1181

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1181 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1181
MCLXXXI
Ab urbe condita 1934
Armenian calendar 630
ԹՎ ՈԼ
Assyrian calendar 5931
Balinese saka calendar 1102–1103
Bengali calendar 588
Berber calendar 2131
English Regnal year 27  Hen. 2   28  Hen. 2
Buddhist calendar 1725
Burmese calendar 543
Byzantine calendar 6689–6690
Chinese calendar 庚子(Metal  Rat)
3877 or 3817
     to 
辛丑年 (Metal  Ox)
3878 or 3818
Coptic calendar 897–898
Discordian calendar 2347
Ethiopian calendar 1173–1174
Hebrew calendar 4941–4942
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1237–1238
 - Shaka Samvat 1102–1103
 - Kali Yuga 4281–4282
Holocene calendar 11181
Igbo calendar 181–182
Iranian calendar 559–560
Islamic calendar 576–577
Japanese calendar Jishō 5 / Yōwa 1
(養和元年)
Javanese calendar 1088–1089
Julian calendar 1181
MCLXXXI
Korean calendar 3514
Minguo calendar 731 before ROC
民前731年
Nanakshahi calendar −287
Seleucid era 1492/1493 AG
Thai solar calendar 1723–1724
Tibetan calendar 阳金鼠年
(male Iron-Rat)
1307 or 926 or 154
     to 
阴金牛年
(female Iron-Ox)
1308 or 927 or 155

Year 1181 ( MCLXXXI ) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year that begins on Thursday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is D. The most recent year of such kind was 2015 and the next one will be 2026 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2010 and 2021 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. This common year contains the most Friday the 13ths; specifically, the months of February, March, and November. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic. From February until March in this type of year is also the shortest period that occurs within a Friday the 13th.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC/BCE), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC/BCE), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

Asia

Japan

  • The Yowa era, marked by famine, begins in Japan.

Southeast Asia

Jayavarman VII Cambodian king, considered by historians to be the most powerful Khmer monarch of all time

Jayavarman VII, posthumous name of Mahaparamasaugata, was a king of the Khmer Empire in present-day Siem Reap, Cambodia. He was born in circa 1122. He was the son of King Dharanindravarman II and Queen Sri Jayarajacudamani. He married Princess Jayarajadevi and then, after her death, married her sister Indradevi. The two women are commonly thought to have been a great inspiration to him, particularly in his unusual devotion to Buddhism, as only one prior Khmer king was a Buddhist. He then built the Bayon as a monument to Buddhism. Jayavarman VII is generally considered the most powerful of the Khmer monarchs by historians.

Khmer Empire Empire extending over large parts of Southeast Asia

The Khmer Empire, officially the Angkor Empire, the predecessor state to modern Cambodia, was a Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia. The empire, which grew out of the former kingdoms of Funan and Chenla, at times ruled over and/or vassalised most of mainland Southeast Asia and parts of Southern China, stretching from the tip of the Indochinese Peninsula northward to modern Yunnan province, China, and from Vietnam westward to Myanmar.

Europe

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

Albi Prefecture and commune in Occitanie, France

Albi is a commune in southern France. It is the prefecture of the Tarn department, on the river Tarn, 85 km northeast of Toulouse. Its inhabitants are called Albigensians. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Albi. The episcopal city, around the Cathedral Sainte-Cécile, was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 2010.

France Republic with majority of territory in Europe and numerous oversea territories around the world

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

By topic

Science

  • Chinese and Japanese astronomers observe what has since come to be understood as supernova SN 1181. One of only eight supernovae in the Milky Way observed in recorded history, it appears in the constellation Cassiopeia, and is visible in the night sky for about 185 days. The radio source 3C58 is thought to be the remnant from this event.
  • Guilhem VIII, lord of Montpellier in France, frees the teaching of medicine from any monopoly. (January [3] ).
Supernova Star exploding at the end of its stellar evolution

A supernova is a powerful and luminous stellar explosion. A supernova is a transient astronomical event, occurring during the last evolutionary stages of a massive star or when a white dwarf is triggered into runaway nuclear fusion. The original star, called the progenitor, either collapses to a neutron star or black hole, or it is completely destroyed. The peak optical luminosity of a supernova can be comparable to that of an entire galaxy, before fading over several weeks or months.

