1288

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1288 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1288
MCCLXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2041
Armenian calendar 737
ԹՎ ՉԼԷ
Assyrian calendar 6038
Balinese saka calendar 1209–1210
Bengali calendar 695
Berber calendar 2238
English Regnal year 16  Edw. 1   17  Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar 1832
Burmese calendar 650
Byzantine calendar 6796–6797
Chinese calendar 丁亥(Fire  Pig)
3984 or 3924
     to 
戊子年 (Earth  Rat)
3985 or 3925
Coptic calendar 1004–1005
Discordian calendar 2454
Ethiopian calendar 1280–1281
Hebrew calendar 5048–5049
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1344–1345
 - Shaka Samvat 1209–1210
 - Kali Yuga 4388–4389
Holocene calendar 11288
Igbo calendar 288–289
Iranian calendar 666–667
Islamic calendar 686–687
Japanese calendar Kōan 11 / Shōō 1
(正応元年)
Javanese calendar 1198–1199
Julian calendar 1288
MCCLXXXVIII
Korean calendar 3621
Minguo calendar 624 before ROC
民前624年
Nanakshahi calendar −180
Thai solar calendar 1830–1831
Tibetan calendar 阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
1414 or 1033 or 261
     to 
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1415 or 1034 or 262

Year 1288 ( MCCLXXXVIII ) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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  • The oldest known bronze handgun in the world is dated to this year, a Chinese gun found in Acheng District, that was once used to suppress the rebellion of the Christian Mongol Prince Nayan in 1287–1288.

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Emperor Go-Fushimi Emperor Go-Fushimi.jpg
Emperor Go-Fushimi
Emperor Go-Daigo Emperor Godaigo.jpg
Emperor Go-Daigo

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Year 1243 (MCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1258 Calendar year

Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1278 (MCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1285 (MCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1287 Calendar year

Year 1287 (MCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Trần Hưng Đạo Imperial Prince of Đại Việt

Trần Hưng Đạo, also known as Grand Prince Hưng Đạo, was an imperial prince, statesman and military commander of Đại Việt military forces during the Trần Dynasty. Trần commanded the Đại Việt armies that repelled two out of three major Mongol invasions in the 13th century. His multiple victories over the Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan are considered among the greatest military feats in Vietnamese history.

Trần dynasty Vietnamese dynasty

The Trần dynasty ruled Vietnam from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý dynasty. The final emperor of the dynasty was Thiếu Đế, who at the age of five years was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather, Hồ Quý Ly. The Trần dynasty defeated three Mongol invasions, most notably in the decisive Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 1288.

Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288) middle ages battle

The Battle of Bạch Đằng was one of the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history. It was a battle between Đại Việt, commanded by Supreme Commander Trần Hưng Đạo, and the invading army of the Yuan dynasty, commanded by general Omar Khan. The Battle of Bạch Đằng was the last confrontation between Đại Việt and the Yuan dynasty. The battle took place at the Bach Dang River, near Ha Long Bay in present-day northern Vietnam. The battle was a tactical masterpiece of the same stature as the other battle at Bach Dang River.

Trần Nhân Tông Emperor of Đại Việt

Trần Nhân Tông, given name Trần Khâm, was the third emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1278 to 1293. After ceding the throne to his son Trần Anh Tông, Nhân Tông held the title Retired Emperor from 1294 to his death in 1308. During the second and third Mongol invasions of Đại Việt, the Emperor Nhân Tông and his father the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông were credited as the supreme commanders who led the Trần dynasty to the final victories and since established a long period of peace and prosperity over the country.

