, and 2104 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1964, 1992, and 2020 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Tuesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this leap year occurs in June. Common years starting on Wednesday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By area

Asia

  • The Toluid Civil War ends: Kublai Khan defeats his brother and pretender to the title of Khagan, or Khan of Khans, Ariq Boke, who surrenders to Kublai and is summarily imprisoned. He dies a year later under mysterious circumstances, possibly by poisoning, but the cause of death is still uncertain. However, this battle essentially marks the end of a unified Mongol Empire.
  • Kublai Khan decides to move his capital, from Shangdu in Inner Mongolia, to the Chinese city of Dadu (now Beijing).
  • Kublai Khan publicly reprimands his own officers, for executing two Song Dynasty Chinese generals without trial or investigation. This act is one of many in order to enhance his reputation amongst the Chinese, to increase his legitimacy as a just ruler, and win over more defectors from the Southern Song.
  • The Japanese era Kōchō ends, and the Bun'ei era begins.

The Toluid Civil War was fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264. Möngke Khan died in 1259 with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to a civil war. The Toluid Civil War, and the wars that followed it, weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the Mongol Empire and split the empire into autonomous khanates.

Kublai Khan founding emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, grandson of Genghis Khan

Kublai was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

Pretender someone who claims a relation to a throne

A pretender is one who maintains or is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent, or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority. Most often, it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival or has been abolished.

Europe

January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 342 days remaining until the end of the year.

Louis IX of France 13th-century King of France

Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier.

Mise of Amiens 1264 settlement between King Henry III of England and Simon de Montfort

The Mise of Amiens[miz ɒv a.mjɛ̃] was a settlement given by King Louis IX of France on 23 January 1264 in the conflict between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons, led by Simon de Montfort. Louis' one-sided decision for King Henry led directly to the hostilities of the Second Barons' War.

By topic

Education

September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 108 days remaining until the end of the year.

Walter de Merton 13th-century Bishop of Rochester and Chancellor of England

Walter de Merton was Lord Chancellor of England, Archdeacon of Bath, founder of Merton College, Oxford, and Bishop of Rochester. For the first two years of the reign of Edward I he was in all but name regent of England during the King's absence abroad. He died in 1277 after falling from his horse, and is buried in Rochester Cathedral.

Merton College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford

Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its foundation can be traced back to the 1260s when Walter de Merton, chancellor to Henry III and later to Edward I, first drew up statutes for an independent academic community and established endowments to support it. An important feature of Walter's foundation was that this "college" was to be self-governing and the endowments were directly vested in the Warden and Fellows.

Religion

Barcelona City and municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres high.

Talmud Holy Book of Rabbinic Judaism.

The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving also as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews.

Christianity is a religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, Eucharist [Holy Communion], prayer, confession, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations have ordained clergy and hold regular group worship services.

Births

January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 344 days remaining until the end of the year.

Alexander was the son of Alexander III of Scotland and Margaret of England, and heir apparent to the throne of Scotland.

Year 1284 (MCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.

The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269.

The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.

Year 1276 (MCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1259 Year

Year 1259 (MCCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Dating year of the 1257 major volcanic anomaly, to be found in (polar) ice cores, supposed to be the Samalas eruption https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1257_Samalas_eruption

1261 Year

Year 1261 (MCCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1265 Year

Year 1265 (MCCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1266 Year

Year 1266 (MCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1278 (MCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1288 (MCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester 13th-century Anglo-Norman nobleman and rebel

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from his namesake relatives, was a nobleman of French origin and a member of the English peerage, who led the baronial opposition to the rule of King Henry III of England, culminating in the Second Barons' War. Following his initial victories over royal forces, he became de facto ruler of the country, and played a major role in the constitutional development of England.

Battle of Lewes 1264 battle of the Second Barons War

The Battle of Lewes was one of two main battles of the conflict known as the Second Barons' War. It took place at Lewes in Sussex, on 14 May 1264. It marked the high point of the career of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and made him the "uncrowned King of England". Henry III left the safety of Lewes Castle and St. Pancras Priory to engage the Barons in battle and was initially successful, his son Prince Edward routing part of the baronial army with a cavalry charge. However Edward pursued his quarry off the battlefield and left Henry's men exposed. Henry was forced to launch an infantry attack up Offham Hill where he was defeated by the barons' men, defending the hilltop. The royalists fled back to the castle and priory and the King was forced to sign the Mise of Lewes, ceding many of his powers to Montfort.

Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester 13th-century English nobleman

Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 3rd Lord of Glamorgan, 9th Lord of Clare was a powerful English noble. He was also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare or "The Red Earl", probably because of his hair colour or fiery temper in battle. He held the Lordship of Glamorgan which was one of the most powerful and wealthy of the Welsh Marcher Lordships as well as over 200 English manors.

Second Barons War 1260s civil war in England

The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts. After a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the King in the Battle of Evesham.

Henry de Montfort English noble

Sir Henry de Montfort was the son of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and with his father played an important role in the struggle of the barons against King Henry III. Henry's mother was Princess Eleanor of England, a daughter of King John, whose marriage to Simon further increased the foreign influence begun by the king, which was to result in great hostility by those very barons who later revolted against the king.

The Oxford Parliament (1258), also known as the Mad Parliament and the First English Parliament, assembled during the reign of Henry III of England. It was established by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. The parlour or prolocutor (Speaker) was Peter de Montfort under the direction of Simon de Montfort. Simon de Montfort led the Parliament and the entire country of England for 18 months, from 1264 until his death at the Battle of Evesham.

Events from the 1270s in England.

Events from the 1260s in England.

Events from the 1250s in England.

Events from the 1230s in England.

References

  1. "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p27
  2. Colombani, Philippe (2010). Héros corses du Moyen Age. Ajaccio: Albiana. p. 173. ISBN   978-2-84698-338-9.