1288

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1288 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1288
MCCLXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2041
Armenian calendar 737
ԹՎ ՉԼԷ
Assyrian calendar 6038
Balinese saka calendar 1209–1210
Bengali calendar 695
Berber calendar 2238
English Regnal year 16  Edw. 1   17  Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar 1832
Burmese calendar 650
Byzantine calendar 6796–6797
Chinese calendar 丁亥(Fire  Pig)
3984 or 3924
     to 
戊子年 (Earth  Rat)
3985 or 3925
Coptic calendar 1004–1005
Discordian calendar 2454
Ethiopian calendar 1280–1281
Hebrew calendar 5048–5049
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1344–1345
 - Shaka Samvat 1209–1210
 - Kali Yuga 4388–4389
Holocene calendar 11288
Igbo calendar 288–289
Iranian calendar 666–667
Islamic calendar 686–687
Japanese calendar Kōan 11 / Shōō 1
(正応元年)
Javanese calendar 1198–1199
Julian calendar 1288
MCCLXXXVIII
Korean calendar 3621
Minguo calendar 624 before ROC
民前624年
Nanakshahi calendar −180
Thai solar calendar 1830–1831
Tibetan calendar 阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
1414 or 1033 or 261
     to 
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1415 or 1034 or 262

Year 1288 ( MCCLXXXVIII ) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days that begins on Thursday 1 January, and ends on Friday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are DC, such as the years 1880, 1920, 1948, 1976, 2004, 2032, 2060, and 2088, in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1988, 2016, and 2044 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in February and August.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Asia

April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288) middle ages battle

The Battle of Bạch Đằng was one of the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history. It was a battle between Đại Việt, commanded by Supreme Commander Trần Hưng Đạo, and the invading army of the Yuan dynasty, commanded by general Omar Khan. The Battle of Bạch Đằng was the last confrontation between Đại Việt and the Yuan dynasty. The battle took place at the Bach Dang River, near Ha Long Bay in present-day northern Vietnam. The battle was a tactical masterpiece of the same stature as the other battle at Bach Dang River.

Đại Việt name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804

Đại Việt is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804. Beginning with the rule of Lý Thánh Tông, the third emperor of the Lý Dynasty, until the rule of Gia Long, the first emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, it was the second-longest used name for the country after "Văn Lang".

Europe

January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 345 days remaining until the end of the year.

Newcastle Emlyn Castle castle in Newcastle Emlyn, Carmarthenshire, Wales

Newcastle Emlyn Castle is a ruined castle in the market town of Newcastle Emlyn in Carmarthenshire, Wales. It is strategically located on a steep-sided promontory overlooking the River Teifi and was probably built by the Welsh lord Maredudd ap Rhys in about 1240. It changed hands many times over the years in battles between the Welsh and English, and during the English Civil War. The remains of the gatehouse and adjacent towers, and some fragments of wall are all that remain visible now.

Wales Country in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

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St. Peters Basilica Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City

The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, or simply St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Mob Quad Grade I listed building in the United Kingdom

Mob Quad is a four-sided group of buildings from the 13th and 14th centuries in Merton College, Oxford surrounding a small lawn. It is often claimed to be the oldest quadrangle in Oxford and elsewhere, although Merton's own Front Quad was actually enclosed earlier and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge claims that its own Old Court is the oldest structure of its type in either Oxford or Cambridge. The quadrangle pattern has since been copied at many other colleges and universities worldwide.

Markets

June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 198 days remaining until the end of the year.

Falun Place in Dalarna, Sweden

Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010. It is also the capital of Dalarna County. Falun forms, together with Borlänge, a metropolitan area with close to 100,000 inhabitants.

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million of which 2.4 million has a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country.

Religion

February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 312 days remaining until the end of the year.

Pope Nicholas IV 191st Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Nicholas IV, born Girolamo Masci, Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292. He was the first Franciscan to be elected pope.

Pope Honorius IV pope

Pope Honorius IV, born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope from 2 April 1285 to his death in 1287. During his pontificate he largely continued to pursue the pro-French political policy of his predecessor, Pope Martin IV.

Technology

  • The oldest known bronze handgun in the world is dated to this year, a Chinese gun found in Acheng District, that was once used to suppress the rebellion of the Christian Mongol Prince Nayan in 1287–1288.

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Related Research Articles

Year 1326 (MCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1220 (MCCXX) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.

Year 1328 (MCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1329 (MCCCXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1243 (MCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1260 Year

Year 1260 (MCCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1268 Year

Year 1268 (MCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1278 (MCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1287 Year

Year 1287 (MCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Trần Hưng Đạo Vietnamese prince, military general of Trần dynasty

Trần Hưng Đạo, also known as Grand Prince Hưng Đạo, was an imperial prince, statesman and military commander of Đại Việt during the Trần Dynasty.