Trần Thánh Tông Emperor of Đại Việt

Trần Thánh Tông, given name Trần Hoảng (陳晃), was the second emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1258 to 1278. After ceding the throne to his son Trần Nhân Tông, Thánh Tông held the title Retired Emperor from 1279 to his death in 1290. During the second and the third Mongol invasions of Đại Việt, the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông and the Emperor Nhân Tông were credited as the supreme commanders who led the nation to the final victories and as a result established a long period of peace and prosperity over the country. With his successful ruling in both military and civil matters, Trần Thánh Tông was considered as one of the greatest emperors of not only the Trần dynasty but also the whole dynastic era in the History of Vietnam.

Mongol invasions of Vietnam War

The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese Wars refer to the military campaigns launched by the Mongol Empire, and later the Yuan dynasty, against the Trần dynasty in Đại Việt and the Champa in 1258, 1282–1284, 1285, and 1287–88. In studies of China and the Mongols, the campaigns are often treated as a success due to the establishment of tributary relations with Dai Viet despite the Mongols suffering several military defeats. In contrast, Vietnamese historiography emphasizes the Dai Viet military victories.

Kublai Khan Founding emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, grandson of Genghis Khan

Kublai was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

Trần Ích Tắc, title before defection Prince Chiêu Quốc, was a prince of Đại Việt, the fifth son of emperor Trần Thái Tông of the Trần Dynasty, and the younger brother of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Trần Quang Khải. Before the invasion of Vietnam by the Yuan Dynasty, Trần Ích Tắc was the most famous prince of Trần Thái Tông for his intelligence and broad knowledge, the mansion of Prince Chiêu Quốc in Thăng Long was also a renowned school of the capital. But in the beginning of the war, Trần Ích Tắc decided to surrender to Kublai Khan's prince Toghan and thus became the highest ranking defector of the Trần Dynasty during the war of resistance against Yuan's army. For this reason, he was denounced in Vietnamese historical books as a traitor with the derogatory name "Ả Trần". After another failed attempt of the Yuan Dynasty to bring Trần Ích Tắc return as King of Annam, he continued to live in Ezhou, Hubei and ultimately died in foreign soil.

Phạm Ngũ Lão (1255–1320) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors Nhân Tông, Anh Tông and Minh Tông. His talent was noticed by Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn who married his adopted daughter to Phạm Ngũ Lão and recommended him for the royal court. Renowned as a prominent general in battlefield, Phạm Ngũ Lão was one of the few commanders of the Vietnamese army during the second and third Mongol invasion who did not come from the Trần clan. After the war of resistance against the Yuan dynasty, Phạm Ngũ Lão continued to participate in numerous military campaigns of the Trần Dynasty in which he often succeeded. Today, Phạm Ngũ Lão is still considered one of the most capable military commanders of both the Trần Dynasty and history of Vietnam.

Political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire

This article discusses the political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire. Through invasions and conquests the Mongols established a vast empire that included many political divisions, vassals and tributary states. It was the largest contiguous land empire in history. However, after the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War and subsequent wars had led to the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. By 1294, the empire had fractured into four autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire.

Trần dynasty military tactics and organization

The Trần dynasty that ruled Vietnam from 1225 to 1400, employed various successful military tactics and strategies that enabled them to triumph over the Yuan dynasty khanate of the Mongol Empire during three attempted invasions. In 1258 Mongol forces first came into contact with Vietnam in connection with their advance on Yunnan and briefly occupied Thang Long. In 1285 Yunnan had fallen to the Mongols, who with a 500,000 strong force invaded a yet defiant Vietnam and its southern neighbour Champa. The campaign eventually failed. The Trần strongly relied on atrition warfare towards the Yuan military's eventual logistic collapse. The third invasion took place in 1288, when 300,000 Yuan dynasty troops, that included a sizeable naval force suffered a decisive defeat at the Battle of Bạch Đằng, where the Trần forces employed a masterful strategy of deception and maneuvering by exploiting favourable terrain and riverine tidal conditions. However, upon the establishment of peace the Trần lords agreed to recognize Yuan China's supremacy, in order to guarantee lasting Vietnamese independence.

References

  1. History of Yuan .
  2. Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.