SN 1181 supernova within Cassiopeia, observed in 1181

First observed between August 4 and August 6, 1181, Chinese and Japanese astronomers recorded the supernova now known as SN 1181 in eight separate texts. One of only eight supernovae in the Milky Way observable with the naked eye in recorded history, it appeared in the constellation Cassiopeia and was visible in the night sky for about 185 days.

Milky Way Spiral galaxy containing our Solar System

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains the Solar System, with the name describing the galaxy's appearance from Earth: a hazy band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye. The term Milky Way is a translation of the Latin via lactea, from the Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος. From Earth, the Milky Way appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from its outer rim. Galileo Galilei first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610. Until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way contained all the stars in the Universe. Following the 1920 Great Debate between the astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, observations by Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies.

Religion

September 1 is the 244th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 121 days remain until the end of the year.

Pope Lucius III pope

Pope Lucius III, born Ubaldo Allucingoli, reigned from 1 September 1181 to his death in 1185.

Pope Alexander III 12th-century Pope

Pope Alexander III, born Roland of Siena, was pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.

Births

Deaths

Emperor Takakura Emperor Takakura.jpg
Emperor Takakura
Pope Alexander III TrioE.jpg
Pope Alexander III

January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 335 days remain until the end of the year.

Emperor Takakura Emperor of Japan

Emperor Takakura was the 80th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1168 through 1180.

Year 1161 (MCLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Related Research Articles

Year 1147 (MCXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1179 (MCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

The 1180s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1180, and ended on December 31, 1189.

Year 1431 (MCDXXXI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1118 (MCXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1153 (MCLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1180 (MCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1158 (MCLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1167 (MCLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1160 (MCLX) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1185 (MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Minamoto no Yoritomo 1st shogun of the Kamakura shogunate

Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder and the first shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. He ruled from 1192 until 1199. His Buddhist name was Bukōshōgendaizenmon (武皇嘯原大禅門).

Taira no Kiyomori Japanese samurai

Taira no Kiyomori was a military leader of the late Heian period of Japan. He established the first samurai-dominated administrative government in the history of Japan.

Béla III of Hungary King of Hungary

Béla III was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196. He was the second son of King Géza II and Géza's wife, Euphrosyne of Kiev. Around 1161, Euphrosyne granted Béla a duchy, which included Croatia, central Dalmatia and possibly Sirmium. In accordance with a peace treaty between his elder brother, Stephen III, who succeeded their father in 1162, and the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, Béla moved to Constantinople in 1163. He was renamed to Alexios, and the emperor granted him the newly created senior court title of despotes. He was betrothed to the Emperor's daughter, Maria. Béla's patrimony caused armed conflicts between the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary between 1164 and 1167, because Stephen III attempted to hinder the Byzantines from taking control of Croatia, Dalmatia and Sirmium. Béla-Alexios, who was designated as Emperor Manuel's heir in 1165, took part in three Byzantine campaigns against Hungary. His betrothal to the emperor's daughter was dissolved after her brother, Alexios, was born in 1169. The emperor deprived Béla of his high title, granting him the inferior rank of kaisar.

Emeric, King of Hungary Hungarian king

Emeric, also known as Henry or Imre, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1196 and 1204. In 1184, his father, Béla III of Hungary, ordered that he be crowned king, and appointed him as ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia around 1195. Emeric ascended the throne after the death of his father. During the first four years of his reign, he fought his rebellious brother, Andrew, who forced Emeric to make him ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage.

Léon Labbé French surgeon and politician

Léon Labbé was a French surgeon and politician who was born in the village of Le Merlerault in the department of Orne. He was an uncle to physician Charles Labbé (1851–1889), who first described the inferior anastomotic vein.

References

  1. Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  2. Baldwin, John (2006). Paris 1200. Paris: Aubier. p. 75.
  3. Mélanges d'histoire de la médecine hébraïque, by Gad Freudenthal, Samuel S. Kottek, Paul Fenton compiled by Gad Freudenthal, Samuel S. Kottek published by Brill, 2002 ISBN   90-04-12522-1 , 9789004125223
  4. Makk, Ferenc (1994). "Lukács". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc (eds.). Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9–14. század) [Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th–14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 417–420. ISBN   963-05-6722-9.