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|1237 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1237 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||1990|
|Balinese saka calendar||1158–1159|
|English Regnal year||21 Hen. 3 – 22 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar|| 丙申年 (Fire Monkey)|
3933 or 3873
— to —
丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
3934 or 3874
|- Vikram Samvat||1293–1294|
|- Shaka Samvat||1158–1159|
|- Kali Yuga||4337–4338|
|Japanese calendar|| Katei 3|
|Minguo calendar||675 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||1779–1780|
1363 or 982 or 210
— to —
1364 or 983 or 211
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1237 .|
Year 1237 ( MCCXXXVII ) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:
A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year that begins on Thursday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is D. The most recent year of such kind was 2015 and the next one will be 2026 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2010 and 2021 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. This common year contains the most Friday the 13ths; specifically, the months of February, March, and November. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic. From February until March in this type of year is also the shortest period that occurs within a Friday the 13th.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.
The Count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title was held for a time by the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of Spain. During the French Revolution in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and the peerage ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of the King of the Belgians. The most recent holder died in 1983.
Elbląg is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 121,191 inhabitants. It is the capital of Elbląg County and has been assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. Previously it was the capital of Elbląg Voivodeship (1975–1998) and a county seat within Gdańsk Voivodeship (1945–1975).
The State of the Teutonic Order, also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea. The state was based in Prussia after the Order's conquest of the Pagan Old Prussians which began in 1230. It expanded to include at various times Courland, Gotland, Livonia, Neumark, Pomerelia and Samogitia. Its territory was in the modern countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Sweden (Gotland). Most of the territory was conquered by military orders, after which German colonization occurred to varying effect.
Bohemond VI, also known as Bohemond the Fair, was the Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1251 until his death. He ruled while Antioch was caught between the warring Mongol Empire and Mamluk Sultanate. In 1268 Antioch was captured by the Mamluks, and he was thenceforth a prince in exile. He was succeeded by his son Bohemond VII, nominal prince of Antioch and count of Tripoli.
The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date.
Agnes of Dampierre was Lady of Bourbon and heiress of all Bourbon estates. She was the daughter of Archambaud IX de Dampierre and Yolande I, Countess of Nevers. She married John of Burgundy, the son of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. Her daughter, Beatrix of Bourbon, married Robert, Count of Clermont in 1272 and their eldest son Louis I, le Boiteux became the first Duke of Bourbon.
February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 332 days remaining until the end of the year.
Joan, Lady of Wales and Lady of Snowdon, also known by her Welsh name of Siwan, was the illegitimate daughter of King John of England and wife of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales and Gwynedd, effective ruler of most of Wales.
April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 260 days remaining until the end of the year.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe.
The 1200s began on January 1, 1200, and ended on December 31, 1209.
The 1090s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1090, and ended on December 31, 1099.
Year 1220 (MCCXX) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.
The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.
The 1230s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1230, and ended on December 31, 1239.
The 1240s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1240, and ended on December 31, 1249.
Year 1211 (MCCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1239 (MCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1241 (MCCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1254 (MCCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1260 (MCCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1268 (MCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1279 A.D (MCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1283 (MCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica and in the Battle of Mohi in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Mongol Invasion of Poland from late 1240 to 1241 culminated in the battle of Legnica, where the Mongols defeated an alliance which included forces from fragmented Poland and their allies, led by Henry II the Pious, the Duke of Silesia. The first invasion's intention was to secure the flank of the main Mongolian army attacking the Kingdom of Hungary. The Mongols neutralized any potential help to King Béla IV being provided by the Poles or any military orders.
The Livonian campaign against Rus' was a military campaign that lasted from 1240 to 1242, and was carried out by the Teutonic Knights of the Livonian Order with the aim to conquer the lands of Pskov and Novgorod and convert them to Catholicism.