Battle of Bạch Đằng (938)

At the Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 938 near Hạ Long Bay in northern Vietnam the rebel Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyền defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam.

Trần Nhân Tông Emperor of Vietnam

Trần Nhân Tông, given name Trần Khâm, was the third emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1278 to 1293. After ceding the throne to his son Trần Anh Tông, Nhân Tông held the title Retired Emperor from 1294 to his death in 1308. During the second and third Mongol invasions of Đại Việt, the Emperor Nhân Tông and his father the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông were credited as the supreme commanders who led the Trần dynasty to the final victories and since established a long period of peace and prosperity over the country.

Trần Thánh Tông, given name Trần Hoảng (陳晃), was the second emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1258 to 1278. After ceding the throne to his son Trần Nhân Tông, Thánh Tông held the title Retired Emperor from 1279 to his death in 1290. During the second and the third Mongol invasions of Đại Việt, the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông and the Emperor Nhân Tông were credited as the supreme commanders who led the nation to the final victories and as a result established a long period of peace and prosperity over the country. With his successful ruling in both military and civil matters, Trần Thánh Tông was considered as one of the greatest emperors of not only the Trần dynasty but also the whole dynastic era in the History of Vietnam.

Mongol invasions of Vietnam War

The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese War refer to the three times that the Mongol Empire and its chief khanate the Yuan dynasty invaded Đại Việt during the time of the Trần dynasty, along with Champa: in 1258, 1285, and 1287–88. The first invasion began in 1258 under the united Mongol Empire, as it looked for alternative paths to invade Song China. The Mongol high ranking commander Uriyangkhadai was successful in capturing the Dai Viet capital ; however, his army was weakened by the tropical climate and were later defeated. The second and third invasions occurred during the reign of Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty. By this point, the Mongolian Empire had fractured into 4 separate entities with Yuan Dynasty being the strongest and biggest empire. These invasions resulted in a disastrous land defeat for the Mongols in 1285 and the annihilation of the Mongol navy in 1288. However, both the Trần dynasty and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty and serve as tributary states in order to avoid further conflicts.

Kublai Khan founding emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, grandson of Genghis Khan

Kublai was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

Trần Ích Tắc First emperor of the Trần Dynasty

Trần Ích Tắc, title before defection Prince Chiêu Quốc, was the fifth prince of Trần Thái Tông, first emperor of the Trần Dynasty, and the younger brother of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Trần Quang Khải. Before the invasion of Vietnam by the Yuan Dynasty, Trần Ích Tắc was the most famous prince of Trần Thái Tông for his intelligence and broad knowledge, the mansion of Prince Chiêu Quốc in Thăng Long was also a renowned school of the capital. But in the beginning of the war, Trần Ích Tắc decided to surrender to Kublai Khan's prince Toghan and thus became the highest ranking defector of the Trần Dynasty during the war of resistance against Yuan's army. For this reason, he was denounced in Vietnamese historical books as a traitor with the derogatory name "Ả Trần". After another failed attempt of the Yuan Dynasty to bring Trần Ích Tắc return as King of Annam, he continued to live in Ezhou, Hubei and ultimately died in foreign soil.

Phạm Ngũ Lão (1255–1320) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors Nhân Tông, Anh Tông and Minh Tông. His talent was noticed by Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn who married his adopted daughter to Phạm Ngũ Lão and recommended him for the royal court. Renowned as a prominent general in battlefield, Phạm Ngũ Lão was one of the few commanders of the Vietnamese army during the second and third Mongol invasion who did not come from the Trần clan. After the war of resistance against the Yuan dynasty, Phạm Ngũ Lão continued to participate in numerous military campaigns of the Trần Dynasty in which he often succeeded. Today, Phạm Ngũ Lão is still considered one of the most capable military commanders of both the Trần Dynasty and history of Vietnam.

Trần dynasty military tactics and organization

The Vietnamese feudal Trần dynasty, governing the country Đại Việt, employed several military tactics that enabled them to defeat the Mongol Empire against the Mongol invasion. The first war between two sides occurred in 1258. The second collision happened in 1285, when the Mongols planned to invade Vietnam and annex the country into their Yuan dynasty, with 500,000 soldiers and supporting troops. The third and final war was in 1288, when the Yuan dynasty came to Vietnam with a 300,000-personnel navy force. Upon the establishment of peace between the two dynasties, monarchs of Đại Việt maintained a tributary relationship to the Yuan dynasty thereafter to preserve their independence.

References

  1. History of Yuan .
  2. Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.